Castel Gandolfo

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Castel Gandolfo
Comune
Città di Castel Gandolfo
The town of Castel Gandolfo overlooking Lake Albano
The town of Castel Gandolfo overlooking Lake Albano
Coat of arms of Castel Gandolfo
Coat of arms
Castel Gandolfo is located in Italy
Castel Gandolfo
Castel Gandolfo
Location of Castel Gandolfo in Italy
Coordinates: 41°44′48.29″N 12°39′2.11″E / 41.7467472°N 12.6505861°E / 41.7467472; 12.6505861Coordinates: 41°44′48.29″N 12°39′2.11″E / 41.7467472°N 12.6505861°E / 41.7467472; 12.6505861
Country Italy
Region Lazio
Province Rome
Frazioni Mole di Castel Gandolfo, Pavona
Government
 • Mayor Maurizio Colacchi (May 2002‒present)
Elevation 426 m (1,398 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Total 8,834
Demonym Castellani
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 00040
Dialing code 06
Patron saint St. Sebastian (San Sebastiano)
Saint day January 20
Website Official website

Castel Gandolfo (Italian pronunciation: [kasˈtɛl ɡanˈdɔlfo] Latin: Castrum Gandulphi, colloquially Castello in the Castelli Romani dialects) is a town located 15 miles (24 kilometres) southeast of Rome in the Lazio region of Italy.[1] Occupying a height on the Alban Hills overlooking Lake Albano, Castel Gandolfo has a population of approximately 8,834 residents and is considered one of Italy's most scenic towns.[2]

Within the town's boundaries lies the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo which serves as a summer residence and vacation retreat for the pope, the leader of the Catholic Church. Although the palace is located within the borders of Castel Gandolfo, it has extraterritorial status as one of the properties of the Holy See and is not under Italian jurisdiction.

The resort community includes almost the whole coastline of Lake Albano which is surrounded by many summer residences, villas, and cottages built during the 17th century. It houses the Stadio Olimpico that staged the rowing events during the Rome Olympics.

Castel Gandolfo has several places of archaeological interest including the Emissario del Lago Albano and the remains of the Villa of Domitian. The area is included within the boundaries of the Parco Regionale dei Castelli Romani (Regional Park of Castelli Romani). There are also many points of artistic interest, such as the Collegiate Church of St. Thomas of Villanova, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Geography[edit]

Territory[edit]

The boundaries of the town extend obliquely in a north-northeast turn around the hilly area of the Alban Hills and the plains of Agro Romanus. It is included and protected by the Regional Park of Castelli Romani, formed in 1984. Most of the soil is of volcanic origin, with prevalence of materials such as tuff and pozzolana.[3] Its seismic classification is rated a Zone 2 (medium-high seismicity) [4]

Hydrography[edit]

The main water body is Lake Albano, often called Lake Castel Gandolfo. The province of Rome currently manages the lake. Up to 1802, it was the property of the Abbey of Saint Nilus Grottaferrata, the Apostolic Camera (Catholic Church Financial Administration) and then owned by Prince Stanislaus Poniatowski in 1870.[5]

Lake Albano

Topography[edit]

The maximum elevation registered in the territory is 425 metres (1,394 ft) above sea level, at the Collegio di Propaganda Fide adjoining Villa Barberini. On the crown of the hills around the Lake Albano, the elevation is only 400 metres (1,300 ft) above sea level, at the summit of Monte Cucco, bordering Marino.[6]

Towards the Tyrrhenian Sea, the land slopes gently, so from 250 metres (820 ft) from the Casale Santa Cristina, below Castel Savello bordering Albano, goes to 217 metres (712 ft) above sea level at Colle Lilli, to 200 metres (660 ft) above sea level at Pozzo di Valle, to 155 metres (509 ft) Quarto Santa bordering Marino, to 130 metres (430 ft) above sea level of the Laghetto di Turno. The lowest elevation of the territory is 101 metres (331 ft) above sea level at the village of Pavona.[6]

Climate[edit]

In terms of climate, the area falls within the domain of the temperate Mediterranean climate with mild winters, autumn temperatures higher than those of spring and ventilated summers. In the area of Colli Albani, and at Castel Gandolfo, the phenomenon known as stau, which is the reduction of water vapor in the clouds as the ground rises can be observed. Summers are hot and dry, while winter is mild and rainy without, in general, extreme low temperatures and snow. In summer, temperatures can reach 35 °C (95 °F) with peaks of 37 °C (99 °F) in rare cases.[7] Climate classification: Zone D, 1966 GR / G .

Etymology[edit]

The name "Castel Gandolfo" is derived from the Latin Castrum Gandulphi,[8] the name of the castle on this site was presumably owned by the family of Gandolfi, originally from Genoa. Another hypothesis, supported by Pope Pius II in his commentary (1462), is that the name results from Gandulphi Sabinorum, from a certain Gandolfo Savelli.[9]

History[edit]

Ancient (3000 BC‒476 AD)[edit]

Archaeological findings from the 16th century BC have been found in the area of what is now Castel Gandolfo.

Near the site of the modern Castel Gandolfo there stood in pre-Roman age, the famous Alba Longa, capital of the Latin League, a city founded, according to legend, by Ascanius, the son of Aeneas.

Painting by Sylvester Shchedrin (c.1825)

Many historians and scholars have speculated that the site of the city’s acropolis was exactly the site of the modern town of Castel Gandolfo, but since the 19th century, the best hypothesis is that the settlement was on the opposite side of the Lake Albano, between the towns Costa Caselle Marino and locality Palazzolo di Rocca di Papa. Alba Longa was destroyed by the Romans after a war in 658 BC.[10]

In 396 BC, the Romans dug the Emissario (canal) del Lago Albano, in order to fulfill a prophecy of the Oracle of Delphi regarding the Battle of Veii.[10]

Between the Republican age, and the Imperial Age, and the opening of the Appian Way, many patrician summer residences were established starting with the Villa of Clodius at Ercolano, attributed to Publius Clodius Pulcher at which Clodius himself was assassinated in 54 BC. The biggest villa was the Villa of Domitian at Castel Gandolfo, a large complex that partly enclosed Villa Barberini, and embraced a large territory that included Lake Albano and numerous imperially owned buildings. The imperial villa, which fell into disuse after the construction of Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli, was then called Massa Caesariana, and much later eventually became the property of the Holy See, was added to the Patrimonium Appiae (See Patrimonium Sancti Petri).[10][11]

Medieval (476‒1604)[edit]

The territory of Castel Gandolfo, including the Massa Caesariana, became the property of the Counts of Tusculum and in the early 11th century became part of the Abbey of San Nilo Grottaferrata. The Gandolfi family of Lombard origin from Genoa erected the Castrum, which still bears their name. In 1221, the castle became the possession of the Savelli family; In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV granted the ownership of Castel Gandolfo to the community of Velletri, which had been damaged by the Savellis. Pope Sixtus V elevated Castel Gandolfo to the level of Duchy in favor of Bernardino Savelli. However, due to the insolvency of the Savelli Duchy in the payment of huge debts, the property returned to the Apostolic Camera on 30 June 1596. Pope Clement VIII then included the castle in the list of goods of the Holy See that could not be sold.[12]

Early Modern (1604‒1870)[edit]

The Pontifical College of St. Thomas of Villanova in Liberty Piazza

Under the new government of the Apostolic Camera, Pope Paul V started major public works. Works included starting a water pipeline to the castle from the heights of Malafitto and Palazzolo as well as the founding of a Reformed Franciscans monastery in 1619. Pope Urban VIII in 1628 was the first Pope to stay in Castel Gandolfo. The first Papal Bull issued by a pope from Castel Gandolfo was also written by Pope Urban VIII on 25 October 1626.[13]

At the time of Pope Alexander VII (1655–1667), new public works were initiated, including the road that leads up to the Palazzolo paralleling the crags of the Lake Albano, called in ancient Via Alessandrina. Other works include the accommodations of the Pontifical Palace (1660) and the construction of the Collegiate Church of St. Thomas of Villanova (1658–1661) by architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini and the Collegiate Church of Santa Maria Assunta in nearby Ariccia Chigi.[12]

On 24 September 1728, the Castel Gandolfo government was given pro tempore by Pope Benedict XIII in the Bull Aequitatis Maggiordomo of Sacred Palaces. Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758) made frequent visits to Castel Gandolfo, overseeing construction of the Papal Palace main façade bell tower and widened the road that leads to Marino, now State Route 216.[12]

After the French seized Rome in February 1798, they established the Repubblica Albanense, which included the towns Albano Laziale, Frascati, Velletri, and Marino. In this case, Castel Gandolfo was joined to the city of Albano, but on 21 February 1798, Castel Gandolfo rose up against the French along with other inhabitants of the Castelli Romani. During the Napoleonic Wars, some 900 anti-French citizens of neighboring Velletri held out in Castel Gandolfo, resisting the siege by Joachim Murat. On 24 February 1798, the counter-revolutionaries were defeated by the French in the Battle of Frattocchie resulting in the sacking of the Papal Palace.

With the return of Pope Pius VII, Castel Gandolfo was returned to the Maggiordomo dei Sacri Palazzi (Government of the Sacred Palaces) and this lasted until September 1870.[13] According to tradition, the first mailbox in the world can be found in Freedom Square.

Italian unification to the present (1870‒present)[edit]

On 20 September 1870, the Papal States effectively ended with the taking of Porta Pia and the entrance of militiamen in Rome. Pope Pius IX, who had left Castel Gandolfo in May 1869 was the last pope to set foot in the Papal Palace until 1929.[13]

On 11 February 1929 with the publication of the Lateran Pacts, Benito Mussolini granted the nascent State of Vatican City possession of the Papal Palace with adjacent houses for a total of 45 hectares (110 acres). In 1933 the Vatican Observatory was moved from the Vatican because of too much artificial light in Rome and installed at Castel Gandolfo. In January 2008, it was announced that, due to the deterioration of visibility in the Castelli Romani, the center would be moved to the United States of America.[13]

The 22 January 1944, an invasion by British and American forces at Anzio brought the Castelli Romani to the forefront of clashes during the Second World War. On 1 February 1944, Ariccia and Albano Laziale were bombed resulting in the loss of 16 people and the destruction of the local convent of Poor Clares. On 2 February 1944, Marino was hit and suffered several hundred victims. On 10 February 1944, bombs struck the College of Propaganda Fide causing 500 civilian deaths.[14] The Pontifical Villas served some 12,000 refugee children and 40 births during the war.[15]

On 19 September 1994, Italian President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro granted to the town of Castel Gandolfo the title of City.

Points of interest[edit]

Religious architecture[edit]

Cupola of Bernini's Parish Church in Castel Gandolfo, Italy
  • Church of Our Lady of the Lake, wanted personally by Pope Paul VI, was consecrated by the same pope in 1977 on the shores of Lake Albano.
  • Church of Santa Maria Assunta, construction began in 1619 with the consecration of the first stone by Pope Paul V.
  • Church of Santa Maria, modern construction, situated in the populous district of Borgo San Paolo near State Road 7 Via Appia, the Ugo Bazzi theater adjoins the church.
  • Church of San Sebastiano, dedicated to the patron saint of the city and located on State Road 7 Via Appia adjacent to the church cemetery.
  • Church of Santa Maria Della Cona.

Civil architecture[edit]

The facade of the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo
  • Villa Barberini, built by the nephew of Pope Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini), was incorporated in the extraterritorial complex of the Pontifical Villas in 1929: the manor houses the headquarters of the College of Propaganda Fide. As part of its extensive formal gardens is located the existing remains of the complex built by the Roman Emperor Domitian.
  • Villa Torlonia, built in the 16th century by the Roman family of the Giustiniani, then passed into ownership of the Duke of Bracciano Giuseppe Torlonia. The current appearance is due to the restoration of 1829, funded by Duke Carlo Torlonia. The villa has a beautiful landscape on the Agro Romano.
  • The two telescopes of the Vatican Observatory, which were moved from Rome to Castel Gandolfo in the 1930s, were still used until the 1980s. The headquarters of the Vatican Observatory is still located in Castel Gandolfo. However, its dependent research center, the Vatican Observatory Research Group (VORG), is hosted by Steward Observatory at the University of Arizona, Tucson, United States. The telescopes are located in Mt. Graham, Arizona.

Archaeological sites[edit]

  • The site of the papal palace: rebuilt on the ruins of the former castle, partly occupies the foundations of a summer residence of the Emperor Domitian that occupied 14 square kilometres (5.4 sq mi). The residence was designed by the famous architect Rabirius. In the palace's inner courtyard is a Roman bust depicting Polyphemus, the Cyclops from whose cave Ulysses escaped; it was found in the nymphaeum of the Imperial villa's gardens, an artificially constructed grotto of the crater lake's outlet.
A view of Castel Gandolfo from the commune of Albano Laziale
  • Villa of Publius Clodius Pulcher: the remains of a Roman villa located on the Appian Way, 23 kilometres (14 mi) of National Road 7 Via Appia, inside the Villa Santa Caterina, owned by the Pontifical North American College.
  • The Bergantino or bath of Diana nymphaeum: on the western shores of the Lake Albano, 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) after the Doric nymphaeum, this structure, originally annexed to the Domitian Villa at Castel Gandolfo, opens in a circular cave of 17 metres (56 ft) in diameter. There is a bath in the middle of the cave, and the floor was completely covered with mosaics, of which a few fragments remain. Various parts of sculptural groups now kept at the Pontifical Palace in Castel Gandolfo have been found in the nymphaeum.
  • Emissario Lake Albano: an artificial conduit of runoff water 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) long that runs from the West coast of Lake Albano and leads into Castel Gandolfo locations; according to tradition, built in 396 BC to fulfil a prophecy during the conquest of Veii.

Schools[edit]

Castel Gandolfo does not host secondary schools, but within the municipal area lie a private kindergarten run by the Paul VI Pontifical Municipal School, which is primary and secondary level. Finally, there are the Scuola Media Statale "Dante Alighieri" and other religious institutions, which deal with primary education.

Walsh University, which has its main campus in North Canton, Ohio, United States, holds a small campus in Castel Gandolfo. Classes are held in the fall, spring and summer for Walsh students.[18]

Art[edit]

Castel Gandolfo by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1826)

Video games[edit]

Castel Gandolfo has also recently been portrayed in the video games Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood and Assassin's Creed: Revelations, in which the castle is a multiplayer map location.

Notable citizens[edit]

  • Luigi Centusione (Genoa 1686‒Castel Gandolfo 1757), priest and religious authority, 17th Superior General of the Society of Jesus (30 November 1755‒2 October 1757)
  • Rubi Dalma (Milano 1906‒Castel Gandolfo 1994), actress
  • Achille Serra (Roma 1941), lawman, writer, and prefect of Rome from 2003 to 2007 and senator; was an honorary citizen of Castel Gandolfo on 18 January 2007

Events[edit]

  • The feast of the patron saint, St. Sebastian (San Sebastiano) is celebrated on the first weekend of September, though the feast of this saint is marked on the calendar on 20 January; the festival concludes with fireworks over the lake.
  • The village celebrates St. Paul and St. Mary Ausiliatrice the last Sunday of May.
  • The local market takes place on Friday morning.
  • Festival of Peaches, held on the last Sunday of July with organized cultural, entertainment, and sporting events.
  • March for Peace, established by Municipal Statute in the month of January of each year.
  • Premio "Città di Castel Gandolfo", a prize to personalities, bodies, and associations that bring the city prestige and better quality of life or have distinguished themselves in any branch of culture, sport, or human knowledge.
  • Castel Gandolfo Fotografia, photography competition established in 2007.

Geography anthropogenic[edit]

Urban[edit]

The original nucleus of living of the city is the Papal Palace, which was the ancient Castrum Gadulphorum, the stronghold of the family Gandolfi, and the Collegiate Church of St. Thomas, which occupies the area of the ancient parish church of San Michele. This core is now occupied by the Piazza della Libertà, true heart of the historic centre.

The main artery of the historic center is Corso della Repubblica, which continues to Albano Laziale through the Galleria di Sopra. Other routes parallel this road including the Papal Palace and the panoramic Via della Saponara, overlooking Lake Albano.

The new expansion of Castel Gandolfo has started since the beginning of the 20th century, first near the State Road 216 Maremmana III, then with the birth of the Borgo San Paolo a little further downstream, with the work of several cooperatives that have all that urbanized the area along State Road 7 Via Appia.

The urbanization of Pavona at the castle is also recent and follows State Road 207 Nettunense and Provincial Road 101/a Via Colonnelle.

A photo of Piazza della Libertà ("Freedom Square"), the main square in Castel Gandolfo, taken from the door of the Papal Palace

Frazioni[edit]

Recent Population Trends
1982 6122[19]
1985 6365[19]
1990 6629[19]
1995 7220[20]
2000 7979[20]
2001 7930[21]
2002 7925[22]
2003 8108[23]
2004 8539[24]
2005 8592[25]
2006 8643[26]
2007 8619[27]

Pavona was centered around a tavern on the way to Nettuno and the villa of Cardinal Flavio Chigi (1631–1693), nephew of Pope Alexander VII. The place was urbanized during the 20th century, thanks to the opening of the railway Roma-Velletri, and today is divided between the municipalities of Castel Gandolfo, Albano Laziale and Rome. The part castle, known as Pavona Pond due to the above-named for Round Pond, has about 3,000 inhabitants and has as its patron saint St. Eugene III of Toledo.

Mole di Castel Gandolfo, divided in part by the town of Albano Laziale, owe their name to the presence in the place of ancient mass fed by the waters of the Emissary of Lake Albano, which were used until the 19th century by the inhabitants of Castel Gandolfo and Albano Laziale to crush the grain.

Administration[edit]

  • Mayor: Maurizio Colacchio (Lista Civica) from 29 May 2007 (currently serving 2nd term)
  • Telephone: 06/9359181

Economy[edit]

Agriculture[edit]

In all the municipalities in the Alban Hills, agriculture, and particularly wine production, has always been the main economic voice and employer. Notable wines include the Frascati, the Marino, the Velletri and the Colli Lanuvini.

The production of wine, and vanished era of small farmers is maintained by major producers such as Cantina Sociale Gotto d'Oro of Marino and Frascati, which is based in the nearby town of Castelluccia, and the Wine Cellar Social Albano Laziale and Ariccia, based in Fontana di Papa.

Services[edit]

Municipal Statute prohibits installation of equipment and systems, fixed telecommunication and radio devices, particularly equipment for radio, television and mobile telephony, and systems for radio amateurs. This prohibition is exempt for military installations, civil protection and forest protection.[28]

Most services such as hospitals or cinemas are based outside the city in larger centers like Marino, Frascati, Albano Laziale and Genzano di Roma. However, these centres are all reached by car or public transport. In return, the city is commercially very lively, thanks to the continuous influx of Italian tourists and foreigners linked to the presence of the Papal Palace and, at certain times of the Pope.[28]

Tourism[edit]

Thoroughfare in Castel Gandolfo
Aquatic facilities on Lake Albano

Castel Gandolfo is undoubtedly the most popular tourist town of Castelli Romani. In fact, regular groups of Italian and foreign tourists utilize all of the parking built specifically for tourists. On the occasion of Angelus or the hearings on the Pope during his stay, many foreign pilgrims arrive in town, so that the streets and squares in the center are filled.

Sports[edit]

For the 1960 XVII Olympiad held in Rome, the Italian Olympic Committee built the Olympic Stadium and the Federal Center for Canoeing and Kayaking on Lake Albano. At this stage the races were held in this discipline, and even today[when?] the Italian Federation of Canoe / Kayak considers this one of its most important training sites.[citation needed]

Canoeing/kayaking[edit]

Since 1960, Lake Albano has been used for Olympic competitions for the sport.[citation needed] Currently, the Master Line Canoeing Sports Association, active since 2005, scored important achievements promote the sport. Another school of kayaking is held by the ASD Polisportiva Giovanile Salesiana Castel Gandolfo.

Football/soccer[edit]

Castel Gandolfo has had an amateur football/soccer club since 2005 at Oratory Parish St. Thomas of Villanova which organizes friendly matches with other teams in the area.

Golf[edit]

In the 1970s, Castel Gandolfo Country Club opened in Pavona. The complex is located in the crater of the ancient dried up lake and in the ancient villa of Cardinal Flavio Chigi.

Rugby[edit]

The league includes youth ranging from Under 6 to 16, a senior women's team, a men's and a senior men's team. The latter, formed in 2009, playing in the regional championship of the C series (season 2009/2010).

Twin towns/sister cities[edit]

Castel Gandolfo is twinned with the following cities:

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

29 September 1999

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Migliorini, Bruno; Tagliavini, Carlo; Fiorelli, Piero; Bórri, Tommaso Francesco (31 January 2008). "Castel Gandolfo". Dizionario d'ortografia e di pronunzia (DOP) (in Italian). Rai Eri. Retrieved 26 February 2010. 
  2. ^ I borghi più belli d'Italia: Castel Gandolfo
  3. ^ Carta Geologica d'Italia, foglio 150 (Roma), edizione 1967
  4. ^ Anche secondo le categorie sismiche stabilite dal D.M. LL.PP. 1984 e la successiva ordinanza P.C.M. n° 3274 20 marzo 2003 Castel Gandolfo era in zona sismica 2. Sono nella stessa zone sismica tutti i Colli Albani.
  5. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica – Castel-Gandolfo, vol. X p. 155–156, Venezia 1841.
  6. ^ a b Nibby, Antonio (1829). Analisi storico-topografico-antiquaria della carta de' dintorni di Roma – Castel Gandolfo, vol. I.
  7. ^ S. Ciccacci, L. D'Alessandro, L. Davoli, G.B. La Monica, E. Lupia Palmieri, Caratteristiche Climatiche, Geomorfologiche, Sedimentologiche e Idrogeologiche in Vincenzo Carunchio (ed.), Valutazione della Situazione Ambientale del Lago di Nemi, Roma: Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza" e Provincia di Roma, 1987, pp. 17–45.
  8. ^ Spesso viene confusa con il Castrum Gandulphi la Turris Gandulphi o Gandulfa, che secondo lo storico di Ariccia Emanuele Lucidi (Memorie storiche dell'antichissimo municipio ora terra dell'Ariccia, e delle sue colonie di Genzano e Nemi, parte I, cap. IV pp. 41–42) sarebbe il toponimo con cui anticamente era designata l'attuale località di Tor Paluzzi, situata presso la frazione di Cecchina in comune di Ariccia.
  9. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica – Castel-Gandolfo, vol. X p. 156, Venezia 1841.
  10. ^ a b c Edoardo De Fonseca "Castelli Romani".: An account of certain towns and villages in Latium. Alinari Brothers 1904 Princeton
  11. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica – Castel-Gandolfo, vol. X pp. 153–175, Venezia, Tipografia Emiliani, 1841.
  12. ^ a b c Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica – Castel-Gandolfo, vol. X pp. 153–175, Venezia, Tipografia Emiliani, 1841.
  13. ^ a b c d Saverio Petrillo, I Papi a Castel Gandolfo, Velletri, Ed. Tra 8 & 9, 1995
  14. ^ Albano ed Ariccia erano state bombardate il 1º febbraio, Marino il 2 febbraio.
  15. ^ Saverio Petrillo, I Papi a Castel Gandolfo, pp. 31–33.
  16. ^ Santommasodavillanova.it
  17. ^ "Castel Gandolfo – Church of Saint Thomas of Villanova – Tesori delle Consolari Romane". En.tesorintornoroma.it. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  18. ^ Walsh.edu
  19. ^ a b c Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  20. ^ a b Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  21. ^ Dati ISTAT 14 Censimento della popolazione
  22. ^ Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  23. ^ Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  24. ^ Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  25. ^ Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  26. ^ Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  27. ^ Dati ISTAT demo.istat.it
  28. ^ a b Statuto Comunale di Castel Gandolfo, articolo 17 Statuto del Comune di Castel Gandolfo