Casimir IV Jagiellon

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Casimir IV Jagiellon
KG
Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG
Casimir IV, by Marcello Bacciarelli
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Reign 29 June 1440 – 7 June 1492
Coronation 29 June 1440 in Vilnius Cathedral
Predecessor Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Successor Alexander I Jagiellon
King of Poland
Reign 25 June 1447 – 7 June 1492
Coronation 25 June 1447 in Wawel Cathedral
Predecessor Władysław III
Successor John I Albert
Spouse Elisabeth of Austria (d. 1505)
Issue
Detail
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
Hedwig Jagiellon
St. Casimir Jagiellon
John I Albert of Poland
Alexander of Poland
Sophia, Margravine of Brandenburg
Elżbieta
Sigismund I the Old
Barbara, Duchess of Saxony
Dynasty Jagiello
Father Władysław II Jagiełło
Mother Sophia of Halshany
Born (1427-11-30)30 November 1427
Kraków, Poland
Died 7 June 1492(1492-06-07) (aged 64)
Old Hrodna Castle, modern Belarus
Burial Wawel Cathedral, Kraków

Casimir IV KG (Polish: Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk [kaˈʑimi̯ɛʒ jaɡi̯ɛlˈlɔɲt͡ʃɨk] ( ); Lithuanian: Kazimieras IV Jogailaitis; 30 November 1427 – 7 June 1492) of the House of Jagiellon was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440, and King of Poland from 1447, until his death. He was one of the most active Polish rulers, under whom Poland, by defeating the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years' War recovered Pomerania, and the Jagiellonian dynasty became one of the leading royal houses in Europe. He was a strong opponent of aristocracy, and helped to strengthen the importance of Parliament and the Senat.[1]

Casimir was the second son of King Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila), and the younger brother of Władysław III of Varna.

Grand Duke of Lithuania[edit]

The sudden death of Sigismund Kęstutaitis left the office of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania empty. The Voivode of Trakai, Jonas Goštautas, and other magnates of Lithuania, supported Casimir as a candidate to the throne. However many Polish noblemen hoped that the thirteen-year-old boy would become a Vice-regent for the Polish King in Lithuania.[2] Casimir was invited by the Lithuanian magnates to Lithuania, and when he arrived in Vilnius in 1440, he was proclaimed as the Grand Duke of Lithuania on 29 June 1440 by the Council of Lords, contrary to the wishes of the Polish noble lords—an act supported and coordinated by Jonas Goštautas.[2] When the news arrived in the Kingdom of Poland concerning the proclamation of Casimir as the Grand Duke of Lithuania, it was met with hostility, even to the point of military threats against Lithuania.[2] Since the young Grand Duke was underage, the supreme control over the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was in the hands of the Council of Lords, presided by Jonas Goštautas. Casimir had been taught Lithuanian language and the customs of Lithuania by appointed court officials.[3]

During Casimir's rule the rights of the Lithuanian nobility—dukes, magnates and boyars (lesser nobles), irrespective of their religion and ethnicity—were put on an equal footing to those of the Polish szlachta. Additionally, Casimir promised to protect the Grand Duchy's borders and not to appoint persons from the Polish Kingdom to the offices of the Grand Duchy. He accepted that decisions on matters concerning the Grand Duchy would not be made without the Council of Lords' consent. He also granted the subject region of Samogitia the right to elect its own elder. Casimir was the first ruler of Lithuania baptised at birth, becoming the first native Roman Catholic Grand Duke.

King of Poland[edit]

Casimir succeeded his brother Władysław III (killed at the Battle of Varna in 1444) as King of Poland after a three-year interregnum on 25 June 1447. In 1454, he married Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of the late King of the Romans Albert II of Habsburg by his late wife Elisabeth of Bohemia. Her distant relative Frederick of Habsburg became Holy Roman Emperor and reigned as Frederick III until after Casimir's own death. The marriage strengthened the ties between the house of Jagiello and the sovereigns of Hungary-Bohemia and put Casimir at odds with the Holy Roman Emperor through internal Habsburg rivalry.

That same year, Casimir was approached by the Prussian Confederation for aid against the Teutonic Order, which he promised, by making the separatist Prussian regions a protectorate of the Polish Kingdom. However, when the insurgent cities rebelled against the Order, it resisted and the Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466) ensued. Casimir and the Prussian Confederation defeated the Teutonic Order, taking over its capital at Marienburg (Malbork Castle). In the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), the Order recognized Polish sovereignty over the seceded western Prussian regions, Royal Prussia, and the Polish crown's overlordship over the remaining Teutonic Monastic State, transformed in 1525 into a duchy, Ducal Prussia.

Elisabeth's only brother Ladislas, king of Bohemia and Hungary, died in 1457, and after that Casimir and Elisabeth's dynastic interests were directed also towards her brother's former kingdoms.

Children[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ pl:Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
  2. ^ a b c J. Kiaupienë Valdžios krizës pabaiga ir Kazimieras Jogailaitis. Gimtoji istorija 2: Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (Lietuvos istorijos vadovėlis). CD. (2003). Elektroninės leidybos namai: Vilnius.
  3. ^ Lietuvių kalba ir literatūros istorija
  4. ^ Paweł Jasienica, Jagiellonian Poland
Preceded by
Sigismund Kestutian
Grand Duke of Lithuania
1440–1492
Succeeded by
Alexander Jagiellon
Preceded by
Władysław III
King of Poland
1447–1492
Succeeded by
John I of Poland