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A castellum is a small Roman detached fort or fortlet used as a watch tower or signal station. The Latin word castellum is a diminutive of castra ("military camp"), which in turn is the plural of castrum ("watchpost"); it is the source of the English word "castle".

The term castellum was also used to refer to a settling or storage reservoir along the length of an aqueduct.

Reconstructed Limes watch tower, between Bad Nauheim and Pfaffenwiesbach, Germany.