|Città di Cassino|
The town of Cassino from the upper part of the town.
|Frazioni||Caira, Montecassino, San Cesareo, San Michele, San Pasquale, Sant'Angelo in Theodice, Sant'Antonino, San Bartolomeo|
|• Mayor||Giuseppe Golini Petrarcone|
|• Total||82.77 km2 (31.96 sq mi)|
|Elevation||40 m (130 ft)|
|Population (31 December 2013)|
|• Density||420/km2 (1,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||St. Benedict|
- For other meanings, see Cassino (disambiguation)
Cassino is located at the foot of Monte Cairo near the confluence of the Gari and Liri rivers. The city is best known as the site of the Abbey of Montecassino and the Battle of Monte Cassino during World War II, which resulted in tremendous Allied and German casualties as well as the near total destruction of the town itself. Today, Cassino is also home to the University of Cassino and a FIAT automotive plant.
Cassino's origins lie in the Volscan settlement of Casinum, sited atop the hill of Cassino near Monte Cairo, five kilometres to the north. Casinum passed under the control of the Samnites, but the Romans eventually gained control of Casinum, establishing a fortified colony there in 312 BC. At least once during Punic Wars, Hannibal passed near Casinum. Casinum was also the site of a villa presumed to belong to Marcus Terentius Varro.
The modern town which arose on the site of the ancient town of Casinum was called San Germano, but on 28 July 1863 the name was officially reverted to "Cassino".
During the renaissance Cassino lay on the northern frontier of the Kingdom of Naples, which was dominated by Spain. In 1504, during the Second Italian War, France attempted to capture the town in the Battle of Cassino, but failed. The dependence of Cassino on Spain lasted until 1860.
The town was the site of fierce fighting during the Battles of Monte Cassino during World War II, when the old town was almost completely destroyed. The town was rebuilt south-east of its prior location in a relatively short time. Because of this, and despite the recent construction of a large number of new roads and roundabouts, the town has a somewhat disorderly road network. The city is developing commercially as well, following the construction of many shopping centres in the environs, which, however, also increase traffic congestion, particularly on the roads leading into the city.
The terrain is characterized by rolling green hills, vineyards, and rivers . Because of its valley location, it is often foggy in the winter, with chilly rainfall. Summers are generally quite warm and humid. The main sights of the town are:
- Abbey of Monte Cassino
- Natural park of the Varronian Baths, located in the area Varro's villa
- Rocca Janula, a castle overlooking the city, which was one of Abbey's historical strongholds
- Cassino War Cemetery
- German War Cemetery
- Polish Cemetery
- Historiale, a Second World War multimedial museum
- Remains of a Roman theatre, an amphitheatre, a part of the historical Via Latina, and the Mausoleum of Ummidia Quadratilla.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Cassino is twinned with:
- Antonio Labriola (1843–1904), philosopher
- Erasmo Di Spirito (1888-1964), inventor patent holder
- Gino Matrundola (born 1940), former Canadian politician
- Vittorio Miele (1926–1999), painter
- Michael Valente (1895–1976), World War I Medal of Honor recipient
- Arturo Gatti (1972–2009), Canadian professional boxer
- Edoardo Grossi (born 1959), environmentalist
- Angelo Ogbonna (born 1988), professional footballer
- Alessandro Nardone (born 1962), painter
- Von Senger und Etterlin F. (1960) Neither Fear Nor Hope, translated by George Malcolm, Macdonald & Co., London: 368 pp.
- Historiale Museum of Cassino (Italian) (English) (German) (French) (Polish)
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