Built on the top of a small hill with sheer rock cliffs (the plateau de Castillou), it was "fortified by both nature and artifice". According to the 12th-century chronicler Robert of Torigny, Henry II of England besieged Castillion-sur-Agen in 1161. After just one week the garrison capitulated. Roger of Howden recorded that nearly 15 years later, in 1175, the site was besieged by Prince Richard (later King Richard I of England), Henry II's son. On this occasion the siege lasted two months; it was part of a campaign of repressing rebellious barons after the Revolt of 1173–1174. It was Richard's first successful siege.
- Flori, Jean (1999), Richard the Lionheart: Knight and King, translated by Jean Birrell, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2047-0
- Gillingham, John (2002) , Richard I, London: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09404-3
- Warren, Wilfred Lewis (1978), Henry II, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0-520-03494-5
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