Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

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Catherine
Duchess of Cambridge (more)
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.JPG
The Duchess of Cambridge at Trooping the Colour in 2012
Spouse Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
 (m. 2011)
Issue Prince George of Cambridge
Full name
Catherine Elizabeth[fn 1]
House House of Windsor (by marriage)
Father Michael Middleton
Mother Carole Goldsmith
Born (1982-01-09) 9 January 1982 (age 32)
Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Berkshire, England
Religion Church of England[1]
Signature

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (Catherine Elizabeth "Kate"; née Middleton; born 9 January 1982),[2] is the wife of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. Following his father Charles, Prince of Wales, William is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, as monarch of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.[3]

Middleton grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, Berkshire, England.[4] She studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced on 16 November 2010, and she attended many high-profile royal events before they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey.

She has had a major impact upon British and American fashion which has been termed the "Kate Middleton effect", and in 2012 was selected as one of the "Most Influential People in the World" by Time magazine.[5][6] On 22 July 2013, she gave birth to a boy, Prince George of Cambridge, who is now third in the line of succession to the British throne.[7][8] Her second pregnancy was announced by Kensington Palace on 8 September 2014.[9]

Early life[edit]

Catherine Elizabeth Middleton was born at Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading on 9 January 1982, and christened at St Andrew's Bradfield, Berkshire, on 20 June 1982.[10][11] She is the eldest of three children born to Carole (née Goldsmith), a former flight attendant, and Michael Middleton, who also worked as a flight attendant prior to becoming a flight dispatcher for British Airways. Her parents were married on 21 June 1980, at the parish church of Dorney, Buckinghamshire.[12] In 1987, they founded Party Pieces, a mail order company that sells party supplies and decorations. Party Pieces is a private company with an estimated worth of £30 million.[13][14][15] The Middletons have another daughter, Philippa "Pippa",[16][17] and a son, James William Middleton.[17]

Middleton's paternal ancestors were from Leeds, West Yorkshire. Her paternal great-grandmother, Olive, was a member of the Lupton family, who, for a number of generations, were woollen cloth merchants and manufacturers, active in civic affairs.[17][18] Her maternal ancestors, the Harrisons, were working-class labourers and miners from Sunderland and County Durham.[19]

Michael and Carole Middleton worked for British Airways, in Amman, Jordan, from May 1984 to September 1986. In Jordan, Catherine Middleton went to an English language nursery school[20] before returning to their home in Berkshire.[21] Following her return from Amman, Middleton was enrolled at St Andrew's School near the village of Pangbourne in Berkshire, then briefly at Downe House.[22] She attended Marlborough College, a co-educational independent boarding school in Wiltshire,[23] and graduated in 2005, from the University of St Andrews in Fife, Scotland, with an undergraduate MA (2:1 Hons) in the History of Art.[24] In November 2006, Middleton accepted a position as an accessory buyer with the clothing chain Jigsaw,[25] where she worked part-time until November 2007.[26]

Relationship with Prince William[edit]

Early relationship[edit]

In 2001, Middleton met Prince William while they were students at the University of St. Andrews. The couple began dating in 2003, although their relationship remained unconfirmed.[27][28] On 17 October 2005, Middleton complained through her lawyer about harassment from the media, stating that she had done nothing significant to warrant publicity.[29]

Middleton with Prince Harry, June 2008

In February 2006, it was announced that Middleton would receive her own 24-hour security detail supplied by the Royalty Protection branch (SO14). Many speculated that she and Prince William would soon be engaged, since she would not otherwise be entitled to this service.

No engagement was forthcoming and Middleton was not granted an allowance to fund this security. Media attention increased around the time of her 25th birthday in January 2007, prompting warnings from both the Prince of Wales and Prince William and from Middleton's lawyers, who threatened legal action. Two newspaper groups, News International, which publishes The Times and The Sun; and the Guardian Media Group, publishers of The Guardian, decided to refrain from publishing paparazzi photographs of her.[30] Middleton attended at least one event as an official royal guest: Prince William's Passing Out Parade at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 15 December 2006.[31]

On 17 May 2008, Middleton attended the wedding of Prince William's cousin Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly, which the prince did not attend.[32] On 19 July 2008, she was a guest at the wedding of Lady Rose Windsor and George Gilman. Prince William was away on military operations in the Caribbean, serving aboard HMS Iron Duke.[33] In 2010, Middleton pursued an invasion of privacy claim against two agencies and photographer Niraj Tanna, who took pictures of her over Christmas 2009.[34] She obtained a public apology, £5,000 in damages, and legal costs.[35]

Breakup and reconciliation[edit]

In April 2007 Prince William and Middleton split up. The couple decided to break up during a holiday in the Swiss resort of Zermatt.[36] Clarence House declined to comment about the relationship's end, according to The Times, stating, "We don't comment on Prince William's private life".[37] Newspapers speculated about the reasons for the split, although these reports relied on anonymous sources. Middleton and her family attended the Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium, where she and Prince William sat two rows apart. The couple were subsequently seen together in public on a number of occasions and news sources stated that they had "rekindled their relationship".[38]

Engagement and marriage[edit]

The newly married Duke and Duchess of Cambridge on the balcony of Buckingham Palace

Prince William and Catherine Middleton became engaged in October 2010, in Kenya, during a 10-day trip to the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy to celebrate Prince William's passing his RAF helicopter search and rescue course.[39][40] Clarence House announced the engagement on 16 November 2010.[39][41] Prince William gave Middleton the engagement ring that had belonged to his mother, Diana, Princess of Wales. The couple married in Westminster Abbey on 29 April 2011,[42] (St. Catherine's Day) with the day declared a bank holiday in the United Kingdom. Estimates of the global audience for the wedding ranged around 300 million or more, whilst 26 million watched the event live in Britain alone.[43][44][45]

In October, several months after the wedding, Commonwealth leaders pledged that they would implement changes in British royal succession law to adopt absolute primogeniture, meaning that the first child of the Duke and Duchess would be eligible to take the throne regardless of whether it is male or female.[46]

Pregnancy and motherhood[edit]

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge with their son the day after his birth

In January 2013, the Queen issued new letters patent enabling all children of the eldest son, as opposed to only the eldest son, of the Prince of Wales to enjoy the princely title and style of Royal Highness.[47]

On 3 December 2012, St James's Palace announced that the Duchess was pregnant with her first child. The announcement was made earlier in the pregnancy than is traditional as she had been admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum and stayed there for three days.[48][49] On 14 January 2013, St James's Palace announced that the child was due to be born in July 2013, and that the condition of the Duchess was improving.[50]

The Duchess was admitted to St Mary's Hospital in London in the early stages of labour on the morning of 22 July 2013, and gave birth to a boy, weighing 8 pounds 6 ounces (3.80 kg), at 16:24 BST that day.[7][8][51] On 24 July 2013, Kensington Palace announced that the baby would be named George Alexander Louis.[52]

The Duchess's second pregnancy was announced on 8 September 2014.[53] The child will be fourth in line to the throne and is expected to be born in April 2015.[54] As with her first pregnancy, the Duchess suffers from hyperemesis gravidarum and was required to cancel official engagements.[55]

Public image and style[edit]

Middleton became prominent for her fashion style and has been placed on numerous "best dressed" lists.[56][57] She was selected by The Daily Telegraph as the "Most Promising Newcomer" in its 2006 list of style winners and losers.[58] Tatler placed her at number 8 on its yearly listing of the top ten style icons in 2007.[59] She was featured in People magazine's 2007 and 2010 best-dressed lists.[60] Middleton was named as one of Richard Blackwell's ten "Fabulous Fashion Independents" of 2007.[61] In June 2008, Style.com selected Middleton as their monthly beauty icon.[62] In July 2008, Middleton was included in Vanity Fair '​s international best-dressed list.[63] In February 2011, she was named the Top Fashion Buzzword of the 2011 season by the Global Language Monitor.[64] In January 2012, she was voted 'Headwear Person of the Year.'[65] Middleton was number one on Vanity Fair's annual Best Dressed lists in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013; she also appeared as the cover star in 2012.[66][67]

Royal duties[edit]

Public appearances[edit]

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge at the Canada Day celebrations in Ottawa, 1 July 2011

Middleton was formally introduced to public life on 24 February 2011, two months before the wedding, when she and Prince William attended a lifeboat-naming ceremony in Trearddur, Anglesey, in North Wales.[68] A day later they appeared in St Andrews to launch the university's 600th anniversary celebrations. On 16 February 2011, Clarence House announced that the Duke and Duchess's first royal tour of Canada would take place in July 2011.[69] In May 2011, shortly after the wedding, Clarence House announced that the Duke and Duchess would extend their tour to visit California. This was to be the Duchess of Cambridge's first visit to the United States.[70]

The Duke and Duchess meet U.S. President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama at Buckingham Palace a few weeks after the wedding.

The Duchess's first official engagement after the wedding came in May, when she and her husband met Barack Obama, the President of the United States, and First Lady Michelle Obama.[71] In June 2011, the Duke and Duchess presented medals to members of the Irish Guards.[72]

On 26 October 2011, she undertook her first solo event for In Kind Direct, stepping in for the Prince of Wales, who was in Saudi Arabia.[73] On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre for supplying food to malnourished African children in Copenhagen, Denmark.[74][75]

On St Patrick's Day, 17 March 2012, the Duchess carried out the traditional awarding of shamrocks to the Irish Guards at their base in Aldershot; this was her first solo military engagement. On 19 March, she gave her first speaking engagement for the opening of the Treehouse, a new children's hospice opened by East Anglia's Children's Hospices (EACH), a charity of which she is a patron.[76]

Prince William and the Duchess of Cambridge supporting British Olympic Team at a dinner in countdown to the 2012 Olympics in London, 11 May 2012

The Duchess has involved herself with the charities supported by her husband and his brother, Prince Harry. On 29 September 2011, the Duchess officially became a patron of The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry. In November 2011, April 2012, and November 2012, she and the Duke attended the biannual Princes' Charities Forum, which unites the various charitable interests of the two princes.[77] In June 2012, The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry was renamed The Royal Foundation of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, to reflect Catherine's contribution to the charity.[78]

The Duke and Duchess were announced as Ambassadors for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, alongside Prince Harry.[79] The Duchess attended both the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the Olympics.[80] On 29 August 2012, the Duchess attended the Paralympic Opening Ceremony accompanied by her husband, the Duke of Cambridge.[81] As part of her role, the Duchess attended numerous sporting events throughout the games.

The Duchess of Cambridge during the Diamond Jubilee celebrations, 5 June 2012

In September 2012, the Duke and Duchess embarked on a tour of Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu, and the Solomon Islands as part of the Royal Jubilee celebrations. During this overseas visit, the Duchess made her first official speech abroad, while visiting a hospice in Malaysia, drawing on her experience as patron of East Anglia's Children's Hospices.[82]

Due to her pregnancy, the Duchess carried out fewer engagements in 2013 than in previous years. After the birth of Prince George, she carried out her first engagement in late August when she accompanied the Duke to meet runners preparing for an ultra-marathon on the isle of Anglesey, where they have a residence.[83]

At the beginning of March 2014 details were announced of the half-month long tour to New Zealand and Australia that the Duchess and her husband and son would be taking from 16 to 25 April.[84] The tour was Catherine's first visit to the area and Prince George's first major public appearance since his christening in October 2013.[85] The tour began in New Zealand where they visited Wellington, Blenheim, Auckland, Dunedin, Queenstown and Christchurch. It ended in Australia where they visited Sydney, the Blue Mountains, Brisbane, Uluru, Adelaide, and Canberra.[86]

On 21 July 2014, it was announced that the Duchess would be making her first solo trip, visiting the island of Malta on 20–21 September 2014, when the island was celebrating its 50th independence anniversary.[87][88] Her trip was cancelled, with the Duke taking her place, after the announcement of her second pregnancy in early September.[89]

Patronages[edit]

The Duchess of Cambridge at the National Portrait Gallery in 2014

In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who want to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities they care about instead.[90] The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflect the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.[91][92]

The Duchess supports charities The Art Room, National Portrait Gallery, London, East Anglia's Children's Hospice, Action on Addiction, Place2Be, Natural History Museum, Sportsaid, and The 1851 Trust.[93][94][95] The Natural History Museum is a patronage formerly held by Diana, Princess of Wales.

She is also a local volunteer leader with the Scout Association in north Wales.[96] In October 2012, the Duchess gave her royal backing to the M-PACT programme (Moving Parents and Children Together), one of the only UK programmes to focus specifically on the impact of drug addiction on families as a whole.[97]

Her first official portrait was unveiled at the National Portrait Gallery in January 2013, meeting mixed reviews from both critics and audiences.[98]

Violations of privacy[edit]

In 1997, William's mother, Diana, Princess of Wales, died in a road accident in Paris while being chased by paparazzi.[99] This incident has influenced the Duke's attitude towards intrusive media attention.[100] Both the Duchess and her husband have been clear that, when off-duty, their privacy should be respected,[100] yet the media, at times, has violated the couple's wishes.

In 2009, before her engagement to William, Middleton was awarded £10,000 damages and an apology from the photographic press agency Rex Features Ltd after she was photographed playing tennis on Christmas Eve when on holiday in Cornwall.[101]

On 13 September 2012, it was reported that the French edition of "la presse people" magazine Closer and the Italian gossip magazine Chi, had both published photographs of the Duchess sun-bathing topless while on holiday at the Château d'Autet[100] (a private château on a 260-ha estate some 71 km[102] north of Aix-en-Provence). Analysts from The Times believed that the photograph was taken from the D22 (Vaucluse) road half a kilometre from the pool – a distance that would require an 800-mm or a 1000-mm lens.[103] On 17 September 2012, the Duke and Duchess laid a criminal complaint to the French Prosecution Department and launched a claim for civil damages at the Tribunal de Grande Instance de Nanterre;[104] the following day the courts granted an injunction against Closer prohibiting further publication of the pictures and also announced that a criminal investigation would be initiated.[105] Under French law, punitive damages cannot be awarded[106] but such intrusions of privacy are a criminal offence carrying a maximum jail sentence of one year and a fine of up to €45,000 for individuals and €225,000 for companies.[107][108]

In December 2012, two Australian radio hosts, Michael Christian and Mel Greig, called King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes where the Duchess was an in-patient for hyperemesis gravidarum. Pretending to be the Queen and the Prince of Wales, Greig and Christian telephoned the hospital and spoke to a nurse on the Duchess's ward, enquiring about her condition. Following a hospital inquiry and a public backlash against the hoax, the nurse who put the call through to the ward, Jacintha Saldanha, committed suicide.[109] The radio hosts subsequently apologised for their actions.[110]

In its second breach of privacy, in February 2013, Chi published the first photos of Catherine's exposed baby bump, taken during her vacation on the private island of Mustique. The British press have refused to publish the paparazzi shots out of respect for the couple.[111] Whilst the Duchess was visiting the Blue Mountains in Sydney a picture was taken of her bare bottom as her dress blew up. Many newspapers refused to follow the ban imposed by British media and published the picture.[112]

In popular culture[edit]

Following international attention regarding the wedding, Lifetime aired a TV film entitled William & Kate on 18 April 2011, in the US.[113] The film premiered in the UK on 24 April 2011.[114] Middleton[115] was played by Camilla Luddington[116] and Prince William by Nico Evers-Swindell.[117] TV programmes were also shown in the UK prior to the wedding which provided deeper insights into the couple's relationship and backgrounds, including When Kate Met William[118] and Channel 4's Meet the Middletons.[119]

A second TV film was produced that covers similar ground to William & Kate. That film, titled William & Catherine: A Royal Romance and filmed in Bucharest,[120] stars Alice St. Clair as Kate Middleton and Dan Amboyer as Prince William.[121] Of note in this second television film is the appearance of Jane Alexander as the Queen and Victor Garber as the Prince of Wales. The film aired on 27 August 2011, in the United States on the Hallmark Channel.[122][123]

The South Park episode "Royal Pudding" parodies the wedding of Catherine and Prince William.[124]

Titles, styles, honours and arms[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

Royal monogram of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

Upon marriage, Catherine became known as "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge".[125][126][127][128][129] In Scotland, she is also styled as "Her Royal Highness The Countess of Strathearn".[130][131] Her full title and style is "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge, Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus".[125][128][129][132]

Unlike the majority of royal brides, and in contrast to most previous consorts-in-waiting for over 350 years, Catherine's immediate family is neither aristocratic nor royal.[133][134] On the morning of their wedding day on 29 April 2011, at 8:00 am, officials at Buckingham Palace announced that in accordance with royal tradition and on recognition of the day by the Queen, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus.[126]

Honours[edit]

Medals

Honorary military appointments[edit]

Canada Canada

Honorific eponym[edit]

Awards

Arms[edit]

In September 2013, the Queen granted a conjugal coat of arms to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, consisting of their individual arms displayed side by side, beneath a helm and coronet denoting the Duke's status as grandson of the Sovereign.[137] Below is shown the earlier grant of the Duchess's personal arms, impaled with those of her husband.

Arms of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
Coat of Arms of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.svg
Notes
The Duchess bears the arms of her husband impaled with those of her father. The coat of arms was granted to her father by the College of Arms on 19 April 2011. Thomas Woodcock, Garter King of Arms, the senior officer of the College of Arms, helped the family with the design.[138] The Duchess of Cambridge's coat of arms denotes that Catherine is the daughter of Michael Middleton and the wife of the Duke of Cambridge.[139]
Adopted
19 April 2011
Coronet
Coronet of a child of the Heir Apparent
Escutcheon
Quarterly 1st and 4th Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or armed and langed Azure (England), 2nd Or a lion rampant Gules armed and langued Azure within a double tressure flory counterflory of the second (Scotland), 3rd Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (Ireland), the whole differenced with a label of three points Argent with the central point charged with an escallop Gules (Prince William); Impaled with a shield per pale Azure and Gules, a chevron Or, cotised Argent, between three acorns slipped and leaved Or (Middleton).[138]
Supporters
To the dexter the Lion as borne and used as a Supporter by "Our Dearly Beloved Grandson His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales Duke of Cambridge" and to the sinister a Hind Argent unguled and gorged with "a Coronet of Our Dearly Beloved Grandson's degree Or". The hind is white (argent) and is hooved, unguled and has about its neck (is gorged with) the Duke of Cambridge's coronet. Both the hooves and coronet are gold (Or).[140]
Symbolism
Coat of Arms of Kate Middleton.svg
The dividing line (between two colours) down the centre is a canting of the name 'Middle-ton'. The acorns (from the oak tree) are a traditional symbol of England and a feature of west Berkshire, where the family have lived for 30 years. The three acorns also denote the family's three children. The gold chevron in the centre of the arms is an allusion to Carole Middleton's maiden name of Goldsmith. The two white chevronels (narrow chevrons above and below the gold chevron) symbolise peaks and mountains, and the family's love of the Lake District and skiing.[138]
Previous versions
Her previous coat of arms depicted the shield from her father Michael Middleton's coat of arms shaped into a lozenge hanging from a blue ribbon symbolising her unmarried state. Her sister Pippa also uses the same lozenge-shaped coat of arms. Her brother, James, bears his father's arms, with a gold label for difference. In due course James will inherit his father's full coat of arms.[138]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ As a titled royal, Catherine holds no surname, but when one is used, it is Mountbatten-Windsor. Many media outlets, however, refer to her by her maiden name, Catherine (or Kate) Middleton.

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom,
Preceded by
The Princess Royal
Ladies
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
Succeeded by
Autumn Phillips