Casimir II of Kuyavia

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Casimir II of Kuyavia (Polish: Kazimierz III gniewkowski) (1277/80 – 22 August 1345/13 May 1350) was Duke of Kuyavia and was a member of the House of Piast. He was son of Ziemomysł of Kuyavia and his wife Salome, daughter of Sambor II, Duke of Pomerania.


Casimir was Duke of Inowrocław (1287–1314), vassal of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia (from 1300), A vassal of Poland (from 1306) Governor of Tczew (130—1309) and Duke of Gniewkowo (from 1314).[citation needed]

In 1287, Casimir father died, when Casimir was around the age of ten, he was too young to rule of the lands his father left him. He was under the protection of his mother, Salome and his two older brothers Leszek and Przemysł. In 1300 Casimir was forced to pay hommage to Wenceslaus II of Bohemia. In 1302, Casimir was able to rule over his own lands. In 1306, he became the vassal of his uncle Ladislaus the Short. As a reward, his uncle made him Governor of Tczew in Gdańsk Pomerania. In 1309 he lost his position as governor following the invasion of Eastern Pomerania by Teutonic Knights. At the same time, Casimir and his brother Przemysl were in conflict with Bishop Gerward. The conflict escalated quickly. The two brothers attacked the property of the bishop, located in Raciąż and trapped him. They were then excommunicated. In 1311 an agreement was reached between both parties.

In 1314 The Duchy was divided among the three brothers. Casimir obtained the little duchy of Gniewkowo. In 1318 He participated in the assembly of nobles of Sulejów after which a petition was addressed to the Pope that allowed Casimir's uncle Ladislaus the Short to be crowned King of Poland. In 1325, Casimir's name was mentioned on a document drafted at the conclusion of an alliance between Ladislaus the Short and Western Pomerania.

In 1332 During the a between Poland and the Teutonic order, Casimir's stronghold of Gniewkowo was besieged. Not wanting to fall into enemy hands, Casimir abandoned the place after burning his castle. The Teutonic Knights captured the whole Kuyavia and Casimir was forced into exile. Only after the agreement Kalisz in 1343 did Casimir recover his duchy.[1]

Casimir III died between 1347 and 1350

Marriage and children[edit]

Casimir did marry, however the date of his marriage, the name and origins of his wife are unknown.[2] Casimir and his wife had many children, but only two survived to adulthood:

  1. Elizabeth [3] (1315/20 – after 22 August 1345) married Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia, and was mother of Elizabeth of Bosnia, queen consort of Poland and Hungary
  2. Władysław the White (b. between 1327 and 1333 — died on 29 February 1388), Duke of Gniewkowo and candidate to succeed Casimir III of Poland