|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
Baile Chaisleáin an Róistigh
|Time zone||WET (UTC+0)|
|• Summer (DST)||IST (WEST) (UTC-1)|
Castletownroche (Irish: Baile Chaisleán an Róistigh) is a village on the N72 National secondary road in County Cork, Ireland. In ancient times, it was known in Irish as Dún Chruadha, meaning Cruadha's Fort. Castletownroche is located on the River Awbeg in the Blackwater Valley about eight miles (13 km) from Mallow.
In 1999, the annual National Ploughing Championship was held here.
de la Roch
The first historical record about Castletownroche is from the late 13th century when the Anglo-Norman family of de la Roche established a fortress here.  They were descendants of Richard FitzGodebert (Richard, son of Godebert) who came with Strongbow to Ireland. Their family had a castle in Pembrokeshire that was built upon an outcrop of stone and they became known as FitzGodebert de la Roch (FitzGodebert of the Rock). From that, their Hiberno-Norman descendants were known as "de la Roch" and finally, Roche. It is from this element, and the castle they built here in County Cork, that Castletownroche gets its name.
Like many of the Anglo-Norman families that arrived as invaders, the Roches eventually became loyal to interests different from those of Britain, allied with the Gaelic aristocracy, and came to be regarded as rebels. After centuries of sporadic conflict, the Roches were routed from their castle. In 1666 Lieutenant Colonel John Widenham, who had lived in County Clare, got the castle as reward. Castletownroche was renamed Castle Widenham.
In 1666 Lieutenant Colonel John Widenham, who had lived in County Clare, and whose conduct in the defence of Cork had been doubtful to say the least, got the castle as reward. The extraordinary thing is that the patent was dated 1666 after the restoration and was in respect of 'arrears due'. He died in 1679 and the estate passed to his brother Thomas.
Castletownroche was renamed Castle Widenham. The Widenhams rebuilt the castle in its present form, utilising the old keep as a principal part. In time it passed to the Widenham-Creaghs, and then by marriage to H Mitchell Smyth, one of the Smyths of Ballinatray.
The direct line of Widenham’s still live in Éire, with the patriarchs Richard Charles Widenham Smyth and his wife Brigid Sidney Lowry Smyth living in Leap, Co. Cork, about fifty miles from Castletownroche.
Castle Widenham (modern era)
The Widenhams rebuilt the Roche's medieval castle in its present form, utilizing the old keep as a principal part. In time it passed to the Widenham-Creaghs, and then by marriage to H. Mitchell Smyth, one of the Smyths of Ballinatray. The Nordstrom family of Germany, present owners of what is now what they call Blackwater Castle and the 50-acre (200,000 m2) estate surrounding it are unrelated to this line. The property has recently been restored to accommodate commercial guests. The owner hopes to make the castle financially self-sustainable so it can be open to the public without need for state funding. Recently the castle has been home to TAPSS, a philosophy and sociology summer-school program, which fulfills the owner's hope of the castle becoming a "think tank" which could be part of a "revolution in reason".
The Nazi spy
Shortly before Christmas 1942, as World War II was raging on the continent, a tall, well-built man in his early thirties appeared in Castletownroche, gave his name as Oskar Metzke, and said that he was a Czech who was discharged from the British Army as being medically unfit. He produced identification, but when searched by the Garda was found to possess a map with aerial views of the local countryside, a compass, a combined torch and fountain pen and most intriguingly, a Luger pistol.
While the Garda were deciding what to do with him, he was left in the care of the Barrack Orderly. William Mannix, the son of that officer, wrote the following account:
I was a very young boy at the time, but the story was often repeated to me by my father. Oskar Metzke was sitting quietly by the fireplace, when he asked Garda Mannix if he could eat some of his bread and cheese. On receiving permission, he walked over to the table where it lay. He started to eat his frugal meal, then turned his back on the Garda. Seconds later Oskar Metzke was in convulsions, it was obvious that he had swallowed something lethal and my father, Garda Mannix, did his utmost to retrieve it from his mouth, but already the German was unconscious. Within a matter of minutes Metzke was dead...the subsequent inquest Coroner Nagle of Buttevant revealed that Oskar Metzke had taken a deadly poison, cyanide of potassium.
Some days later, the funeral of Oskar Metzke took place to the old churchyard of St Mary's, situated on a hill overlooking the River Awbeg. Many people from the village attended the simple ceremony. Some years later his body was exhumed and subsequently buried in a German cemetery at Glencree in County Wicklow. It has since been confirmed that the Nazis had several secret plans involving Ireland, such as Operation Osprey. However, the exact identity and motives of the man calling himself Oskar Metzke, and whether he was a simple soldier or an SS spy, are likely to remain unknown.
Places of interest
Attractions in Castletownroche include Blackwater Castle, Anne's Grove Gardens, and the ruins of Bridgetown Abbey, a 13th-century Augustinian monastery of the priors of St. Victor[disambiguation needed].
Knockanare Well It is situated on the left bank of the River Awbeg, about a half-mile east of Buttevant and southeast of the Ballyhoura Mountains. A Sheela na Gig once stood next to this holy well, indicative of its importance as a mystical site for many centuries. The water from this well remains crystal-clear and sweet.
Annes Grove Gardens
No longer open to the public, this romantic, Robinsonian-style garden was laid out in the early twentieth century and incorporates elements of an earlier, 18th century ornamented glen. Many of the rare rhododendrons within its extensive woodland gardens were collected on expedition by Frank Kingdon-Ward. Magnolias, hoherias and eucryphias grow to unusual size on sheltered cliffs overlooking the river. Behind the 18th century house, paths wind past limestone cliffs and offer glimpses of the river, lily ponds and meadow below. Riverside walks are bordered by giant foliage plants and naturalised day lilies, astilbes and primulas.
Castletownroche railway station opened on 1 May 1861, but finally closed on 27 March 1967. This railway station is actually much closer to Killavullen than Castletownroche and served both villages.
People of interest
- Jonjo O'Neill (former race horse jockey, turned horse trainer) is a native of Castletownroache where his family ran a small grocery store.
- Thomas P. Keenan, composer of such songs as "The Boys From The County Armagh", is buried in this village. According to Fáilte Ireland, his song "The Old Rustic Bridge by the Mill" takes its name from a structure in Castletownroche near a mill currently under reconstruction.
- The first wife of Seán Mac Stíofáin was from Castletownroche.
- Thomas Hunter, an MP of the First and Second Dails, was born in Castletownroche.
- John Looney, (1881-1957) Master Carpenter who built the main staircase in the 1st Class section of the Titanic lived In Castletownroche from about 1910 to 1951. He also helped his wife run a green grocery store in Bridge Street. A plaque on the wall shows the location of that shop. He was born in St James Square, Cork city in 1881. He died in 1957 in Erdington, Birmingham after coming to live with his son after his wife died.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Castletownroche station" (PDF). Railscot - Irish Railways. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
- [dead link]
- "Biography – UNIACKE, RICHARD JOHN (1753-1830) – Volume VI (1821-1835) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography". Biographi.ca. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Where To Go in Ireland | Cities in Ireland | Visit Ireland | Discover Ireland". Corkkerry.ie. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- "Oskar Metzke, The Spy who should not have died". Blackwater.ie. Retrieved 2014-02-27.
- Bruce C. Wright. "The Old Rustic Bridge (By The Mill)". Cityofoaks.home.netcom.com. Retrieved 2014-02-27.