Cass Elliot

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Cass Elliot
Cass Elliot (1972).png
Cass Elliot in 1972
Born Ellen Naomi Cohen
(1941-09-19)September 19, 1941
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Died July 29, 1974(1974-07-29) (aged 32)
London, England, U.K.
Other names Mama Cass
Children Owen Vanessa Elliot-Kugell
(daughter; b. 1967)
Parents
  • Philip Cohen
  • Bess Cohen
Relatives Leah Kunkel (sister)
Musical career
Genres
Occupations Singer
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1959–1974
Labels
Associated acts
Website casselliot.com

Cass Elliot (born Ellen Naomi Cohen; September 19, 1941 – July 29, 1974), also known as Mama Cass, was an American singer and member of The Mamas & the Papas. After the group broke up, she released five solo albums. In 1998, Elliot, John Phillips, Denny Doherty, and Michelle Phillips were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for their work as The Mamas & the Papas.[1]

Early life[edit]

Elliot was born Ellen Naomi Cohen to Philip and Bess Cohen in Baltimore, Maryland. She had a younger sister, Leah, who also became a singer as a member of the Coyote Sisters.

The Cohens later moved to Alexandria, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C.. She adopted the name "Cass" in high school—possibly, as Denny Doherty tells it, borrowing it from the actress Peggy Cass, but in any case, it was "Cass", not "Cassandra." She assumed the surname Elliot sometime later, in memory of a friend who had died. While still attending George Washington High School, she became interested in acting and was cast in a school production of the play The Boy Friend. She left high school shortly before graduation and moved to New York City to further her acting career. She toured in the musical The Music Man, but lost the part of Miss Marmelstein in I Can Get It for You Wholesale to Barbra Streisand in 1962.

Early career[edit]

Cass Elliot with Tim Rose and James Hendricks as part of the Big 3

While working as a cloakroom attendant at The Showplace in Greenwich Village in New York, Elliot would sometimes sing, but it wasn't until she returned to the Washington D.C. area, to attend American University (not Swarthmore College as mentioned in the biographical song Creeque Alley) that she began to pursue a singing career. As America's folk music scene was on the rise, Elliot met banjoist and singer Tim Rose and singer John Brown, and the three began performing as The Triumvirate. In 1963, James Hendricks replaced Brown and the trio was renamed The Big 3. Elliot's first recording with The Big 3 was Winkin', Blinkin' and Nod, released by FM Records in 1963. In 1964, the group appeared on an "open mike" night at The Bitter End in Greenwich Village, billed as "Cass Elliot and the Big 3", followed onstage by folksinger Jim Fosso and bluegrass banjoist Eric Weissberg (who would become famous eight years later for performing "Dueling Banjos" on the soundtrack for Deliverance in 1972).

When Tim Rose left The Big 3 in 1964, Elliot and Hendricks teamed with Canadians Zal Yanovsky and Denny Doherty to form The Mugwumps. This group lasted eight months, after which Cass performed as a solo act for a while. In the meantime, Yanovsky and John Sebastian co-founded The Lovin' Spoonful, while Doherty joined The New Journeymen, a group that also included John Phillips and his wife, Michelle. In 1965, Doherty convinced Phillips that Elliot should join the group, which she did while she and the group members were vacationing in the Virgin Islands.

A popular legend about Elliot is that her vocal range was improved by three notes after she was hit on the head by some copper tubing while walking through a construction site behind the bar where The New Journeymen were playing in the Virgin Islands. Elliot herself confirmed the story in a 1968 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, saying,

It’s true, I did get hit on the head by a pipe that fell down and my range was increased by three notes. They were tearing this club apart in the islands, revamping it, putting in a dance floor. Workmen dropped a thin metal plumbing pipe and it hit me on the head and knocked me to the ground. I had a concussion and went to the hospital. I had a bad headache for about two weeks and all of a sudden I was singing higher. It’s true. Honest to God.[2]

However, friends later said that the pipe story was a less embarrassing explanation for why John Phillips had kept her out of the group for so long, the real reason being that he considered her too fat.[3]

The Mamas & the Papas[edit]

With two female members, The New Journeymen needed a new name. According to Doherty, Elliot had the inspiration for the band's new name; as written on his website:

We're all just lying around vegging out watching TV and discussing names for the group. The New Journeymen was not a handle that was going to hang on this outfit. John was pushing for The Magic Cyrcle. Eech, but none of us could come up with anything better, then we switch the channel and, hey, it's the Hells Angels on the Carson show... And the first thing we hear is: "Now hold on there, Hoss. Some people call our women cheap, but we just call them our Mamas." Cass jumped up: "Yeah! I want to be a Mama." And Michelle is going: "We're the Mamas! We're the Mamas!" OK. I look at John. He's looking at me going: "The Papas?" Problem solved. A toast! To The Mamas and the Papas. Well, after many, many toasts, Cass and John are passed out."[4]

Doherty also said that the occasion marked the beginning of his affair with Michelle Phillips. Elliot, who was in love with Doherty, was displeased when he told her of the affair. Doherty has said that Elliot once proposed to him, but that he was so stoned at the time, he could not even respond.

Elliot, known for her sense of humor and optimism, was considered by some to be the most charismatic member of the group. Her powerful, distinctive voice was a large factor in their success. She is best remembered for her vocals on the group's hits "California Dreamin'," "Monday Monday," and "Words of Love," and particularly for the solo "Dream a Little Dream of Me," which the group recorded in 1968 after learning about the death of Fabian Andre, one of the men who co-wrote it, whom Michelle Phillips had met years earlier. Elliot's version is noteworthy for its contemplative pace, whereas almost all earlier recordings of "Dream a Little Dream of Me" (including one by Nat King Cole and another by Ozzie Nelson) had been up-tempo versions—the song having actually been written in 1931 as a dance tune for the nightclubs of the day.

The Mamas & the Papas continued to record to meet the terms of their record contract. Their final album was released in 1971.

Solo career[edit]

Elliot with Johnny Cash, 1969.

After the breakup of The Mamas & the Papas, Elliot embarked on a solo singing career. Her most successful recording during this period was 1968's "Dream a Little Dream of Me" from her solo album of the same name, released by Dunhill Records though it had originally been released on the album The Papas & the Mamas Presented By The Mamas and the Papas, earlier that year.

Las Vegas incident[edit]

In October 1968, Elliot made her live solo debut headlining in Las Vegas at Caesars Palace. Scheduled for a three-week engagement at $40,000 per week with two shows per night,[5] Elliot went on a six-month-long crash diet before the show, losing 100 of her 300 pounds. According to Elliot, the weight loss led to a stomach ulcer and throat problems, which she treated by drinking milk and cream (and regaining 50 pounds in the process).[6] For three weeks before the first performance, a nervous Elliot was confined to her bed as the musical director, the band and the production supervisor attempted to put together a show in her absence. Although scheduled to rehearse for a full three days before the show opened, Elliot managed to get through only part of one runthrough with the band before claiming that she was losing her voice. She skipped the remainder of rehearsals and drank tea and lemon, hoping to recover and pull herself together for opening night.[7]

On the evening of Tuesday, October 16, an audience of 950 people, including Sammy Davis, Jr., Peter Lawford, and Jimi Hendrix, filled the Circus Maximus theatre. Joan Baez, Liza Minnelli and Mia Farrow had sent flowers to Elliot's dressing room. But backstage, a shivering Elliot had developed a raging fever and her vocal cords were hemorrhaging. Friends attempted to urge her manager to cancel the show, but he felt it was too important and insisted that she perform. Sick and having barely rehearsed, Elliot began to fall apart as she was performing. Her voice was weak and barely audible, and despite the celebrity well-wishers, the large crowd was not sympathetic. At the end of the show, she returned to the stage to apologize to the audience stating "This is the first night and it will get better," then sang "Dream a Little Dream of Me" and left the stage as the audience applauded half-heartedly. She returned later that night to perform the second show, but her voice was worse and many of the audience noisily walked out.[7]

Reviews were harsh. Esquire magazine called the show "a disaster" that was "heroic in proportion, epic in scope."[5] The Los Angeles Free Press called the show "an embarrassing drag." Newsweek compared the show to the Titanic disaster: "Like some great ocean liner embarking on an ill-fated maiden voyage, Mama Cass slid down the ways and sank to the bottom." The show closed after only one night and Elliot flew back to Los Angeles for what was described as "a tonsillectomy."[7]

Within hours, rumors began to spread that Elliot had been taking drugs in the weeks before the performance. In her biography, Dream a Little Dream of Me, author Eddi Fiegel wrote that Elliot later admitted to a boyfriend that she had shot up on heroin immediately before going on stage. Embarrassed by the debacle, Elliot plunged into a deep depression.[7]

Later work[edit]

Photo from the special Don't Call Me Mama Anymore.

Elliot appeared in two television variety specials: The Mama Cass Television Show (ABC, 1969) and Don't Call Me Mama Anymore (CBS, 1973). She was a regular guest on TV talk shows and variety shows in the 1970s, including The Mike Douglas Show, The Andy Williams Show, Hollywood Squares, The Johnny Cash Show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, and The Carol Burnett Show and was a guest panelist for a week on the game show Match Game '73. She guest-hosted for Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show and also appeared on the show 13 other times. She also appeared on and co-hosted The Music Scene on ABC and was featured on the first The Midnight Special on NBC.

In 1972, she made three appearances on the variety series The Julie Andrews Hour. Her final appearance on the show was the Christmas installment that aired on Wednesday, December 20, 1972. In December, 1978, four years after Elliot's death, the episode was rebroadcast on syndicated stations as a Christmas special called Merry Christmas With Love, Julie. However, all of Elliot's solos were cut from the syndicated prints. In 2009, a complete videotape of The Julie Andrews Hour Christmas Show was donated to The Paley Center For Media in New York with all of Elliot's numbers intact. In 1973, she performed in Saga of Sonora, a 1973 TV music-comedy-western special with Jill St. John, Vince Edwards, Zero Mostel, and Lesley Ann Warren.

She also sang the jingle "Hurry on down to Hardee's, where the burgers are charco-broiled" for Hardee's fast-food advertisements.

Throughout the early 1970s, Elliot continued her acting career as well. She had a featured role in the 1970 movie Pufnstuf and made guest appearances on TV's The New Scooby-Doo Movies, Young Dr. Kildare, Love, American Style, and The Red Skelton Show, among others.

In 1973, Elliot hired Allan Carr, who at the time managed the careers of Tony Curtis, Ann-Margret, and Peter Sellers, as her manager. Carr felt that Elliot needed to leave pop and rock music altogether, and head into the cabaret circuit, so a show was put together that consisted of old standards along with a few new songs written for her by friends. The act included Elliot and two male singers, who served as backing singers and sidekicks during the musical numbers. The title of the show, Don't Call Me Mama Anymore, was named after one of the songs written by Elliot's friend, Earle Brown. The song was born out of Elliot's frustration with being identified as "Mama Cass".

After the show debuted on February 9, 1973 in Pittsburgh, Elliot felt she was ready to tackle Las Vegas once again and premiered at the Flamingo. This time, Elliot received rave reviews. The Las Vegas Sun wrote, "Cass Elliot, making a strong point that she is no longer Mama Cass, has a good act serving notice that she is here to stay. The audience was with her all the way... no empty seats anywhere." She then took her act to higher-echelon casinos and swankier nightclubs in cities throughout the country.

Personal life[edit]

Elliot was married twice, the first time in 1963 to James Hendricks, her groupmate in The Big 3 and The Mugwumps. This was reportedly a platonic arrangement to assist him in avoiding being drafted into the army during the Vietnam War;[8] the marriage reportedly was never consummated and was annulled in 1968.[9] In 1971, Elliot married journalist Baron Donald von Wiedenman[10][11] who was heir to a Bavarian barony. Their marriage ended in divorce after a few months.

Elliot gave birth to a daughter, Owen Vanessa Elliot, on April 26, 1967. She never publicly identified the father, but many years later, Michelle Phillips helped Owen locate her biological father.[12] After Elliot's death, her younger sister, Leah Kunkel, received custody of Owen, then just seven years old. Owen grew up to become a singer as well and toured with Beach Boys member Al Jardine.[13]

Death[edit]

At the height of her solo career in 1974, Elliot performed two weeks of sold-out concerts at the London Palladium. She telephoned Michelle Phillips after the final concert on July 28, elated that she had received standing ovations each night. She then retired for the evening, and died in her sleep at age 32. Sources state her death was due to a heart attack.[14][15] Elliot died in a London flat, No. 12 at 9 Curzon Place, Shepherd Market, Mayfair, which was on loan from singer/songwriter Harry Nilsson. Four years later, The Who's drummer Keith Moon died in the same flat at the same age.[16] Elliot was buried in Mount Sinai Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles.[17]

An oft-repeated urban legend claims that Elliot choked to death on a ham sandwich.[18][19] The story, which spread soon after the discovery of her body, was based on speculation in the initial media coverage. Although an autopsy had not yet been performed, police told reporters that a partially eaten sandwich found in her room might have been to blame. Despite the post-mortem examination finding that Elliot had died of a heart attack and no food was found in her windpipe,[15] the false story that she choked on a sandwich has persisted in the decades following her death. In fact, Elliot had lost 80 pounds (36 kg) in the eight months before her death by fasting four days a week. Her fatal heart attack was most likely related to this extreme weight loss measure that weakened her heart.[18][20][21]

Tributes and other popular culture references[edit]

The song "Mama, I Remember You Now" by the Swedish artist Marit Bergman is a tribute to Elliot. She was the subject of a 2004 stage production in Dublin,[22] The Songs of Mama Cass, with Kristin Kapelli performing main vocals. The Crosby, Stills & Nash Greatest Hits album released in 2005 was dedicated to Cass Elliot. The British play and film Beautiful Thing features her recordings and one character reflects on her memories of Eliot.[citation needed]

Anthony Kiedis of Red Hot Chili Peppers cited The Mamas & the Papas, and especially Elliot, as an influence, in an interview for Rolling Stone, saying, "There have been times when I've been very down and out in my life, and the sound of her voice has sort of given me a reason to want to carry on."[23] Boy George and k.d. lang also cited Elliot as an influence.[24] George described her as "the greatest white female singer ever."[7] Beth Ditto, singer of the band Gossip, named Elliot both as music and fashion inspiration, saying, "I really wanted to sound like Mama Cass growing up."[25][26]

Elliot's recording of "Make Your Own Kind of Music" is featured prominently in several episodes of seasons 2 and 3 of Lost as well as season 8, episodes 2 and 9 of Dexter (the later one also uses the title as the episodes title). Her recording of "It's Getting Better" was featured in a season 4 episode of Lost.[citation needed]

Since her death, Elliot and the circumstances surrounding her death have been the butt of numerous jokes in comedy routines, movies, and songs, by performers such as Frank Zappa, Adam Sandler,[27] Denis Leary, Mike Myers (in the first Austin Powers movie), "Weird Al" Yankovic, Robin Williams and others.[citation needed]

Discography[edit]

Albums[edit]

The Big 3[edit]

The Mugwumps[edit]

  • 1965: The Mugwumps

The Mamas and the Papas[edit]

Solo[edit]

Soundtrack[edit]

  • 1996: Beautiful Thing (soundtrack with Mama Cass and the Mamas and the Papas)

Singles[edit]

Year Single Chart Positions Album
US US
A/C
UK
1968 "Dream a Little Dream of Me"
(As Mama Cass with the Mamas & the Papas)
12 2 11 "The Papas & The Mamas"
"Dream a Little Dream of Me" 12 - - Dream a Little Dream
"California Earthquake" 67 - -
1969 "Move in a Little Closer, Baby" 58 32 - non - album
"It's Getting Better" 30 13 8 Bubblegum, Lemonade, and... Something for Mama
"Make Your Own Kind of Music" 36 6 -
1970 "New World Coming" 42 4 - Mama's Big Ones
"A Song That Never Comes" 99 25 -
"Different" - - - Pufnstuf
"The Good Times Are Coming" 104 19 - Mama's Big Ones
"Don't Let the Good Life Pass You By" 110 34 -
1971 "Something To Make You Happy"
(with Dave Mason)
- - - Dave Mason & Cass Elliot
"The Costume Ball" - - - Doctors' Wives
"Too Much Truth, Too Much Love"
(with Dave Mason)
- - - Dave Mason & Cass Elliot
1972 "Baby I'm Yours" - - - Cass Elliot
"That Song" - - -
"(If You’re Gonna) Break Another Heart" - - 54 The Road Is No Place for a Lady
"Does Anybody Love You" - - -
1973 "I Think A Lot About You" - - - Don't Call Me Mama Anymore
1974 "I'm Coming to the Best Part of My Life" - - -

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rockhall.com
  2. ^ Rolling Stone magazine, October 26, 1968, No. 20 reprinted as "Rolling Stone:October 26, 1968, No. 20 THE ROLLING STONE INTERVIEW: Cass Elliot: Page 19". Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  3. ^ "Pipe Dream" Snopes.com debunking of pipe story
  4. ^ "Dream A Little Dream" performance transcript from Denny Doherty's website, DennyDoherty.com
  5. ^ a b "Sink Along With Mama Cass". Esquire. June 1969. 
  6. ^ "Mama Cass In Training for Night Club Re-Entry". Ocala Star Banner. December 15, 1972. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Fiegel, Eddi (September 28, 2005). Dream a Little Dream of Me: The Life of Cass Elliot. Chicago Review Press. pp. 265–267. ISBN 978-1-55652-588-9. 
  8. ^ Cass Elliot dies at age 32
  9. ^ Meet the Mugwumps
  10. ^ July 12, 1971 Time Magazine announcement of Elliot's marriage to von Wiedenman
  11. ^ For a photo, see the Official Cass Elliot Website.
  12. ^ "California Dreamgirl". Vanity Fair. December 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2008. 
  13. ^ Beach Boys FAQ
  14. ^ "Cass Elliot, Pop Singer, Dies; Star of the Mamas and Papas" (paid archive). The New York Times. July 30, 1974. Retrieved June 20, 2008. 
  15. ^ a b "Cass Elliot's Death Linked to Heart Attack" (paid archive). The New York Times. August 6, 1974. Retrieved June 20, 2008. 
  16. ^ Wilkes, Roger (17 February 2001). "Inside story: 9 Curzon Place". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  17. ^ Macdonald, Les (2010). The Day The Music Died. Xlibris Corporation. p. 127. ISBN 1-469-11356-2. 
  18. ^ a b "Ham and Wheeze" from Snopes.com
  19. ^ Leopold, Todd (September 23, 2009). "John Phillips had checkered, sometimes sordid, life". CNN. Retrieved December 30, 2012. 
  20. ^ Farrell, Amy (2011). Fat Shame: Stigma and the Fat Body in American Culture. NYU Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-814-72768-9. 
  21. ^ Talevski, Nick (2010). Rock Obituaries - Knocking On Heaven's Door. Omnibus Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-857-12117-0. 
  22. ^ "Pop: Kristin Kapelli". The Sunday Times (London). January 11, 2004. Retrieved October 30, 2007. 
  23. ^ Anthony Kiedis' interview in Rolling Stone magazine
  24. ^ Cass Elliot on veryimportantpotheads.com
  25. ^ Wooten, Amy (6 September 2006). "Gossiping with Beth Ditto". Windy City Times. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  26. ^ Alexander, Hilary (6 July 2009). "Beth Ditto's collection for Evans". Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  27. ^ Sandler lyrics

External links[edit]