Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels
|Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels|
Cathedral Our Lady of the Angels
|Location||Los Angeles, California
|Affiliation||Roman Catholic Church|
|Province||Archdiocese of Los Angeles|
|District||Archdiocese of Los Angeles|
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Cathedral|
|Leadership||Most Rev. José Horacio Gómez, Archbishop of Los Angeles
Msgr. Kevin Kostelnik, Pastor
|Website||Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels|
|Architectural style||contemporary modern; deconstructivist elements|
|Length||333 feet (101 m)|
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, informally known as COLA or the Los Angeles Cathedral is a Latin-rite cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church in Los Angeles, California, United States of America. Opened in 2002, the cathedral serves as the mother church for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. It is also the cathedra seat of Archbishop José Horacio Gómez.
The structure was meant to replace the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, which was severely damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Under Cardinal Roger Mahony, the cathedral was constructed in post-modern architecture and formally opened in September 2002. It sometimes carries the derogatory name of "Taj Mahony" or "Rog Mahal" among its critics, due to its deconstructivist and modernist design, as well as its controversial high costs to complete the building.
The cathedral is named in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the patronal title of Our Lady of the Angels, formally known as "Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Little Portion" (Spanish: Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula), the previous Pueblo de Los Angeles founded by the Franciscan Order. The cathedral is widely known for enshrining the relics of Saint Vibiana and tilma piece of Our Lady of Guadalupe. It is the mother church to over four million professed Catholics in the archdiocese.
The cathedral was designed by the Pritzker Prize-winning Spanish architect Rafael Moneo. Using elements of postmodern architecture, the church and the Cathedral Center feature a series of acute and obtuse angles while avoiding right angles. Contemporary statuary and appointments decorate the complex. Prominent of these appointments are the bronze doors and the statue called The Virgin Mary, all adorning the entrance and designed by Robert Graham.
Like the later Oakland Cathedral of Christ the Light, which replaced the earthquake-damaged Saint Francis de Sales Cathedral, Our Lady of the Angels is a base isolated structure for protection against earthquake structural damage.
The site of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels is 5.6 acres (23,000 m2) bound by Temple Street, Grand Avenue, Hill Street and the Hollywood Freeway.
The 12-story high building can accommodate over 3,000 worshipers. The site includes the church, a 2.5 acres (10,000 m2) plaza, several gardens and water features, the Cathedral Center (with the gift shop, the Galero Grill, conference center, and cathedral parish offices), and living quarters for the archbishop and some cathedral clergy. The entire complex is 58,000 sq ft (5,400 m2). It is the second largest Catholic church in the United States. The main sanctuary is 333 ft (101 m) long (purposely one-foot longer than St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City). The internal height varies from 80 ft (24 m) over the baptistery at the rear (west end) to approximately 100 ft (30 m) near the lantern window (east end).
Among the artworks commissioned for the cathedral are the tapestries of the communion of saints by painter John Nava, and the plaza fountain by Lita Albuquerque and Robert Kramer. The cathedral claims the world's greatest amount of alabaster at 33,500 sq ft (3,110 m2). They replaced the more traditional stained glass windows and provide the interior with a soft, warm, subtly multi-hued illumination.
The organ is opus 75 of Dobson Pipe Organ Builders of Lake City, Iowa and is a 105 rank/ 4 manual instrument that incorporates pipes from the 1929 Wangerin organ of St. Vibiana's Cathedral. Dobson's Opus 75 has a total of 6,019 pipes. The St. Vibiana instrument was rebuilt in 1988 by Austin Organs, Inc. The organ case is approximately 60 feet (18 m) high, and is located approximately 24 feet (7.3 m) above the floor. To meet earthquake-stability requirements, the pipes and case are supported by a massive internal steel frame.
In addition to the church, the cathedral grounds also include a mausoleum, gift shop, cafeteria, conference center, and clergy residences. The relics of Saint Vibiana are interred in the mausoleum, as are the remains of several past bishops, archbishops, and auxiliary bishops of Los Angeles.
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The Cathedral of Saint Vibiana had served as the cathedral of the Los Angeles see since its completion in 1876. Soon after its completion, the diocese noted it to be of inferior construction quality and also too small for Los Angeles' rapidly growing population. In 1904, Bishop Thomas James Conaty gained permission from the Holy See to build a new cathedral to be named after Our Lady of Guadalupe and purchased a site on which to build the cathedral. However, an economic downturn in 1907 put a stop to the project; a Catholic parish church was later built on the site. In the 1940s, plans were drawn up for a new cathedral on Wilshire Boulevard that would seat 3,000 people, and in 1945 Archbishop John Joseph Cantwell announced that the Holy See approved the name "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels". That cathedral was never built, however, as Cantwell died in 1947 and his successor, James Francis McIntyre, decided that building churches and schools was a more pressing need for the archdiocese. McIntyre gained permission from donors to redirect money donated to Cantwell's cathedral fund to fund construction of churches and schools.
The 1994 Northridge earthquake severely damaged the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, which led the archdiocese to close the cathedral due to safety concerns. In January 1995 the archdiocese announced plans to build a new cathedral on the Saint Vibiana site, plans which necessitated the demolition of the old cathedral. This led to a lengthy legal battle between the archdiocese and preservationists, who argued that the cathedral was a city landmark and that it should be either incorporated into the new cathedral or otherwise saved. The archdiocese contended that restoring the old cathedral would cost $18–20 million, an amount that it contends no one would donate.
This legal battle prompted the archdiocese to look to build the cathedral on a new site. In December 1996, the archdiocese announced it was purchasing a 5.6-acre (2.3 ha) site between Temple Street and the Hollywood Freeway from Los Angeles County at a cost of $10.85 million. The archdiocese chose to retain the "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels" name approved by the Vatican in the 1940s. The initially proposed budget for the project was $150 million, but as the charities and donations kept coming, the architects and builders were able to implement everything desired. The construction was supervised by Father Richard S. Vosko, a liturgical design consultant and priest of the Diocese of Albany who has overseen the design and renovation of numerous churches and cathedrals around the country. Construction began in 1998 and the cathedral was opened in September 2002 at the final cost of $189.7 million. Meanwhile, the old cathedral was eventually restored by developers Tom Gilmore and Richard Weintraub, who spent around $6 million converting it into an events center and performance venue.
The cathedral was built to replace the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana, whose partial relics still enshrine today. The shrine which was severely damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake. In January 1995, the archdiocese announced plans to build a new cathedral on the Saint Vibiana site and began demolishing the old cathedral; however, preservationists blocked the demolition, citing the building's landmark status, and demanded that the old cathedral be incorporated into a new structure. Citing the high cost of bringing the old cathedral to modern seismic standards, the archdiocese began looking for a new cathedral site. In December 1996, the archdiocese purchased a 5.6-acre (2.3 ha) site from Los Angeles County and began construction in October 1998. The cathedral formally opened again in September 2002.
Cardinal Roger Mahony's decision to rebuild the Los Angeles Cathedral in such elaborate and post-modern architecture has drawn great criticism. Many argued that a church of that size and expense was unnecessary, overly-elaborate and money could have been better spent on social programs. Many felt that either St. Vincent Church on West Adams Boulevard or St. Basil Church on South Kingsley Drive could easily perform the functions required of a cathedral with minimal additional cost. Our Lady of the Angels Cathedral was also criticized for its departure from historical California Mission-style architecture and aesthetics.
The prices for some cathedral furnishings have also caused consternation. $5 million was budgeted for the altar, the main bronze doors cost $3 million, $2 million was budgeted for the wooden ambo (lectern) and $1 million for the tabernacle. $1 million was budgeted for the cathedra (bishop's chair), $250,000 for the presider's chair, $250,000 for each deacon's chair, and $150,000 for each visiting bishops' chair, while pews cost an average of $50,000 each. The cantor's stand cost $100,000 while each bronze chandelier/speaker cost $150,000. The great costs incurred in its construction and Mahony's long efforts to get it built led critics to dub it the "Taj Mahony" and the "Rog Mahal".
The cathedral features a mausoleum in its lower level. The mausoleum contains 1,270 crypts and 4,746 columbarium niches for burials. Proceeds from the sale of memorials and burial spaces are placed in an endowment fund for financial stability of the cathedral.
All past ordinaries of the archdiocese are memorialized in the mausoleum, including a future burial site for Cardinal Roger Mahony, and the remains of several ordinaries and auxiliary bishops who died before the cathedral was built were transferred there. The tomb of Saint Vibiana was transferred to the cathedral from its previous location above the altar at the Cathedral of Saint Vibiana; the tomb is the centerpiece of the St. Vibiana Chapel located adjacent to the mausoleum.
The crypt mausoleum features a number of stained glass windows that were originally installed in Saint Vibiana's Cathedral. This idea was suggested by Mario Agustin Locsin, a renowned Liturgical Artist. Mario Locsin was one of the liturgical consultants of the renovation. Two new windows featuring guardian angels were placed at the entrance to the crypt mausoleum. The old cathedral windows were restored and new windows created by The Judson Studios.
List of people buried at the Cathedral
- Bishop Juan Arzube
- Thaddeus Amat y Brusi, first Bishop of Los Angeles
- John Cantwell, first Archbishop of Los Angeles
- Bishop Thomas James Conaty
- Bishop Carl Anthony Fisher
- James Francis McIntyre, second Archbishop of Los Angeles, who was created Cardinal
- Saint Vibiana, patron saint of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles
- John J. Ward, auxiliary bishop
- Bernardine Murphy Donohue, philanthropist and papal countess
- Robert Graham, sculptor
- Victor and Loretta Baron Mahony, parents of Cardinal Roger Mahony
- June Marlowe, actress
- Gregory Peck, actor
On September 3, 2011, the Cathedral played host to a Votive Mass in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The Mass marked the conclusion of the First Annual Grand Marian Procession organised by the Queen of Angels Foundation, an association of lay Catholic faithful dedicated to promoting devotion to Our Lady, Queen of Angels. The Procession and Mass saw the participation of over 50 Catholic communities from across Southern California, including Knights of Malta, Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, Knights of Columbus, Knights of Peter Claver, and many others. The Grand Marian Procession and Mass, which is intended to be an annual event, follows in the tradition of the Marian processions that were once a regular feature of Los Angeles' civic and religious life. The Mass was celebrated by the Cathedral's rector, Monsignor Kevin Kostelnik. The event was organised by noted attorney and philanthropist Mark Anchor Albert, founder of the Queen of Angels Foundation.
- "About: History". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "José Horacio Gómez". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
- The Franciscan friars who came to Las Altas Californias, named the pueblo town in order of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Assisi), or Our Lady of the Angels the most venerated Marian title endorsed by Saint Francis of Assisi.
- "Welcome". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
- "About: Architect". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "World's Largest Cathedrals | Socrata". Opendata.socrata.com. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- "Architecture: Interior". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angles. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "Weber, Msgr. Francis J. Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, ISBN 0-9678477-6-1.". Retrieved 2007-08-22.
- "Cathedral of Our Lady of Angles". DobsonOrgan.com. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "About: History". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Richard S. Vosko: Cathedral of Our Lady of Angels retrieved May 23, 2011
- "$2.5 Million Given for Fountain at New Cathedral". Los Angeles Times (LATimes.com). 15 November 2001. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- Haslam, Chris (Feb 24, 2008). "Art attack in LA". Sunday Times (London (UK)). p. 4.
- Ordonez, Jennifer (Apr 10, 2006). "The Catholics: A Cardinal's Campaign; Cardinal Roger Mahony of Los Angeles is speaking out against crackdowns on illegals. How far will his voice carry?". Newsweek 147 (16). p. 38.
- "Mausoleum: About". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- Larry B. Stammer (16 March 2001). "The Lady Appears". Los Angeles Times (LATimes.com). Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "Mausoleum: Stained Glass Windows". Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Retrieved 2011-07-18.
- "Find A Grave: Gregory Peck". Retrieved 2006-09-21.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels|
- Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels Official Website
- Cathedrals of California
- Photo gallery on Figure Ground
- Documentary film about John Nava's tapestries