Catalan independence

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Supporters of Catalan independence in 2012
"L'Estelada Vermella" (The Red Starred Flag), the red version of the pro-independence flag.
"L'Estelada Blava" (The Blue Starred Flag), the blue version of the pro-independence flag.

The Catalan independence movement or the Catalan separatist movement (Catalan: independentisme català)[a] is a political movement, derived from Catalan nationalism, which supports the independence of Catalonia or the Catalan countries from Spain and France. As a coastal territory of the Crown of Aragon, Catalonia has shared the monarch with the rest of Spain since the latter part of the 15th century, when Spain was born from the union[1] of the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile. However, the Crown of Aragon lost distinctive rules, institutions and laws at the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1714, when Philip V of Spain issued the Nueva Planta decrees, a centralized Spanish rule. Support for Catalan independence is based on the thesis from the 19th century that Catalonia is a nation, derived from contemporary political and cultural ideology based on the history of Catalonia, the Catalan language and Catalan traditions.[2][3]

The beginnings of separatism can be traced back to the early 20th century, when some organisations and political parties started demanding full independence of Catalonia from Spain. In 1931 a coalition of Catalan nationalist parties was the most voted force in Catalonia in the Spanish municipal elections that triggered the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. In 1932 Catalonia was granted a statute of autonomy and home rule institutions, which lasted until the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Franco dictatorship, which based its public ideology on Spanish Nationalism and Catholicism, abolished home rule and discouraged regional cultures. Following Franco's death in 1975 and the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalan autonomy was restored in 1977. Catalan Nationalists have governed the region most of the time since then, and those calling for full independence have had their parliamentary group since 1980. More recently, there has been a substantial increase in the number of people who openly consider themselves independentists, and on September 11, 2012 and September 11 2013 there were massive demonstrations with more than 1 million participants calling for independence for Catalonia through a peaceful, democratic process[4] and non-binding and unofficial referendums in municipalities. The ruling coalition, Convergència i Unió on giving up its longstanding strategy for more autonomy shortly after the 2012 demonstration (organized by a civil society movement), openly came out in favour of independence, but lost some MPs in the parliament of Catalonia to the more radical historical independence party, for various reasons,[5] after the 2012 election, a clear majority of the parliament in Catalonia is committed to a referendum on independence, and 55% of it is composed of openly separatist parties. The Estelada flag, in its blue and red versions, has become its main symbol.

History[edit]

On the left, Colonel Francesc Macià, leader of ERC and President of Catalonia between 1931 and 1933

Some Catalan authors, such as Xavier Bru de Sala "Canviar Espanya", argue that the first serious struggle for Catalan independence may date back as far as 1640, with the unsuccessful first Catalan Republic after the Reaper's War. In the subsequent War of the Spanish Succession Catalans hoped to salvage their institutions of home rule, in the face of a centralizing Bourbon pretender, rather than outright independence. In the early 20th century Enric Prat de la Riba forged an alliance of county councils, the Mancomunitat de Catalunya, to modernize Catalonia by building State structures. In the modern sense, the first political parties to define themselves as pro-independence[6] were created between the 1920s and the 1930s in Spanish Catalonia. The main separatist party created at this time was Estat Català[6] and its branch called Bandera Negra. Estat Català evolved into the new party Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, although some of its members refused it and remained faithful to the original Estat Català, now a minor party. In the First World War Catalan Volunteers bore the pro-independence flag when they fought on the Allies' side.[7] The same ensign headed a text addressed to president Wilson late in 1918, calling on him to review the Treaty of Utrecht, which had allowed Spain to abolish Catalonia's home rule inside a centralized unitary State.[8] In 1928 exiled Catalans in Cuba (a coup d'état had occurred in Spain, in 1923) drafted a Provisional Constitution of the Catalan Republic.[9]

After the Spanish Civil War, members of Estat Català and Nosaltres Sols founded the Front Nacional de Catalunya which became the main pro-independence party. However, one might argue that the modern Catalan pro-independence movement was actually born in the 1960s with the Partit Socialista d'Alliberament Nacional (PSAN). Since then, the pro-independence movement has assumed a mostly left-wing political trend and has often shifted its focus from "independence for Catalonia" to "independence for the 'Catalan Countries'".

By the 1970s, the PSAN split into several factions, and many other groups appeared, including the armed organization Terra Lliure. In the 1980s, the Moviment de Defensa de la Terra (MDT) became the major pro-independence political group but this too became divided by the end of the decade. During the 1990s, existing political parties such as Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya and the linguistic-national initiative Crida a la Solidaritat progressively evolved towards a more pro-independence stance.

Recent events[edit]

2010 Catalan autonomy protest[edit]

The 2010 protest in the intersection of Passeig de Gràcia and Aragó Avenues, in Barcelona

The 2010 Catalan autonomy protest was a demonstration held in central Barcelona on 10 July 2010 against the limits set to the autonomy of Catalonia within Spain, and particularly against a then recent decision of the Spanish Constitutional Court to annul or reinterpret several articles of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, approved in referendum by 73.9% of the voters.[10] The judgement of 28 June 2010 declared as without interpretative legal effect references to "Catalonia as a nation" and "the national reality of Catalonia". It also declared fourteen articles entirely or partly unconstitutional. Twenty-two further articles and four additional provisions were interpreted restrictively, always limiting Catalan self-government. The articles mentioned refer to:[11]

  • Catalonia as a nation, its historic rights and symbols
  • Protection of the Catalan language
  • Decentralisation of justice in Catalonia
  • Local organisation in Catalonia
  • The Catalan model of banks
  • The organisation of political consultations or referendums
  • Competencies in immigration
  • The financing of Catalonia

The number of people taking part in the demonstration was estimated at between 1.1 million (according to the local police) and 1.5 million (according to the organisers)[12][13] Madrid-based newspaper El País estimated the number of demonstrators at 425,000.[14]

The mobilisation was described as "unprecedented" by the mayor of Barcelona.[15] Barcelona daily El Periódico de Catalunya described it as "without a doubt one of the biggest protest marches that have ever occurred in Catalonia, and possibly the biggest".[12] The demonstration was led by a banner with the Catalan slogan Som una nació. Nosaltres decidim. (in English, "We are a nation. We decide.").[16]

Changes in government[edit]

Nationalist leaders believe that the demonstration on 10 July was a turning point in relations between Catalonia and Spain.[17] An election to the Catalan Government was held on 28 November 2010 with Artur Mas (Convergència i Unió or CiU) emerging as president.

A general election was held in Spain the following year in which the People's Party won an absolute majority with 187 of the 350 seats in the chamber. Party leader Mariano Rajoy was sworn in as president of the Spanish Tenth Legislature shortly afterwards.

Public response[edit]

Municipalities supporting the Association of Municipalities for Independence

Catalonia saw several local referenda for independence take place in hundreds of villages between 13 September 2009 and April 2011, with an overwhelming number of "yes" votes being cast. However, turnout was low at 27.41%.

Several citizens' initiatives arose in 2011 and 2012 in response to perceived slights by Spain, such as the No vull pagar ("I don't want to pay") campaign, which protested against toll fees that were seen as abusive compared with those in other parts of Spain. The protest began in early April 2012 in Catalonia and had extended in a minor degree to Valencia and the Balearic Islands by the following month.[18][19]

At an institutional level, several municipalities of Catalonia came together to create the Association of Municipalities for Independence, an organisation officially established on 14 December 2011 in Vic which brings local organisations together to further the national rights of Catalonia and promote its right to self-determination.[20] Also, during 2012, 197 Catalan towns declared themselves Free Catalan Territory stating that "the Spanish legislation and regulations have effect only in Spain, so this town will wait for new legislation and regulation from the Catalan Government and the Parliament of Catalonia".

2012 Catalan independence demonstration and snap elections[edit]

The estelada (Catalan pro-independence flag) in the 2012 Catalan independence demonstration
The President of the Generalitat of Catalonia Artur Mas and Oriol Junqueras, signing the "Agreement for Freedom" on 19 December 2012.

The 2012 Catalan independence demonstration, organized by the Catalan National Assembly, argued that Catalonia should become an independent state within the European Union, under the slogan "Catalonia, new state in Europe".[21]

The number of participants was estimated at about 1.5 million according to Barcelona's Municipal Police and Catalonia's Department of the Interior,[22] about 2 million according to the organizers, and about 600,000 according to the delegation of the Spanish government in Catalonia.[23][24][25] La Directa magazine estimated at minimum 1,056,000 by counting occupied area and density.[26] An article by statistician Llorenç Badiella published in newspaper La Vanguardia estimated at about 600,000.[27]

The city centre was crowded for hours and it was feared that the massive influx of people might bring the mobile phone network to a standstill.[28][29] Many newspapers and other news agencies described it as a "historic" demonstration and considered it to be the biggest protest march ever held in Catalonia since the restoration of democracy in Spain,[30][31][32][33][34][35] surpassing other major demonstrations, including the 2010 Catalan autonomy protest.[10][36]

The event has marked the Catalan political agenda and the debate about the right to hold a referendum on the independence of Catalonia has been re-opened,[37][38][39][40][41] as well as the debate about the feasibility of an independent Catalan state and its integration into the European Union. As a consequence, the Catalan independence referendum is planned to take place during the tenth legislature of the Parliament of Catalonia.[42] According to a resolution adopted by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 September 2012:

Polls on support of Catalan independence
Institution/media Date Yes (%) No (%)
Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas 1996[44] 33.6 53.5
Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials 2011[45] 41.4 22.9
El Periódico de Catalunya Jan 2012[46][47] 53.6 32.0
Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió March 2012[48] 44.6 24.7
Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió June 2012[49] 51.1 21.1
Diari Ara Jul 2012[50] 50.4 23.8
Telecinco (GESOP) Sep 2012[51] 50.9 18.6
Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió Feb 2013[52] 54.7 20.7
El Periódico de Catalunya May 2013[53] 57.8 36
Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió June 2013[54] 55.6 23.4
Cadena SER Sep 2013[55] 52.3 24.1
Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió Sep 2013[56] 54.7 22.1

The resolution was adopted after the general policy debate. It received 84 favourable votes, 21 against and 25 abstentions.[57] The President of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Artur Mas, declared in a speech to Parliament that it was time for the people of Catalonia to exercise the right of self-determination.[58] On 25 September 2012, the president of the Generalitat of Catalonia Artur Mas announced snap elections for the Parliament of Catalonia to be held on 25 November and argued, referring to the demonstration, that "the street vocal must be moved to the polls".[37] Parties defending Catalonia’s independence from Spain obtained more than half the Catalan Parliament seats and significantly increased their votes, although Mas' party lost seats.[37] The "Agreement for Freedom" (2012–2016 governability agreement) was negotiated between Artur Mas (CiU) and Oriol Junqueras (ERC), the Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament of Catalonia.

Results of the votes for the Sovereignty Declaration at the Catalan Parliament, on 23 January 2013

On 23 January 2013, the Parliament of Catalonia adopted by 85 favourable votes, 41 against, and 2 abstentions the Declaration of Sovereignty and of the Right to Decide of the Catalan People.[21] It states that "The people of Catalonia have – by reason of democratic legitimacy – the character of a sovereign political and legal entity." It is based on the following principles: sovereignty, democratic legitimacy, transparency, dialogue, social cohesion, Europeanism, legality, role of the Catalan Parliament and participation.[59][60]

The political parties Convergence and Union (CiU) (50 yes), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) (21 yes) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens-United and Alternative Left (ICV-EUiA) (13 yes) fully supported the statement of sovereignty. On the other hand, the People's Party of Catalonia (PPC) (19 no) and Citizens – Party of the Citizenry (C's) (9 no) fully opposed the proposal. 15 members of the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC-PSOE) voted against; 5 did not vote despite being present in the Chamber, thus disobeying the orders of the party whips to vote against the proposal. Finally, the Popular Unity Candidature (CUP) gave a "critical yes", with 1 vote in favour and 2 abstentions.[60]

On 8 May 2013 this declaration was provisionally suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain.[21] On 25 March 2014, the same court declared this declaration void and not constitutional.[61][62] The Spanish Government totally opposes Catalonia’s independence, its self-determination, and the organisation of a vote.[37]

Catalan self-determination referendum[edit]

On 12 December 2013, the Government of Catalonia announced a referendum on independence had been set for 9 November 2014. It will contain a question with two sections: "Do you want Catalonia to become a State?" and "In case of an affirmative response, do you want this State to be independent?".[63][64] The Spanish Government stated shortly thereafter its intention to block the referendum, stating "Such a poll will not be held."[65][66] The government maintained as of September 2014 that the referendum was illegal. While a yes vote would not mean Catalonia would secede, according to Catalan politician Artur Mas i Gavarró it would give independence leaders a political mandate to negotiate with the government regarding independence.[67]

Catalan Way[edit]

Main article: Catalan Way
Supporters of Catalan Way in 2013

The Catalan Way (Catalan: Via Catalana), also known as the Catalan Way towards Independence (Catalan: Via Catalana cap a la Independència), was a 480-kilometre (300 mi) human chain in support of Catalan independence from Spain. It was organized by the Assemblea Nacional Catalana (ANC), and took place in Catalonia on 11 September 2013, which is the National Day of Catalonia.[37][42] Catalonia's Department of the Interior estimated the number of participants at about 1.6 million.[68] The protest was supported by 14 nongovernmental groups[37] The human chain followed the ancient Via Augusta, from Le Perthus (France, Vallespir) up to Alcanar (Spain, Montsià). According to Carme Forcadell, president of the ANC, it was "a symbol of the unity of Catalan people to achieve national sovereignty".[69]

Plans for the Catalan Way were presented for the first time on 19 June 2013, at the Museu d'Història de Catalunya; the inspiration for these was the 1989 Baltic Way. The presentation included Henn Karits and Ülo Laanoja, two members of the organization which staged the Baltic Way.[70] Three weeks before the event, more than 350,000 people had registered to participate.[21][71] In total, the organizers mobilized about 1,500 buses and 30,000 volunteers to help organize the event.[37][72]

Catalan Way 2014[edit]

Main article: Catalan Way 2014

On 11 September of 2014 the "Catalan Way 2014" or "V" street protest attracted 900,000 people, according to an independent statistical analysis by the Autonomous University of Barcelona. The "V" refers to the fact the demonstration occupied the two main streets in Barcelona (Diagonal and Gran Via) drawing a 11 km. "V" shaped catalan flag. It also stands for "vote".[67]

Support in Catalan politics[edit]

Oriol Junqueras, current leader of ERC

The parties explicitly campaigning for independence currently represented in the Catalan Parliament are the Republican Left of Catalonia (Esquerra) and the Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP). They won 13.4% of the vote after the Catalan elections of 2012.[73] However, Convergence and Union (CiU) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens-United and Alternative Left (ICV-EUiA) both include pro-independence factions, and these four parties—comprising 57.9% of the vote—are all in favor of an independence referendum in 2014.

Esquerra also has one MEP and 3 members of the Spanish Parliament.

Many members and voters of CiU, the governing nationalist federation[74] with the most seats at the Catalan parliament (30.7% of the vote), also give support to independence. Although independence is not formally proposed in their election manifesto, their objective is the maximum autonomy of Catalonia inside Spain,[75] and have abstained numerous times in independence votes in the Parliament of Catalonia.[76][77] The pro-independence tendency inside the party has presumably been growing since its leader proposed in 2007 the so-called Casa Gran del Catalanisme project which, among other causes, includes the defense of self-determination for Catalonia. Finally, the left wing ICV-EUiA party (9.9% of the vote in the 2012 election) claims to give full support to the right of self-determination and has several members explicitly supporting Catalan independence.

Though many parties reject the idea of independence, the only political parties that reject Catalan self-determination rights are the People's Party of Catalonia[78] and Ciutadans[79] which had 12.99%, 7.58% of the vote respectively in the 2012 Catalan parliamentary election. However, there is a significant fraction within the Socialists' Party supporting the sovereignty of Catalonia within a federalised Spain.[80]

Other smaller pro-independence parties or coalitions, without present representation in any parliament, are Catalan Solidarity for Independence, Estat Català, Endavant, PSAN, MDT and Reagrupament. There are also youth organizations such as Young Republican Left of Catalonia, Arran, and the student unions SEPC and FNEC.

In Spain, some[who?] considered this trend to have been stimulated as a reaction especially against the policy of the Spanish government's governing People's Party, and its opposition to certain legislative reforms such as the reformed Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia of 2006.[citation needed]

Studies on public opinion[edit]

The position of Catalans regarding the independence of either Catalonia or of the Catalan Countries must be studied taking into account an important fact, namely, that a huge number of Catalan citizens are of immigrant or non-Catalan Spanish origin and thus may not feel a connection to the Catalan language or culture. It has been calculated that the total population of Catalonia, with no migration, would have grown from 2 million people in 1900 to just 2.4 million in 1980,[81] merely 39% of the actual population of 6.1 million at that date. This population has continued growing and was over 7.4 million in 2009.

Polls[edit]

Several institutions have performed polls which also include questions on the independence issue in Catalonia. The following are the most prominent ones: (1) Center for Opinion Studies (Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió CEO), (2) Social Research Centre (Centro de Investigaciones Sociales CIS) which belongs to the Spanish government and (3) Social and Political Sciencies Institute of Barcelona (Institut de Ciències Polítiques i Socials ICPS) belonging to the Autonomous University of Barcelona and Diputation of Barcelona. The CEO was depending on the Economy Department of the Generalitat of Catalonia until early 2011. Since then it has been placed under direct control of the Presidency of the Generalitat. It is now headed by Jordi Argelaguet i Argemí.

  • Also, since the second quarter of 2011, CEO has asked about support for independence:
Date In favor (%) Against (%) Other (%) Abstain (%) Do not know (%) Do not reply (%)
2011 2nd series[82] 42.9 28.2 0.5 23.3 4.4 0.8
2011 3rd series[83] 45.4 24.7 0.6 23.8 4.6 1.0
2012 1st series[84] 44.6 24.7 1.0 24.2 4.6 0.9
2012 2nd series[85] 51.1 21.1 1.0 21.1 4.7 1.1
2012 3rd series[86] 57.0 20.5 0.6 14.3 6.2 1.5
2013 1st series[87] 54.7 20.7 1.1 17.0 5.4 1.0
2013 2nd series[88] 55.6 23.4 0.6 15.3 3.8 1.3
From 2014 1st series CEO starts to ask in 9N independence referendum format
Date Yes+Yes (%) No (%) Yes+No (%) Abstain (%) Other (%) DNK/DNR (%)
2014 1st series[89] 47.1 19.3 8.6 11.1 2.7 11.2
2014 2nd series[90] 49.4 19.7 12.6 6.9 6.2 3.3
  • CEO performs regular polls studying political opinion of Catalan citizens. The following table contains the answers to the question "Which kind of political entity should Catalonia be with respect to Spain?":[91]
Date Independent state (%) Federal state (%) Autonomous community (%) Region (%) Do not know (%) Do not reply (%)
June 2005 13.6 31.3 40.8 7.0 6.2 1.1
November 2005 12.9 35.8 37.6 5.6 6.9 1.2
March 2006 13.9 33.4 38.2 8.1 5.1 1.2
July 2006 14.9 34.1 37.3 6.9 6.1 0.7
October 2006 14.0 32.9 38.9 8.3 5.1 0.8
November 2006 15.9 32.8 40.0 6.8 3.7 0.8
March 2007 14.5 35.3 37.0 6.1 4.9 2.2
July 2007 16.9 34.0 37.3 5.5 5.4 1.0
October 2007 18.5 34.2 35.0 4.7 6.0 1.5
December 2007 17.3 33.8 37.8 5.1 5.0 1.0
January 2008 19.4 36.4 34.8 3.8 4.1 1.6
May 2008 17.6 33.4 38.9 5.1 4.3 0.7
July 2008 16.1 34.7 37.0 6.1 5.2 0.9
November 2008 17.4 31.8 38.3 7.1 4.2 1.2
February 2009[92] 16.1 35.2 38.6 4.5 3.6 2.0
May 2009[93] 20.9 35.0 34.9 4.4 3.0 1.7
July 2009[94] 19.0 32.2 36.8 6.2 4.2 1.6
December 2009[95] 21.6 29.9 36.9 5.9 4.1 1.6
2010 1st series[96] 19.4 29.5 38.2 6.9 4.4 1.6
2010 2nd series[97] 21.5 31.2 35.2 7.3 4.0 0.7
2010 3rd series[98] 24.3 31.0 33.3 5.4 4.9 1.0
2010 4th series[99] 25.2 30.9 34.7 5.9 2.7 0.7
2011 1st series[100] 24.5 31.9 33.2 5.6 3.5 1.3
2011 2nd series[82] 25.5 33.0 31.8 5.6 3.4 0.8
2011 3rd series[83] 28.2 30.4 30.3 5.7 3.9 1.5
2012 1st series[84] 29.0 30.8 27.8 5.2 5.4 1.8
2012 2nd series[85] 34.0 28.7 25.4 5.7 5.0 1.3
2012 3rd series[86] 44.3 25.5 19.1 4.0 4.9 2.2
2013 1st series[87] 46.4 22.4 20.7 4.4 4.9 1.2
2013 2nd series[101] 47.0 21.2 22.8 4.6 3.5 0.9
2013 3rd series[102] 48.5 21.3 18.6 5.4 4.0 2.2
2014 1st series[89] 45.2 20.0 23.3 2.6 6.9 2.0
2014 2nd series[90] 45.3 22.2 23.4 1.8 6.5 0.9
"Which kind of political entity should Catalonia be with respect to Spain?" (June 2005 March 2012).
  Confederal
  Independence
  Keep it as it is
  Spanish region
  Do not know
  Do not reply

CIS performed a poll in Catalonia on 2001, including an explicit question on independence with the following results: 35.9% supporting it, 48.1% opposing it, 13.3% indifferent, 2.8% did not reply[citation needed].

ICPS performs annually an opinion poll since 1989, which sometimes includes a section on independence. The results are in the following table:

Year Support (%) Against (%) Indifferent (%) Do not reply (%)
1991 35 50 11 4
1992 31 53 11 5
1993 37 50 9 5
1994 35 49 14 3
1995 36 52 10 3
1996 29 56 11 4
1997 32 52 11 5
1998 32 55 10 3
1999 32 55 10 3
2000 32 53 13 3
2001 33 55 11 1
2002 34 52 12 1
2003* 43 43 12 1
2004* 39 44 13 3
2005 36 44 15 6
2006 33 48 17 2
2007 31.7 51.3 14.1 2.9
2011[103] 41.4 22.9 26.5 9.2

The question of independence has not been polled so far in other Catalan-speaking territories outside of Catalonia, but anecdotal evidence (basically the total absence of the independentist question in those territories) suggests that there is no sizeable support for the idea of independence of the Catalan-speaking territories outside of Catalonia.

  • In 2003 and 2004 a different methodology was used (telephonic instead of door-to-door interview).

The Catalan newspapers El Periódico and La Vanguardia have been publishing their own surveys in recent times.

El Periódico
Date Yes (%) No (%) Other (%)
October 2007 [104] 33.9 43.9 22.3
December 2009 [105] 39.0 40.6 20.4
June 2010 [106] 48.1 35.3 16.6
January 2012 [107] 53.6 32.0 14.4
September 2012 [108] 46.4 22.0 25.7
November 2012 [109] 50.9 36.9 12.2
November 2012 (In case, a yes-vote would imply leaving the EU) [109] 40.1 47.8 12.1
May 2013 [110] 57.8 36.0 6.3
La Vanguardia
Date Yes (%) No (%) Other (%)
02/11/09 [111] 35 46 19
15/03/10 [112] 36 44 20
19/05/10 [113] 37 41 22
18/07/10 [114] 47 36 17
07/09/10 [115] 40 45 15
11/04/11 [116] 34 30 35
30/09/12 [117] 54.8 33.5 10.16
21/12/13 [118] 44.9 45 10.1

Pro-independence public figures[edit]

Catalonia is not Spain painted on a wall in Catalonia

In recent years, support for Catalan independence has broadened from the traditional left or far-left Catalan nationalism. Relevant examples are the liberal economists Xavier Sala i Martín[119] and Ramon Tremosa Balcells (elected deputy for CiU in the European parliament in the 2009 election), the lawyer and former FC Barcelona president Joan Laporta[120] or the jurist and former member of the Consejo General del Poder Judicial Alfons López Tena.[121]

The think tank Cercle d'Estudis Sobiranistes, led by the jurists Alfons López Tena and Hèctor López Bofill was founded in 2007. Since then it has summoned a number of lawmakers, professors, businessmen, professionals, economists, journalists and intellectuals for the cause of Catalonia's independence.

Other individuals include:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pronunciation of independentisme català in Catalan:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rinehart, Robert; Seeley, Jo Ann Browning (1998). "A Country Study: Spain – The Golden Age". Library of Congress Country Series. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
  2. ^ Which had started with a cultural renaissance (Renaixença) between 1833-1885 [1] Nationalism and the Nation in the Iberian Peninsula.1996.
  3. ^ What began as a cultural renaissance in the 1840s, ended as a growing call for political autonomy and, eventually, independence Creating Spaniards: Culture and National Identity in Republican Spain
  4. ^ [2] 1.5 million people demonstrate peacefully for Catalonia’s independence from Spain
  5. ^ Ruling party in Catalonia region loses seats in parliament
  6. ^ a b "Pàgina Temporal Oficial d'Estat Català" (in Spanish). Estat-catala.cat. 2011-11-03. Retrieved 2012-09-29. 
  7. ^ The Catalan flag is crowned by a pro-independence star
  8. ^ Pamphlet calling on President Wilson to take a stance on Catalonia.
  9. ^ http://webs.racocatala.cat/estelada/c1928.pdf
  10. ^ a b "Catalan protesters rally for greater autonomy in Spain". BBC News. 10 July 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  11. ^ "The controversial reform of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (2005–2010)". Diplocat. 
  12. ^ a b "La manifestació ha desbordat totes les previsions". El Periódico de Catalunya. 10 July 2010 . (Catalan)
  13. ^ "Un millón de personas inundan Barcelona en una histórica manifestación de rechazo a la sentencia contra el Estatut". La Vanguardia. 10 July 2010 
  14. ^ Cálculo de asistentes (Spanish)
  15. ^ "Hereu: "No hi ha precedent d'una mobilització així"". El Periódico de Catalunya. 10 July 2010 . (Catalan)
  16. ^ "El TC dicta sentència per l'Estatut". 3cat24.cat (in Catalan) 
  17. ^ "El Govern espanyol adverteix que el 10J no serà un 'punt d'inflexió' en res". Directe!cat (in Catalan) 
  18. ^ "Josep Casadellà: "No sóc el Serallonga dels peatges"". Ara.cat. 14 April 2012 
  19. ^ Campanya Diem Prou
  20. ^ "El Ple Municipal aprova la proposta de crear una associació per promoure el Dret a Decidir de Catalunya". Ajuntament de Vic (in Catalan). 12 September 2011 
  21. ^ a b c d Bosque, Daniel (8 September 2013). "Catalans rally for vast human chain independence bid". AFP. 
  22. ^ "400 Kilometer Menschenkette für die Unabhängigkeit". Die Welt (in German). 11 September 2013. 
  23. ^ Piñol, Àngels (11 September 2012). "El independentismo catalán logra una histórica exhibición de fuerza" (in Spanish). Barcelona. El País. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  24. ^ "Diada.- El Govern central xifra l'assistència en 600.000 persones" (in Catalan). Barcelona. Europa Press. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  25. ^ "La delegació del govern espanyol a Catalunya xifra en 600.000 els assistents a la manifestació de la Diada" (in Catalan). Madrid. Agència Catalana de Notícies. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  26. ^ La marxa independentista d'avui ha superat per primer cop a la història el milió de manifestants (Catalan)
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