Case variants of IPA letters

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Capital variants of the IPA letters used in English, as designed by Michael Everson. The capital ɡ (IPA g) is unusual, as is the Turkish convention of İ I for capital i ɪ

With the adoption of letters from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in various national alphabets, letter case forms have been developed. This usually means capital (upper-case) forms were developed, but in the case of the glottal stop ʔ, both upper-case Ɂ and lower-case ɂ are used.

The adoption of IPA letters has been particularly notable in Sub-Saharan Africa, in languages such as Hausa, Fula, Akan, Gbe languages, Manding languages, and Lingala. The most common are open o Ɔ ɔ, open e Ɛ ɛ, and engma Ŋ ŋ, but several others are found. Kabiyé of northern Togo, for example, has Ɔ ɔ, Ɛ ɛ, Ɖ ɖ, Ŋ ŋ, Ɣ ɣ, Ʃ ʃ, Ʊ ʊ (or Ʋ ʋ), as in this newspaper headline:


Some of the IPA letters that were adopted into language orthographies have since become obsolete in the IPA itself. And although one might think that the click letters ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ were adopted from the IPA without case, the reverse happened: They were actually adopted into the IPA from Nama, replacing the dedicated IPA letters ʇ ʗ ʖ; Nama never did have case for these letters.

IPA Uppercase Lowercase
ɓ Ɓ (Ƃ)
β (like ẞ)
ɔ Ɔ
ƈ Ƈ
ð Ð
ɖ Ɖ, Ɗ
ɗ Ɗ
(ᶑ )
ə Ə, Ǝ
ɛ Ɛ
ɜ (like З)[1]
ɠ Ɠ
ɣ Ɣ
ħ Ħ
ɨ Ɨ
ɪ (serif I)[2]
ɩ Ɩ
ƙ Ƙ
ɬ (like Ł)[3]
ɯ Ɯ
ŋ Ŋ
ɲ Ɲ
ƞ Ƞ
ɵ Ɵ
ƥ Ƥ
ɋ Ɋ
ʃ Ʃ
ʈ Ʈ, Ŧ[4]
ƭ Ƭ
ʉ Ʉ
ʊ Ʊ
ɷ [5]
ʋ Ʋ
ʌ Ʌ
(ⱳ )
χ (tall χ)[4]
ʒ Ʒ, reversed Ʃ[2]
θ (like Θ)[4][2]
ɸ (like Φ)
ʔ Ɂ ɂ 

Others letters are the graphic equivalent of IPA capitals, but are not identified with the IPA. Examples are ɟ Ɉ (actually, the capital of ɉ), ʞ ꓘ, ʎ  (⅄) (the capital of λ in Americanist usage; similarly ƛ ),[4] ɹ ꓤ, ʇ ꓕ.


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ a b c d [4]
  5. ^ [5]