Cattell Culture Fair III
In seeking to develop a culture-fair intelligence or IQ test that separated environmental and genetic factors, Raymond B. Cattell created the CFIT or Culture Fair Intelligence Test. Cattell argued that general intelligence (g) exists and that it consists of fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Unlike other tests, which typically use a deviation of 15 or 16, Cattell uses a deviation of 24. This means if some normally distributed population took both tests, the central 68.2% would fall between 76 and 124 on Cattell but 85 and 115 on Stanford Binet 5 (deviation 15).
Cultural and age differences
- Crystallized intelligence (gc) refers to that aspect of cognition in which initial intelligent judgments have become crystallized as habits.
- Fluid intelligence (gf) is in several ways more fundamental and shows in tests requiring responses to entirely new situations. Before biological maturity individual differences between gf and gc will be mainly a function of differences in cultural opportunity and interest. Among adults, however these discrepancies will also reflect differences in age because the gap between gc and gf will tend to increase with experience which raises gc (whereas it has been shown that with increase in age some decay of gf occurs).
The Triple Nine Society is a high IQ society that uses the CFIT-III as one of their tests for admission. A combined raw score of 85 on forms A and B is required for admission. Also, the TNS accepts the Cattell Intelligence (verbal) test, Scale IIIB, qualifying score of 173.
Direct concept validity
Direct concept validity (sometimes called construct validity) refers to the degree to which a certain scale correlates with the concept or construct (i.e., source trait) which it purports to measure. Concept validity is thus measured by correlating the scale with the pure factor and this can only be carried out by performing a factor analysis. The relatively high loading of the Culture Fair Intelligence scale on the fluid intelligence factor indicates that the Culture Fair scale does, in fact, have a reasonably high direct concept validity with respect to the concept of fluid intelligence.
The Culture Fair intelligence measure loaded higher on the "General Intelligence" factor than it did on the "Achievement" factor, which is consistent with the concept of the CFIT's being a measure of "fluid" rather than "crystallized" intelligence.
Convergent Validity is the extent to which the Culture fair test correlates with other tests of intelligence, achievement, and aptitude. Downing et al. (1965) obtained the relationships between the Culture Fair Intelligence Test and other intelligence tests.
|96||Culture Fair Intelligence Test IQ||(1)||1.00||.49||.69||.62||.63||.72|
|87||Otis Beta Test IQ||(2)||1.00||.80||.69||.45||.66|
|90||Pinter Test IQ||(3)||1.00||.81||.55||.79|
|92||WISC Verbal IQ||(4)||1.00||.55||.79|
|93||WISC Performance IQ||(5)||1.00||.79|
|92||WISC Full Scale IQ||(6)||1.00|
- Cattell, Raymond (1949). Culture Free Intelligence Test, Scale 1, Handbook. Champaign, Illinois: Institute of Personality and Ability.
- "How Do You Interpret The IQ Test Scores?". See also Mensa for a list of scores corresponding to two standard deviations above the mean (98th percentile)
- Cattell, R.B., Krug, S.E., Barton, K. (1973). Technical Supplement for the Culture Fair Intelligence Tests, Scales 2 and 3. Champaign: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
- Downing, Gertrude (1965). The Preparation of Teachers for Schools in Culturally Deprived Neighborhoods (The Bridge Project) The Final Report.
- Cattell, R. B. La theorie de l'intelligence fluide et cristallisee sa relation avec les tests "culture fair" et sa verification chez les enfants de 9 a 12 ens. Reoue de Psychologie Appliquee, 1967, 17, 3, 135154.
- Cattell, R. B. La teoria dell' intelligenza fluida e cristallizzata: Sua relazione con i tests "culture fair" e sue verifica in bambini dai 9 ai 12 anni. (The theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence: Its relationship to culture free tests and its verification in 9 to 12-year-old children.) Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 1968, 8890, 322.
- Cattell, R. B. Abilities: Their structure growth and action. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1971, p. 79.
- Cattell, R. B., Barton, K., & Dielman, T. E. Prediction of school achievement from motivation, personality and ability measures. Psychological Reports, 1972, 3O, 35-43.
- Cattell, R. B., & Butcher, J. The prediction of achievement and creativity. Indianapolis, Ind.: BobbsMerrill, 1968, pp. 165–166.