The massive cathedral was built between 1525-1577 in a late Gothic style, an architectural style that was becoming retardataire elsewhere in Europe. The prior cathedral of Segovia had stood adjacent to the Alcazar, and had been used by the besieged royal armies in their defense. The rebellious Comuneros were intent on taking the Cathedral to protect its holy relics, and to use its position against the walls of the Alcazar in order to defeat its defenders. In a famous exchange, prominent city officials urged the comuneros to halt their attacks on the church that they should consider the injustice of razing a temple, so sumptuous, while making war against those who serving their king, defended his Alcazar. But their plea fell on deaf ears, and the comuneros replied: la Iglesia era de la Ciudad (the Church belonged to the City). After a bitter siege lasting months, the cathedral lay in ruins.
Fearful of a repeat assault, the cathedral was relocated to the present site and built using a design by the Trasmeran mason named Juan Gil de Hontañón, and the work was continued by his son Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.
The building has a structure in three tall vaults and ambulatory, with fine tracery windows set, and numerous stained glass. The interior is characterized by unity of style (late Gothic), except for the dome, built around 1630 by Pedro de Brizuela. Gothic vaults rise to 33 meters high and measures 50 meters wide and 105 long. The bell tower reaches almost 90 meters. The current stone spire crowning the tower, dating from 1614, was erected after a major fire caused by a thunderstorm. The original spire, entirely Gothic, was built of American mahogany had pyramidal structure, and was the tallest tower in Spain.
Among the most prominent chapels are that of the Santísimo Sacramento, with a Reredo by José de Churriguera, and the Chapel of San Andrés, with a Tryptich of the Deposition by Ambrosius Benson; and the chapel of the Deposition with the recumbent Christ by Gregorio Fernández.
The retablo mayor, or main reredos, of the cathedral was carved by Francisco Sabatini, and is dedicated to the Virgin of the Peace. It is adorned with the Segovian Saints Frutos, Geroteo, Valentín and Engracia. The choir has gothic seating.
- Capilla de San Andrés Apóstol
- Capilla de San Cosme y San Damián
- Capilla de San Gregorio
- Capilla de la Concepción
- Capilla del Cristo Yacente (Reclining Christ)
- Capilla de Santa Bárbara
- Capilla de Santiago Apóstol
- Capilla del Cristo del Consuelo
- Crescentius of Rome
- Saint Fructus (d. 715), and his siblings Saint Valentine (Valentín) and Saint Engratia (Engracia).
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