Henri Cartier-Bresson

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Henri Cartier-Bresson
Henri Cartier-Bresson.jpg
Born (1908-08-22)August 22, 1908
Chanteloup-en-Brie, France
Died August 3, 2004(2004-08-03) (aged 95)
Montjustin, France
Alma mater Lycée Condorcet, Paris
Occupation Photographer and Painter
Spouse(s)

Ratna Mohini (m. 1937; div. 1967)

Martine Franck (m. 1970; wid. 2004)
Children Mélanie
Awards Grand Prix National de la Photographie in 1981
Hasselblad Award in 1982

Henri Cartier-Bresson (August 22, 1908 – August 3, 2004) was a French photographer considered to be the father of photojournalism. He was an early adopter of 35 mm format, and the master of candid photography. He helped develop the street photography or life reportage style that was coined The Decisive Moment that has influenced generations of photographers who followed.

Early life[edit]

Cartier-Bresson was born in Chanteloup-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne, France, the oldest of five children. His father was a wealthy textile manufacturer, whose Cartier-Bresson thread was a staple of French sewing kits. His mother's family were cotton merchants and landowners from Normandy, where he spent part of his childhood. The Cartier-Bresson family lived in a bourgeois neighborhood in Paris, near Place de l'Europe. His parents were able to provide him with financial support to develop his interests in photography in a more independent manner than many of his contemporaries. Cartier-Bresson also sketched in his spare time.

As a young boy, Cartier-Bresson owned a Box Brownie, using it for taking holiday snapshots; he later experimented with a 3×4 inch view camera. He was raised in a traditional French bourgeois fashion, required to address his parents using the formal vous rather than the familiar tu. His father assumed that his son would take up the family business, but the youth was strong-willed and upset by this prospect.

He attended École Fénelon, a Catholic school that prepared students to attend Lycée Condorcet. The proctor caught him reading a book by Rimbaud or Mallarmé, and reprimanded him: "Let's have no disorder in your studies!" Cartier-Bresson said, "He used the informal 'tu'-which usually meant you were about to get a good thrashing. But he went on: 'You're going to read in my office.' Well, that wasn't an offer he had to repeat."[1]

Studies painting[edit]

After unsuccessfully trying to learn music, as a boy Cartier-Bresson was introduced to oil painting by his uncle Louis, a gifted painter. Uncle Louis' painting lessons were cut short, when he died in World War I.

In 1927, at the age of 20, Cartier-Bresson entered a private art school and the Lhote Academy, the Parisian studio of the Cubist painter and sculptor André Lhote. Lhote's ambition was to integrate the Cubists' approach to reality with classical artistic forms; he wanted to link the French classical tradition of Nicolas Poussin and Jacques-Louis David to Modernism. Cartier-Bresson also studied painting with society portraitist Jacques Émile Blanche. During this period, he read Dostoevsky, Schopenhauer, Rimbaud, Nietzsche, Mallarmé, Freud, Proust, Joyce, Hegel, Engels and Marx. Lhote took his pupils to the Louvre to study classical artists and to Parisian galleries to study contemporary art. Cartier-Bresson's interest in modern art was combined with an admiration for the works of the Renaissance— of masterpieces by Jan van Eyck, Paolo Uccello, Masaccio and Piero della Francesca. Cartier-Bresson often regarded Lhote as his teacher of "photography without a camera."

Experiments with photography[edit]

Although Cartier-Bresson gradually began to be restless under Lhote's "rule-laden" approach to art, his rigorous theoretical training would later help him to confront and resolve problems of artistic form and composition in photography. In the 1920s, schools of photographic realism were popping up throughout Europe, but each had a different view on the direction photography should take. The photography revolution had begun: "Crush tradition! Photograph things as they are!"[citation needed] The Surrealist movement (founded in 1924) was a catalyst for this paradigm shift. Cartier-Bresson began socializing with the Surrealists at the Café Cyrano, in the Place Blanche. He met a number of the movement's leading protagonists, and was particularly drawn to the Surrealist movement's linking of the subconscious and the immediate to their work. The historian Peter Galassi explains:

The Surrealists approached photography in the same way that Aragon and Breton...approached the street: with a voracious appetite for the usual and unusual...The Surrealists recognized in plain photographic fact an essential quality that had been excluded from prior theories of photographic realism. They saw that ordinary photographs, especially when uprooted from their practical functions, contain a wealth of unintended, unpredictable meanings.[2]

Cartier-Bresson matured artistically in this stormy cultural and political environment. He was aware of the concepts and theories mentioned, but could not find a way of expressing this imaginatively in his paintings. He was very frustrated with his experiments and subsequently destroyed the majority of his early works.

From 1928 to 1929, Cartier-Bresson attended the University of Cambridge, where he studied English, art and literature, and became bilingual. In 1930, stationed at Le Bourget, near Paris, he completed his mandatory service in the French Army. He remembered, "And I had quite a hard time of it, too, because I was toting Joyce under my arm and a Lebel rifle on my shoulder."[1]

Affair with Caresse Crosby[edit]

In 1929, Cartier-Bresson's air squadron commandant placed him under house arrest for hunting without a license. Cartier-Bresson met American expatriate Harry Crosby at Le Bourget, who persuaded the officer to release Cartier-Bresson into his custody for a few days. Finding their mutual interest in photography, and they spent their time together taking and printing pictures at Crosby's home, Le Moulin du Soleil (The Sun Mill), near Paris in Ermenonville, France.[3][4]:163 Crosby later said Cartier-Bresson "looked like a fledgling, shy and frail, and mild as whey." Embracing the open sexuality offered by Crosby and his wife Caresse, Cartier-Bresson fell into an intense sexual relationship with her.[5]

Escapes to Africa[edit]

Two years after Harry Crosby committed suicide, Cartier-Bresson's affair with Caresse Crosby ended in 1931, leaving him broken hearted. During his enlistment he had read Conrad's Heart of Darkness, and decided to seek escape and adventure on the Côte d'Ivoire in French colonial Africa.[5] About abandoning painting, he wrote, "I left Lhote's studio because I did not want to enter into that systematic spirit. I wanted to be myself. To paint and to change the world counted for more than everything in my life."[citation needed] He survived by shooting game and selling it to local villagers. From hunting, he learned methods which he later used in photography. On the Côte d'Ivoire, he contracted blackwater fever, which nearly killed him. While still feverish, he sent instructions to his grandfather for his own funeral, asking to be buried in Normandy, at the edge of the Eawy forest while Debussy's String Quartet was played. An uncle wrote back, "Your grandfather finds all that too expensive. It would be preferable that you return first."[citation needed] Although Cartier-Bresson took a portable camera (smaller than a Brownie Box) to Côte d'Ivoire, only seven photographs survived the tropics.[6]

Turning from painting to photography[edit]

Cartier-Bresson's first Leica

Returning to France, Cartier-Bresson recuperated in Marseille in late 1931 and deepened his relationship with the Surrealists. He became inspired by a 1930 photograph by Hungarian photojournalist Martin Munkacsi showing three naked young African boys, caught in near-silhouette, running into the surf of Lake Tanganyika. Titled Three Boys at Lake Tanganyika, this captured the freedom, grace and spontaneity of their movement and their joy at being alive. Cartier-Bresson said:

The only thing which completely was an amazement to me and brought me to photography was the work of Munkacsi. When I saw the photograph of Munkacsi of the black kids running in a wave I couldn't believe such a thing could be caught with the camera. I said damn it, I took my camera and went out into the street."[citation needed]

That photograph inspired him to stop painting and to take up photography seriously. He explained, "I suddenly understood that a photograph could fix eternity in an instant."[citation needed] He acquired the Leica camera with 50 mm lens in Marseilles that would accompany him for many years. He described the Leica as an extension of his eye.[citation needed] The anonymity that the small camera gave him in a crowd or during an intimate moment was essential in overcoming the formal and unnatural behavior of those who were aware of being photographed. He enhanced his anonymity by painting all shiny parts of the Leica with black paint. The Leica opened up new possibilities in photography — the ability to capture the world in its actual state of movement and transformation. He said, "I prowled the streets all day, feeling very strung-up and ready to pounce, ready to 'trap' life."[citation needed] Restless, he photographed in Berlin, Brussels, Warsaw, Prague, Budapest and Madrid. His photographs were first exhibited at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1932, and subsequently at the Ateneo Club in Madrid. In 1934 in Mexico, he shared an exhibition with Manuel Alvarez Bravo. In the beginning, he did not photograph much in his native France. It would be years before he photographed there extensively.

In 1934 Cartier-Bresson met a young Polish intellectual, a photographer named David Szymin who was called "Chim" because his name was difficult to pronounce. Szymin later changed his name to David Seymour. The two had much in common culturally. Through Chim, Cartier-Bresson met a Hungarian photographer named Endré Friedmann, who later changed his name to Robert Capa. The three shared a studio in the early 1930s and Capa mentored Cartier-Bresson, "Don't keep the label of a surrealist photographer. Be a photojournalist. If not you will fall into mannerism. Keep surrealism in your little heart, my dear. Don't fidget. Get moving!"[citation needed]

Exhibits in United States[edit]

Cartier-Bresson traveled to the United States in 1935 with an invitation to exhibit his work at New York's Julien Levy Gallery. He shared display space with fellow photographers Walker Evans and Manuel Alvarez Bravo. Carmel Snow of Harper's Bazaar, gave him a fashion assignment, but he fared poorly since he had no idea how to direct or interact with the models. Nevertheless, Snow was the first American editor to publish Cartier-Bresson's photographs in a magazine. While in New York, he met photographer Paul Strand, who did camerawork for the Depression-era documentary The Plow That Broke the Plains.

Filmmaking[edit]

When he returned to France, Cartier-Bresson applied for a job with renowned French film director Jean Renoir. He acted in Renoir's 1936 film Partie de campagne and in the 1939 La Règle du jeu, for which he played a butler and served as second assistant. Renoir made Cartier-Bresson act so he could understand how it felt to be on the other side of the camera. Cartier-Bresson also helped Renoir make a film for the Communist party on the 200 families, including his own, who ran France. During the Spanish civil war, Cartier-Bresson co-directed an anti-fascist film with Herbert Kline, to promote the Republican medical services.

Photojournalism start[edit]

Cartier-Bresson's first photojournalist photos to be published came in 1937 when he covered the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, for the French weekly Regards. He focused on the new monarch's adoring subjects lining the London streets, and took no pictures of the king. His photo credit read "Cartier", as he was hesitant to use his full family name.

Marriage[edit]

In 1937, Cartier-Bresson married a Javanese dancer, Ratna Mohini. They lived in a fourth-floor servants' flat at in Paris at 19, rue Danielle Casanova, a large studio with a small bedroom, kitchen and bathroom where Cartier-Bresson developed film. Between 1937 and 1939 Cartier-Bresson worked as a photographer for the French Communists' evening paper, Ce Soir. With Chim and Capa, Cartier-Bresson was a leftist, but he did not join the French Communist party.

Service in World War II[edit]

When World War II broke out in September 1939, he joined the French Army as a Corporal in the Film and Photo unit. During the Battle of France, in June 1940 at St. Dié in the Vosges Mountains, he was captured by German soldiers and spent 35 months in prisoner-of-war camps doing forced labor under the Nazis. As Cartier-Bresson put it, he was forced to perform "thirty-two different kinds of hard manual labor."[citation needed] He worked "as slowly and as poorly as possible."[citation needed] He twice tried and failed to escape from the prison camp, and was punished by solitary confinement. His third escape was successful and he hid on a farm in Touraine before getting false papers that allowed him to travel in France. In France, he worked for the underground, aiding other escapees and working secretly with other photographers to cover the Occupation and then the Liberation of France. In 1943, he dug up his beloved Leica camera, which he had buried in farmland near Vosges. At the end of the war he was asked by the American Office of War Information to make a documentary, Le Retour (The Return) about returning French prisoners and displaced persons.

Toward the end of the War, rumors had reached America that Cartier-Bresson had been killed. His film on returning war refugees (released in the United States in 1947) spurred a retrospective of his work at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) instead of the posthumous show that MoMA had been preparing. The show debuted in 1947 together with the publication of his first book, The Photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson. Lincoln Kirstein and Beaumont Newhall wrote the book's text.

Forms Magnum Photos[edit]

In the spring of 1947, Cartier-Bresson, with Robert Capa, David Seymour, William Vandivert and George Rodger founded Magnum Photos. Capa's brainchild, Magnum was a cooperative picture agency owned by its members. The team split photo assignments among the members. Rodger, who had quit Life in London after covering World War II, would cover Africa and the Middle East. Chim, who spoke most European languages, would work in Europe. Cartier-Bresson would be assigned to India and China. Vandivert, who had also left Life, would work in America, and Capa would work anywhere that had an assignment. Maria Eisner managed the Paris office and Rita Vandivert, Vandivert's wife, managed the New York office and became Magnum's first president.

Cartier-Bresson achieved international recognition for his coverage of Gandhi's funeral in India in 1948 and the last (1949) stage of the Chinese Civil War. He covered the last six months of the Kuomintang administration and the first six months of the Maoist People's Republic. He also photographed the last surviving Imperial eunuchs in Beijing, as the city was falling to the communists. In Shanghai, he often worked in the company of photojournalist Sam Tata, whom Cartier-Bresson had previously befriended in Bombay.[7] From China, he went on to Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), where he documented the gaining of independence from the Dutch.

Magnum's mission was to "feel the pulse" of the times and some of its first projects were People Live Everywhere, Youth of the World, Women of the World and The Child Generation. Magnum aimed to use photography in the service of humanity, and provided arresting, widely viewed images.

The Decisive Moment[edit]

Cartier-Bresson's, The Decisive Moment, the 1952 US edition of Images à la sauvette. The book contains the term "the decisive moment" now synonymous with Cartier-Bresson: "There is nothing in this world that does not have a decisive moment."
Photograph of Alberto Giacometti by Henri Cartier-Bresson

In 1952, Cartier-Bresson published his book Images à la sauvette, whose English edition was titled The Decisive Moment. It included a portfolio of 126 of his photos from the East and the West. The book's cover was drawn by Henri Matisse. For his 4,500-word philosophical preface, Cartier-Bresson took his keynote text from the 17th century Cardinal de Retz: "Il n'y a rien dans ce monde qui n'ait un moment decisif" ("There is nothing in this world that does not have a decisive moment"). Cartier-Bresson applied this to his photographic style. He said: "Photographier: c'est dans un même instant et en une fraction de seconde reconnaître un fait et l'organisation rigoureuse de formes perçues visuellement qui expriment et signifient ce fait" ("To me, photography is the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as of a precise organization of forms which give that event its proper expression.").[8]

Both titles came from publishers. Tériade, the Greek-born French publisher whom Cartier-Bresson idolized,[peacock term] gave the book its French title, Images à la Sauvette, which can loosely be translated as "images on the run" or "stolen images." Dick Simon of Simon & Schuster came up with the English title The Decisive Moment. Margot Shore, Magnum's Paris bureau chief, did the English translation of Cartier-Bresson's French preface.

"Photography is not like painting," Cartier-Bresson told the Washington Post in 1957. "There is a creative fraction of a second when you are taking a picture. Your eye must see a composition or an expression that life itself offers you, and you must know with intuition when to click the camera. That is the moment the photographer is creative," he said. "Oop! The Moment! Once you miss it, it is gone forever."[9]

Cartier-Bresson held his first exhibition in France at the Pavillon de Marsan in the Louvre in 1955.

Later career[edit]

Cartier-Bresson's photography took him to many places, including China, Mexico, Canada, the United States, India, Japan, and the Soviet Union. He became the first Western photographer to photograph "freely" in the post-war Soviet Union.

In 1962, on behalf of Vogue he went to Sardinia for about twenty days. There he visited Nuoro, Oliena, Orgosolo Mamoiada Desulo, Orosei, Cala Gonone, Orani (hosted by his friend Costantino Nivola), San Leonardo di Siete Fuentes, and Cagliari.[10]

Cartier-Bresson withdrew as a principal of Magnum (which still distributed his photographs) in 1966 to concentrate on portraiture and landscapes.

In 1967, he was divorced from his first wife of 30 years, Ratna "Elie". In 1968, he began to turn away from photography and return to his passion for drawing and painting. He admitted that perhaps he had said all he could through photography. He married Magnum photographer Martine Franck, thirty years younger than himself, in 1970.[11] The couple had a daughter, Mélanie, in May 1972.

Cartier-Bresson retired from photography in the early 1970s, and by 1975 no longer took pictures other than an occasional private portrait; he said he kept his camera in a safe at his house and rarely took it out. He returned to drawing and painting. After a lifetime of developing his artistic vision through photography, he said, "All I care about these days is painting—photography has never been more than a way into painting, a sort of instant drawing."[citation needed] He held his first exhibition of drawings at the Carlton Gallery in New York in 1975.

Death and legacy[edit]

Cartier-Bresson died in Montjustin (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France) on August 3, 2004, aged 95. No cause of death was announced. He was buried in the local cemetery and was survived by his wife, Martine Franck, and daughter, Mélanie.

Cartier-Bresson spent more than three decades on assignment for Life and other journals. He traveled without bounds, documenting some of the great upheavals of the 20th century — the Spanish civil war, the liberation of Paris in 1944, the 1968 student rebellion in Paris, the fall of the Kuomintang in China to the communists, the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, the Berlin Wall, and the deserts of Egypt. And along the way he paused to document portraits of Camus, Picasso, Colette, Matisse, Pound and Giacometti. But many of his most renowned photographs, such as Behind the Gare St. Lazare, are of ordinary daily life, seemingly unimportant moments captured and then gone.

Cartier-Bresson was a photographer who hated to be photographed and treasured his privacy above all. Photographs of Cartier-Bresson do exist, but they are scant. When he accepted an honorary degree from Oxford University in 1975, he held a paper in front of his face to avoid being photographed.[1] In a Charlie Rose interview in 2000, Cartier-Bresson noted that it wasn't necessarily that he hated to be photographed, but it was that he was embarrassed by the notion of being photographed for being famous.[12]

Cartier-Bresson believed that what went on beneath the surface was nobody's business but his own. He did recall that he once confided his innermost secrets to a Paris taxi driver, certain that he would never meet the man again.

In 2003, he created the Henri Cartier-Bresson Foundation with his wife and daughter to preserve and share his legacy.

Technique[edit]

Cartier-Bresson almost exclusively used Leica 35 mm rangefinder cameras equipped with normal 50 mm lenses or occasionally a wide-angle for landscapes.[13] He often wrapped black tape around the camera's chrome body to make it less conspicuous. With fast black and white films and sharp lenses, he was able to photograph almost by stealth to capture the events. No longer bound by a huge 4×5 press camera or an awkward medium format twin-lens reflex camera, miniature-format cameras gave Cartier-Bresson what he called "the velvet hand [and] the hawk's eye."[citation needed]

He never photographed with flash, a practice he saw as "[i]mpolite...like coming to a concert with a pistol in your hand."[13]

He believed in composing his photographs in the viewfinder, not in the darkroom. He showcased this belief by having nearly all his photographs printed only at full-frame and completely free of any cropping or other darkroom manipulation.[1] Indeed, he emphasized that his prints were not cropped by insisting they include the first millimetre or so of the unexposed clear negative around the image area resulting, after printing, in a black border around the positive image.

Cartier-Bresson worked exclusively in black and white, other than a few unsuccessful attempts in color. He disliked developing or making his own prints[1] and showed a considerable lack of interest in the process of photography in general, likening photography with the small camera to an "instant drawing".[14] Technical aspects of photography were valid for him only where they allowed him to express what he saw:

Constant new discoveries in chemistry and optics are widening considerably our field of action. It is up to us to apply them to our technique, to improve ourselves, but there is a whole group of fetishes which have developed on the subject of technique. Technique is important only insofar as you must master it in order to communicate what you see... The camera for us is a tool, not a pretty mechanical toy. In the precise functioning of the mechanical object perhaps there is an unconscious compensation for the anxieties and uncertainties of daily endeavor. In any case, people think far too much about techniques and not enough about seeing.

—Henri Cartier-Bresson[8]

He started a tradition of testing new camera lenses by taking photographs of ducks in urban parks. He never published the images but referred to them as 'my only superstition' as he considered it a 'baptism' of the lens.[15]

Cartier-Bresson is regarded as one of the art world's most unassuming personalities. He disliked publicity and exhibited a ferocious shyness since his days in hiding from the Nazis during World War II. Although he took many famous portraits, his own face was little known to the world at large (which presumably had the advantage of allowing him to work on the street in peace). He dismissed others' applications of the term "art" to his photographs, which he thought were merely his gut reactions to moments in time that he had happened upon.

In photography, the smallest thing can be a great subject. The little human detail can become a leitmotiv.

—Henri Cartier-Bresson[8]

Works[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • 1947: The Photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson. Text by Lincoln Kirstein, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  • 1952: The Decisive Moment. Texts and photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Cover by Henri Matisse. Simon & Schuster, New York. French edition
  • 1954: Les Danses à Bali. Texts by Antonin Artaud on Balinese theater and commentary by Béryl de Zoete Delpire, Paris. German edition
  • 1955: The Europeans. Text and photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Cover by Joan Miró. Simon & Schuster, New York. French edition
  • 1955: People of Moscow. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Italian editions
  • 1956: China in Transition. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Italian editions
  • 1958: Henri Cartier-Bresson: Fotografie. Text by Anna Farova. Statni nakladatelstvi krasné, Prague and Bratislava.
  • 1963: Photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Grossman Publisher, New York. French, English, Japanese and Swiss editions
  • 1964: China. Photographs and notes on fifteen months spent in China. Text by Barbara Miller. Bantam Books, New York. French edition
  • 1966: Henri Cartier-Bresson and the Artless Art. Text by Jean-Pierre Montier. Translated from the French L'Art sans art d'Henri Cartier-Bresson by Ruth Taylor. Bulfinch Press, New York.
  • 1968: The World of HCB. Viking Press, New York. French, German and Swiss editions
  • 1969: Man and Machine. Commissioned by IBM. French, German, Italian and Spanish editions
  • 1970: France. Text by François Nourissier. Thames and Hudson, London. French and German editions
  • 1972: The Face of Asia. Introduction by Robert Shaplen. Published by John Weatherhill (New York and Tokyo) and Orientations Ltd. (Hong Kong). French edition
  • 1973: About Russia. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Swiss editions
  • 1976: Henri Cartier-Bresson. Texts by Henri Cartier-Bresson. History of Photography Series. History of Photography Series. French, German, Italian, Japanese and Italian editions
  • 1979: Henri Cartier-Bresson Photographer. Text by Yves Bonnefoy. Bulfinch, New York. French, English, German, Japanese and Italian editions
  • 1983: Henri Cartier-Bresson. Ritratti. Texts by André Pieyre de Mandiargues and Ferdinando Scianna. Coll. " I Grandi Fotografi ". Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri, Milan. English and Spanish editions
  • 1985:
    • Henri Cartier-Bresson en Inde. Introduction de Satyajit Ray, photographies et notes d'Henri Cartier-Bresson. Texte d'Yves Véquaud. Centre National de la Photographie, Paris. Editions anglaise
    • Photoportraits. Texts by André Pieyre de Mandiargues. Thames and Hudson, London. French and German editions
  • 1987:
    • Henri Cartier-Bresson. The Early Work. Texts by Peter Galassi. Museum of Modern Art, New York. French edition
    • Henri Cartier-Bresson in India. Introduction by Satyajit Ray, photographs and notes by Henri Cartier-Bresson, texts by Yves Véquaud. Thames and Hudson, London. French edition
  • 1989:
    • L'Autre Chine. Introduction by Robert Guillain. Collection Photo Notes. Centre National de la Photographie, Paris
    • Line by Line. Henri Cartier-Bresson’s drawings. Introduction by Jean Clair and John Russell. Thames and Hudson, London. French and German editions
  • 1991:
    • America in Passing. Introduction by Gilles Mora. Bulfinch, New York. French, English, German, Italian, Portuguese and Danish editions
    • Alberto Giacometti photographié par Henri Cartier-Bresson. Texts by Henri Cartier-Bresson and Louis Clayeux. Franco Sciardelli, Milan
  • 1994:
    • A propos de Paris. Texts by Véra Feyder and André Pieyre de Mandiargues. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Japanese editions
    • Double regard. Drawings and photographs. Texts by Jean Leymarie. Amiens : Le Nyctalope. French and English editions
    • Mexican Notebooks 1934–1964. Text by Carlos Fuentes. Thames and Hudson, London. French, Italian, and German editions
    • L'Art sans art. Texte de Jean-Pierre Montier. Editions Flammarion, Paris. Editions allemande, anglaise et italienne
  • 1996: L'Imaginaire d'après nature. Textes de Henri Cartier-Bresson. Fata Morgana, Paris. Editions allemande et américaine
  • 1997: Europeans. Texts by Jean Clair. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German, Italian and Portuguese editions
  • 1998: Tête à tête. Texts by Ernst H. Gombrich. Thames & Hudson, London. French, German, Italian and Portuguese editions
  • 1999: The Mind's Eye. Texts by Henri Cartier-Bresson. Aperture, New York. French and German editions
  • 2001: Landscape Townscape. Texts by Erik Orsenna and Gérard Macé. Thames and Hudson, London. French, German and Italian editions
  • 2003: The Man, the Image and the World. Texts by Philippe Arbaizar, Jean Clair, Claude Cookman, Robert Delpire (fr), Jean Leymarie, Jean-Noel Jeanneney, Serge Toubiana. Thames and Hudson, London 2003. German, French, Korean, Italian and Spanish editions.
  • 2006: An Inner SIlence: The portraits of Henri Cartier-Bresson, Texts by Agnès Sire and Jean-Luc Nancy. Thames and Hudson, New York.

Filmography[edit]

Films directed by Henri Cartier-Bresson[edit]

Henri Cartier-Bresson was second assistant director to Jean Renoir in 1936 for La vie est à nous and Une partie de campagne, and in 1939 for La Règle du Jeu.

  • 1937: Victoire de la vie. Documentary on the hospitals of Republican Spain: Running time: 49 minutes. Black and white.
  • 1938: L’Espagne Vivra. Documentary on the Spanish Civil War and the post-war period. Running time: 43 minutes and 32 seconds. Black and white.
  • 1944–45: Le Retour. Documentary on prisoners of war and detainees. Running time: 32 minutes and 37 seconds. Black and white.
  • 1969–70: Impressions of California. Running time: 23 minutes and 20 seconds. Color.
  • 1969–70: Southern Exposures. Running time: 22 minutes and 25 seconds. Color.

Films compiled from photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson[edit]

  • 1956: A Travers le Monde avec Henri Cartier-Bresson. Directed by Jean-Marie Drot and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Running time: 21 minutes. Black and white.
  • 1963: Midlands at Play and at Work. Produced by ABC Television, London. Running time : 19 minutes. Black and white.
  • 1963–65: Five fifteen-minute films on Germany for the Süddeutscher Rundfunk, Munich.
  • 1967: Flagrants délits. Directed by Robert Delpire. Original music score by Diego Masson. Delpire production, Paris. Running time: 22 minutes. Black and white.
  • 1969: Québec vu par Cartier-Bresson / Le Québec as seen by Cartier-Bresson. Directed by Wolff Kœnig. Produced by the Canadian Film Board. Running time: 10 minutes. Black and white.
  • 1970: Images de France.
  • 1991: Contre l'oubli : Lettre à Mamadou Bâ, Mauritanie. Short film directed by Martine Franck for Amnesty International. Editing : Roger Ikhlef. Running time: 3 minutes. Black and white.
  • 1992: Henri Cartier-Bresson dessins et photos. Director: Annick Alexandre. Short film produced by FR3 Dijon, commentary by the artist. Running time: 2 minutes and 33 seconds. Color.
  • 1997: Série "100 photos du siècle": L'Araignée d'amour: broadcast by Arte. Produced by Capa Télévision. Running time: 6 minutes and 15 seconds. Color.

Films about Cartier-Bresson[edit]

  • "Henri Cartier-Bresson, point d'interrogation" by Sarah Moon, screened at Rencontres d'Arles festival in 1994
  • Henri Cartier-Bresson: L'amour Tout Court (70 mins, 2001. Interviews with Cartier-Bresson.)
  • Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Impassioned Eye (72 mins, 2006. Late interviews with Cartier-Bresson.)

Exhibitions[edit]

Public collections of Henri Cartier-Bresson's works[edit]

  • Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, France
  • De Menil Collection, Houston, Texas, US
  • University of Fine Arts, Osaka, Japan
  • Victoria and Albert Museum, London, United Kingdom
  • Maison Européenne de la Photographie, Paris, France
  • Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France
  • Museum of Modern Art, New York, US
  • The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, US
  • J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California, US
  • Institute for Contemporary Photography, New York, US
  • The Philadelphia Art Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US
  • The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, US
  • Kahitsukan Kyoto Museum of Contemporary Art, Kyoto, Japan
  • Museum of Modern Art, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden

Exhibitions of Henri Cartier-Bresson's works[edit]

  • 1933 Cercle Atheneo, Madrid, Spain
  • 1933 Julien Levy Gallery, New York, US
  • 1934 Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico (with Manuel Alvarez Bravo)
  • 1947 Museum of Modern Art, New York, US Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, Germany; Museum of Modern Art, Rome, Italy; Dean Gallery, Edinburgh, UK; Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile
  • 1952 Institute of Contemporary Art, London, UK
  • 1955 Retrospektive – Musée des Arts décoratifs, Paris, France
  • 1956 Photokina, Cologne, Germany
  • 1963 Photokina, Cologne, Germany
  • 1964 The Phillips Collection, Washington
  • 1965–1967 2nd retrospective, Tokyo, Japan, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, France, New York, US, London, UK, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Rome, Italy, Zurich, Switzerland, Cologne, Germany and other cities.
  • 1970 En France – Grand Palais, Paris. Later in the US, USSR, Australia and Japan
  • 1971 Les Rencontres d'Arles festival. Movies screened at Théatre Antique.
  • 1972 Les Rencontres d'Arles festival. "Flagrant Délit " (Production Delpire) screened at Théatre Antique.
  • 1974 Exhibition about the USSR, International Center of Photography, New York, US
  • 1974–1997 Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, France
  • 1975 Carlton Gallery, New York, US
  • 1975 Galerie Bischofberger, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1980 Portraits – Galerie Eric Franck, Geneve, Switzerland
  • 1981 Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France
  • 1982 Hommage à Henri Cartier-Bresson – Centre National de la Photographie, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France
  • 1983 Printemps Ginza – Tokyo, Japan
  • 1984 Osaka University of Arts, Japan
  • 1984–1985 Paris à vue d’œil – Musée Carnavalet, Paris, France
  • 1985 Henri Cartier-Bresson en Inde – Centre National de la Photographie, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France
  • 1985 Museo de Arte Moderno de México, Mexico
  • 1986 L'Institut Français de Stockholm
  • 1986 Pavillon d'Arte contemporanea, Milan, Italy
  • 1986 Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy
  • 1987 Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, UK (drawings and photography)
  • 1987 Early Photographs – Museum of Modern Art, New York, U.S.A.
  • 1988 Institut Français, Athen, Greece
  • 1988 Palais Lichtenstein, Vienna, Austria
  • 1988 Salzburger Landessammlung, Austria
  • 1988 Group exhibition: "Magnum en Chine" at Rencontres d'Arles festival, France.
  • 1989 Chapelle de l'École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, France
  • 1989 Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Martigny, Switzerland (drawings and photographs)
  • 1989 Mannheimer Kunstverein, Mannheim, Germany (drawings and photography)
  • 1989 Printemps Ginza, Tokyo, Japan
  • 1990 Galerie Arnold Herstand, New York, US
  • 1991 Taipei Fine Arts Museum, Taiwan (drawings and photographs)
  • 1992 Centro de Exposiciones, Saragossa and Logrono, Spain
  • 1992 Hommage à Henri Cartier-Bresson – International Center of Photography, New York, US
  • 1992 L'Amérique – FNAC, Paris, France
  • 1992 Musée de Noyers-sur-Serein, France
  • 1992 Palazzo San Vitale, Parma, Italy
  • 1993 Photo Dessin – Dessin Photo, Arles, France
  • 1994 "Henri Cartier-Bresson, point d'interrogation" by Sarah Moon screened at Rencontres d'Arles festival, France.
  • 1994 Dessins et premières photos – La Caridad, Barcelona, Spain
  • 1995 Dessins et Hommage à Henri Cartier-Bresson – CRAC (Centre Régional d’Art Contemporain) Valence, Drome, France
  • 1996 Henri Cartier-Bresson: Pen, Brush and Cameras – The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, US
  • 1997 Les Européens – Maison Européenne de la Photographie, Paris, France
  • 1997 Henri Cartier-Bresson, dessins – Musée des Beaux-Arts, Montreal, Canada
  • 1998 Galerie Beyeler, Basel, Switzerland
  • 1998 Galerie Löhrl, Mönchengladbach, Germany
  • 1998 Howard Greenberggh Gallery, New York, US
  • 1998 Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1998 Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Germany
  • 1998 Line by Line – Royal College of Art, London, UK
  • 1998 Tête à Tête – National Portrait Gallery, London, UK
  • 1998–1999 Photographien und Zeichnungen – Baukunst Galerie, Cologne, Germany
  • 2003–2005 Rétrospective, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France; La Caixa, Barcelona, Spain; Martin Gropius Bau, Berlin, Germany; Museum of Modern Art, Rome, Italy; Dean Gallery, Edinburgh, UK; Museum of Modern Art, New York, US; Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile
  • 2004 Baukunst Galerie, Cologne
  • 2004 Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin
  • 2004 Museum Ludwig, Cologne
  • 2008 Henri Cartier-Bresson's Scrapbook Photographs 1932-46, National Media Museum, Bradford, UK
  • 2008 National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai, India
  • 2008 Santa Catalina Castle, Cadiz, Spain
  • 2009 Musée de l'Art Moderne, Paris
  • 2010 Museum of Modern Art, New York, US
  • 2010 The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, US
  • 2011 Museum of Design Zürich[16]
  • 2011 High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, US
  • 2011 Maison de la Photo, Toulon, France
  • 2011 Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg, Germany
  • 2011 Queensland Art Gallery, Brisbane, Australia
  • 2011-2012 Kunsthaus, Vienna, Austria
  • 2014 Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Notable portrait subjects[edit]

Awards[edit]

Cartier-Bresson is the recipient of many of prizes, awards and honorary doctorates. A partial listing of his awards:

  • 1948: Overseas Press Club of America Award
  • 1953: The A.S.M.P. Award
  • 1954: Overseas Press Club of America Award
  • 1959: The Prix de la Société française de photographie
  • 1960: Overseas Press Club of America Award
  • 1964: Overseas Press Club of America Award
  • 1974: The Culture Prize, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Photographie
  • 1981: Grand Prix National de la Photographie
  • 1982 Hasselblad Award
  • 2006: Prix Nadar for the photobook Henri Cartier-Bresson: Scrapbook

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Kimmelman, Michael (August 4, 2004). "Henri Cartier-Bresson, Artist Who Used Lens, Dies at 95". New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2007. [dead link]
  2. ^ Galassi, Henri Cartier-Bresson, The Early Work.
  3. ^ "Harry Crosby". Literary Kicks. November 27, 2002. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  4. ^ Geoffrey Wolff (2003). Black Sun: The Brief Transit and Violent Eclipse of Harry Crosby. New York Review of Books. ISBN 1-59017-066-0. 
  5. ^ a b Turner, Christopher (12 April 2010). "Expert Witness: Henri Cartier-Bresson". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  6. ^ Montier, 1996, p. 12
  7. ^ Dessureault, Pierre. The Tata Era / L'Epoque Tata. Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography. Ottawa, 1988.
  8. ^ a b c Henri Cartier-Bresson (1952). The Decisive Moment. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 1–14. 
  9. ^ Bernstein, Adam (August 5, 2004). "The Acknowledged Master of the Moment". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  10. ^ La fotografia in Sardegna. Lo sguardo esterno 1960-1980, Fondazione Banco di Sardegna, Ilisso Edizioni, 2010.
  11. ^ Lynne Warren. Encyclopedia of twentieth-century photography. p. 248. 
  12. ^ Cartier-Bresson on Charlie Rose. Charlie Rose interview. July 6, 2000. 
  13. ^ a b Frank Van Riper (2002). Talking photography: viewpoints on the art, craft and business. Allworth Communications, Inc. ISBN 1-58115-208-6. 
  14. ^ Khen Lim (October 6, 2007). "Henri Cartier-Bresson – A Decisive Moment in Time". Retrieved June 26, 2010. 
  15. ^ J.M Dirac, ed. (1962). Cartier-Bresson Interviews and Notes. Paris. p. 122. 
  16. ^ Museum of Design Zürich

References[edit]

  • Assouline, P. (2005). Henri Cartier-Bresson: A Biography. London: Thames & Hudson.
  • Galassi, Peter (2010). Henri Cartier-Bresson: the Modern Century. London: Thames & Hudson.
  • Montier, J. (1996). Portrait: First Sketch. Henri Cartier-Bresson and the Artless Art (p. 12). New York: Bulfinch Press.
  • Warren, J (2005), Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography. Routledge

External links[edit]