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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Rhizaria
Phylum: Granuloreticulosa
Class: Foraminifera [1]
Order: Carterinida
Loeblich & Tappan, 1981
Family: Carterinidae
Loeblich & Tappan, 1964
Genus: Carterina
Brady, 1884

Carterina is a genus in the Foraminifera (Kingdom Protista). It is the only known genus of the order Carterinida and family Carterinidae. (Loeblich & Tappan 1964) The type species is Carterina spiculotesta (Carter, 1877) Brady, 1884. The genus is described from specimens gathered during the Challenger expedition's circumnavigation of the Earth from 1872-1876.[2]

The test (or shell) of Carterina begins as a low, free, umbilicate trochospiral (concavo-convexly coiled with a central depression) in the early growth stage, becoming attached and spreading irregularly in later stages. Chambers become partially subdivided by secondary septa, reaching as many a 15 per chamber in later chambers.(Loeblich & Tappan 1964, 1988) Walls are composed of two sizes of fusiform spicules of low-Mg calcite, larger structural spicules in a ground mass of smaller spicules. The spicules are secreted by the protoplasm, crystallographic c-axes parallel to the elongation, and set parallel to the test surface.

The order and family have the same characteristics as the genus.

Carterina is know from the Eocene of Spain and is widespread in shallow tropical waters in the Holocene, but is unknown from intervening epochs.

Carterina and Carterinidae were previously included in the Geological Society of America's Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology part C. in the Rotaliida as the superfamily Carterinacea. (Loeblich and Tappan 1964)


  1. ^ Gupta, Barun K. Sen, ed. (2002). Modern foraminifera (Repr. with corr. ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic. pp. 58–59. ISBN 9781402005985. 
  2. ^
  • Alfred R. Loeblich & H. Tappan, 1964. Sarcodina, chiefly "Thecamoebians" and Foraminiferida. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part C. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.
  • Loeblich, Jr, Alfred R.; Tappan, Helen (1988). Foraminiferal genera and their classification. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. ISBN 9780442259372. 

Further Reading[edit]

Hansen, Hans; Grølund, Hans (August 1977). "Carterina: its morphology, structure, and taxonomic position". Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 26 (1-2): 147-154. Retrieved 4 February 2015. 

Lana, C.C.; Sen Gupta, B.K (February 2, 2001). "Cretaceous Carterina (Foraminifera)". Marine Micropaleontology 41 (1-2): 97–102. doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(00)00050-5. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 

Deutsch, Susan; Lipps, Jere H (1976). "Test Structure of the Foraminifer Carterina". Journal of Paleontology 50 (2). Retrieved 13 February 2015.