Caucasian Front (Chechen War)
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(Russian: Кавказский фронт)
Flag of Caucasian Front and coat of arms of ChRI
|Allegiance||Chechen Republic of Ichkeria
Caucasus Emirate 2007–present
|Engagements||Second Chechen War
Insurgency in the North Caucasus
Civil war in Ingushetia
War on Terror
|Ilias Gorchkhanov 2000–2005
Akhmed Yevloyev 2005–2010
Rasul Makasharipov 2002–2005
Rappani Khalilov 2005–2007
Abdul Madzhid 2007–2008
Muslim Atayev 2002–2005
Anzor Astemirov 2005–2010
Asker Dzhappuyev 2010–2011
Alim Zankishiev 2011–2012
Alan Digorsky 2006–present
The Caucasian Front (Russian: Кавказский фронт) also called Caucasus Front or the Caucasian Mujahadeen, was formally established in May 2005 as an Islamic structural unit of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria's armed forces by the decree of the separatist President of Chechnya Abdul-Halim Sadulayev during the Second Chechen War.
The organisation united various rebel jamaat groups across the North Caucasus to fight the Russian rule not only in Chechnya but also in the rest of the Russian Caucasus. It was led by a Chechen commander Shamil Basayev until his death in July 2006 and since then by an ethnic Ingush Akhmed Yevloyev. Yevloyev was captured alive in June 2010. In October 2007 leaders of the Caucasian Front announced the organization now fights to establish the Caucasus Emirate throughout the North Caucasus of Russia.
While the anti-Russian local insurgencies in North Caucasus started even before the formal creation of the Caucasian Front, two months after Aslan Maskhadov's death, the new Chechen separatist leader Abdul-Halim Sadulayev officially announced that they had formed a Caucasus Front within the framework of "reforming the system of military-political power." Along with the existing Chechen, Dagestani and Ingush "sectors", the Stavropol, Kabardin-Balkar, Krasnodar, Karachai-Circassian, Ossetian and Adyghe jamaats were included in it, meaning that in theory most the regions of the south-west Russia's would be involved in hostilities. In October 2006, Dokku Umarov established two new fronts beyond the North Caucasus region – the Volga and the Ural fronts. The Chechen separatist movement had taken on a new role as the official ideological, logistical and, probably, financial hub of the new insurgency in the North Caucasus. Increasingly frequent clashes between federal forces and local rebels continue in Dagestan and Ingushetia, while sporadic fighting erupts in the other southern Russia regions. Before the declaration of the Caucasus Emirate, the movement had conducted two-large scale attacks, the 2004 Nazran raid in Ingushetia (before the formal proclamation) and the 2005 Nalchik raid in Kabardino-Balkaria. The movement also launched many smaller attacks such as the 2006 Avtury ambush & 2007 Zhani-Vedeno ambush.
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In July 2011, a sharia court ruled in favour of Dokka Umarov to close the rift caused by Umarov's reorganisation of the "armed forces" of Chechnya, the disbanding the so-called "eastern and south-western fronts" and dividing Chechnya into "military sectors." The court asked the rebels to re-swear allegiance to Umarov. Amir Khamzat, the commander of the Riyad-us-Saliheen Martyr Brigade or the organisation's suicide battalion who has been named the commander of the western sector. Hussein Gakayev, who had been named to lead the eastern sector, Aslambek Vadalov and Tarkhan Gaziyev consequently followed suit and re-affirmed their allegiance to Umarov.
List of attacks
- 2004 Nazran raid (before the formal proclamation) : 87 killed,
- 2005 Nalchik raid : 138 killed,
- 2006 Avtury ambush : 7 killed,
- 2007 Zhani-Vedeno ambush : 5 killed,
- 2008 Vladikavkaz bombing : 12 killed,
- 2009 Nazran bombing : 25 killed,
- 2009 Nevsky Express bombing : 28 killed,
- 2010 Moscow Metro bombings : 40 killed,
- 2010 Kizlyar bombings : 12 killed,
- 2010 Stavropol bomb blast : 8 killed,
- 2010 Vladikavkaz bombing : 17 killed,
- 2010 Chechen Parliament attack : Between 6 and 20 killed,
- 2011 Domodedovo International Airport bombing : 36 killed.
- North Caucasus Conflict Spreads to Tatarstan, The Jamestown Foundation, 2 August 2012
- "Split among Chechen Mujahideen overcome". Kavkaz Center. Helsinki: Mikael Storsjö. 25 July 2011.