Castilleja

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Castilleja
Red paintbrush Castilleja miniata close.jpg
Castilleja miniata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Orobanchaceae
Genus: Castilleja
Mutis ex L.f.
Species

About 200, see text

Synonyms

Euchroma Nutt.
Gentrya Breedlove & Heckard[1]

Castilleja, commonly known as Indian paintbrush or prairie-fire, is a genus of about 200 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants native to the west of the Americas from Alaska south to the Andes, northern Asia, and one species as far west as the Kola Peninsula in Siberia. These plants are classified in the broomrape family, Orobanchaceae (following major rearrangements of the order Lamiales starting around 2001; sources which do not follow these reclassifications may place them in the Scrophulariaceae). They are hemiparasitic on the roots of grasses and forbs. The generic name honours Spanish botanist Domingo Castillejo.[2]

Ecology[edit]

Castilleja species are eaten by the larvae of some lepidopteran species, including Schinia cupes (which has been recorded on C. exserta) and Schinia pulchripennis (which feeds exclusively on C. exserta), and checkerspot butterflies, such as Euphydryas species.

Uses[edit]

The flowers of Indian paintbrush are edible, and were consumed in moderation by various Native American tribes as a condiment with other fresh greens. These plants have a tendency to absorb and concentrate selenium in their tissues from the soils in which they grow, and can be potentially very toxic if the roots or green parts of the plant are consumed. Highly alkaline soils increase the selenium levels in the plants. Indian paintbrush has similar health benefits to consuming garlic if only the flowers are eaten in small amounts and in moderation.[3]

The Ojibwe used a hairwash made from Indian paintbrush to make their hair glossy and full bodied, and as a treatment for rheumatism. The high selenium content of this plant has been cited as the reason for its effectiveness for these purposes. Nevada Indian tribes used the plant to treat sexually transmitted diseases and to enhance the immune system.

Symbolism[edit]

Castilleja linariifolia is the state flower of Wyoming.[4]

Selected species[edit]

Castillejaaffinis.jpg Castilleja affinis Coast Indian paintbrush
Castillejaambigua.jpg Castilleja ambigua Paintbrush owl's clover
Castilleja angustifolia 1.jpg Castilleja angustifolia Northwestern Indian paintbrush
Castilleja annua Annual Indian paintbrush
IndianPaintbrush1.jpg Castilleja applegatei Applegate's Indian paintbrush, wavyleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja aquariensis Aquarius Plateau Indian paintbrush
Castillejaarachnoidea.jpg Castilleja arachnoidea Cobwebby Indian paintbrush
Castilleja arvensis
Castilleja attenuata.jpg Castilleja attenuata Narrowleaf owl's clover
Castilleja brevistyla.jpg Castilleja brevistyla
Castilleja campestris
Castilleja caudata Port Clarence Indian paintbrush
Castilleja cervina Deer Indian paintbrush
Castilleja christii TPrendusi lg.jpg Castilleja christii Christ's Indian paintbrush
Desert paintbrush flower.jpg Castilleja chromosa Desert Indian paintbrush, desert paintbrush
Castillejacinerea.jpg Castilleja cinerea Ashgray Indian paintbrush
Castilleja coccinea.jpg Castilleja coccinea Scarlet Indian paintbrush, Scarlet painted-cup
Castilleja cusickii Cusick's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja densiflora.jpg Castilleja densiflora
Castilleja ecuadorensis
Castilleja elegans Elegant Indian paintbrush
Castilleja elmeri 7878.JPG Castilleja elmeri Elmer's Indian paintbrush
Purpleowlsclover.jpg Castilleja exserta Purple owl's clover, purple Indian paintbrush, exserted Indian paintbrush, escobita, formerly in Orthocarpus
Castillejafoliolosa.jpg Castilleja foliolosa Texas Indian paintbrush[5]
Castilleja fruticosa
Castilleja fulva Elko Indian paintbrush
Castilleja grisea.jpg Castilleja grisea
Castilleja guadalupensis (extinct)
Castilleja hispida 5187.JPG Castilleja hispida Harsh Indian paintbrush
Castilleja hyetophila Coastal red Indian paintbrush
Castilleja hyperborea Northern Indian paintbrush
Entire Leaf Indian Paintbrush.jpg Castilleja indivisa Entireleaf Indian paintbrush, Texas paintbrush
Castilleja integra Wholeleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja kaibabensis Kaibab Indian paintbrush
Castilleja kerryana
Castilleja lacera
Castilleja lanata hololeuca 2.jpg Castilleja lanata Sierra woolly Indian paintbrush
Castilleja lasiorhyncha
Castilleja latifolia
Castillejalemmonii.jpg Castilleja lemmonii Lemmon's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja levisecta.jpg Castilleja levisecta Golden paintbrush
Narrow-leaved Indian Paintbrush (NGM XXXI p515).jpg Castilleja linariifolia Narrowleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja lineariiloba
Castilleja lutescens Stiff yellow Indian paintbrush
Castilleja mendocinensis
Castilleja miniata 0637.JPG Castilleja miniata Greater red Indian paintbrush
Castilleja minor ssp minor 1.jpg Castilleja minor Smallflower Indian paintbrush, lesser Indian paintbrush
Castillejamollis.JPG Castilleja mollis Softleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja mutis
Castilleja nana
Castilleja neglecta Tiburon Indian paintbrush
Castilleja nubigena
Castilleja occidentalis Western Indian paintbrush
Castilleja pallescens Pallid Indian paintbrush
Castilleja pallida v lapponica.jpg Castilleja pallida var. lapponica Boreal Indian paintbrush
Castilleja parviflora 1283.JPG Castilleja parviflora Small-flowered Indian paintbrush
Castilleja parvula
Castilleja pilosa
Castilleja praeterita
Castilleja pruinosa
Castilleja pumila.jpg Castilleja pumila Lancetilla del Páramo
Castilleja raupii Raup's Indian paintbrush, Raup's painted-cup
Castillejarhexifolia.jpg Castilleja rhexiifolia Rhexia-leaf Indian paintbrush, splitleaf Indian paintbrush
Castilleja rubicundula Cream sacs
Castilleja rupicola Cliff Indian paintbrush
Castilleja salsuginosa Monte Neva Indian paintbrush
Castilleja schizotricha
Castilleja septentrionalis Labrador Indian paintbrush, northern paintbrush
Castilleja sessiliflora.jpg Castilleja sessiliflora Downy Indian paintbrush, downy paintbrush
Castilleja socorrensis
Castilleja subinclusa
Castilleja suksdorfii 5912.JPG Castilleja suksdorfii Suksdorf's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja sulphurea habitus.jpg Castilleja sulphurea Sulphur Indian paintbrush
Castilleja tenuis Hairy owl's clover
Castilleja thompsonii 9759.JPG Castilleja thompsonii Thompson's Indian paintbrush
Castilleja wightii flower.jpg Castilleja wightii Wight's paintbrush
Castilleja unalaschensis 4351.png Castilleja unalaschcensis Alaska Indian paintbrush

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Castilleja Mutis ex L. f.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-03-30. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  2. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. I: A-C. CRC Press. p. 455. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2. 
  3. ^ Tilford, Gregory L. (1997). Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Mountain Press Publishing. pp. 82–83. ISBN 978-0-87842-359-0. 
  4. ^ Wyoming Statute 8-3-104 (Title 8)
  5. ^ "PLANTS Profile for Castilleja foliolosa (Texas Indian paintbrush)". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 

External links[edit]