Caucasus Greeks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Greek communities had settled in parts of the north Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and the high plateau of north-eastern Anatolia, since well before the Christian and into the Byzantine era, especially as traders, Christian Orthodox scholars/clerics, refugees, or mercenaries who had backed the wrong side in the many civil wars and periods of political in-fighting in the Classical/Hellenistic and Late Roman/Byzantine periods.[1] One notable example of such pre-modern Caucasus Greeks is the 7th-century Greek Bishop Cyrus of Alexandria, originally from Phasis in present-day Georgia. However, these Greek settlers in the Caucasus generally became assimilated into the indigenous population, and in particular that of Georgia, with whom Byzantine Greeks shared a common Christian Orthodox faith and heritage.[2]

Official Russian Empire coat of arms of Kars Oblast (1881-1899).

Caucasus Greeks of Kars and early modern Georgia[edit]

Russian Map of the Caucasus and north-eastern Anatolia, 1903

In the modern era the term Caucasus Greeks (modern Greek - Έλληνες του Καυκάσου' or more commonly 'Καυκάσιοι [Έλληνες]', modern Turkish 'Kafkas Rum', lit. 'Caucasus Eastern [i.e., Byzantine Greek] Romans') or, more rarely, Greeks of Trans-Caucasus and Russian Asia Minor is applied to all Pontic Greek communities from the contemporary Russian north Caucasus, Georgia, north-eastern Anatolia, and the former Russian Caucasus provinces of Batum Oblast' and Kars Oblast' (the so-called Russian Asia Minor), now in north-eastern Turkey and Adjara.[3] The vast majority of these Greek communities date from the late Ottoman era, and are usually defined in modern Greek academic circles as 'Eastern Pontic [Greeks]' (modern Greek - ανατολικοι Πόντιοι, modern Turkish 'doğu Pontos Rum'), as well as 'Caucasus Greeks', while outside academic discourse they are sometimes defined somewhat pejoratively and inaccurately as 'Russo-Pontic [Greeks]' (modern Greek - Ρωσο-Πόντιοι).[4] Nevertheless, in general terms Caucasus Greeks can be described as Russianized and pro-Russian empire Pontic Greeks in politics and culture and as Mountain Greeks in terms of lifestyle, since wherever they settled, whether in the Pontic Alps, Georgia, or the South/Low Caucasus they preferred and were most used to living in mountainous areas and especially highland plateaux.[5] In broad terms, it can be said that the Caucasus Greeks' link with the South Caucasus is a direct consequence of the highland plateaux of the latter being seen and used by the Pontic Greeks as a natural refuge and rallying point whenever North-eastern Anatolia was overrun by Muslim Turks in the Seljuk and Ottoman periods.[6]

Caucasus Greek officer from Mouzarat (now Çakırüzüm köyü), Ardahan district, former Russian south Caucasus province of Kars Oblast: Major (later colonel) Christoforos Adamidis of the Russian Imperial Army, circa 1895. Born in 1862 in southern Georgia and later moving with his family to the village of Mouzaret, in the Ardahan district of the Russian Transcaucasus province of Kars, Christos had joined the Russian army when only about 15. He fought in the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish war that led to the provinces of Kars, Ardahan, and Batumi being captured from the Ottomans and incorporated into the Russian Empire, and was commended for bravery during his service. Muslim "Turks" from his district came to call him "Hisir Beg" ('Lord of Grief'), on account of the grief he caused them during the Russo-Turkish War and Russian occupation. Christos eventually became a senior commander with the rank of colonel in the Greek contingent of the Russian Caucasus Army that fought the Ottomans on the Caucasus front and at the Battle of Sarikamish during the First World War. Christos eventually became a senior commander with the rank of colonel in the Greek contingent of the Russian Caucasus Army, which fought the Ottomans on the Caucasus front during the First World War. Between 1918 and 1920 he and two other Caucasus Greeks from Gole/Kiolia - like Christos also former officers in the Tsarist army - organised a civilian militia from among the Caucasus Greeks villagers of their area in a last ditch attempt to defend their homes from Turkish forces after the Kars region had been ceded back by the new Bolshevik government to the Ottoman Empire as part of the Treaty of Brest Litovsk, which signalled the end of hostilities between Russia and Turkey. Christos left for Greek Macedonia in 1921 with many other Caucasus Greeks from the Kars region. Christos died very shortly afterwards whilst attempting to raise a Greek volunteer army for the Asia Minor campaign of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), which like many other Pontic Greeks he dreamed would also lead to the creation of the long sought after Republic of Pontus in North-eastern Anatolia and that this might even extend to his own homeland in the South Caucasus.

Although large numbers of Greeks live in parts of Ukraine and southern Russia, such as Mariupol and Stavropol Krai, the term Caucasus Greeks strictly speaking should be confined to those Greeks who had settled in the former Russian Transcaucasus provinces of Batum Oblast' and Kars Oblast', the region of Georgia called Tsalka, the central Abkhazia and other localities of the Black Sea Russian Riviera. Large numbers of Pontic Greeks from Ottoman north-eastern Anatolia and especially the Gümüşhane (Greek Argyroupolis) region of the Pontic Alps had gone to Tsalka in 1763 on being invited by King Heraclius II of Georgia to develop silver and lead mining at Akhtala and Alaverdi (in present-day Armenia).[7] Many of their descendants survive in Georgia’s Marneuli district, although most immigrated to Greece, and particularly Thessaloniki (Salonika) in Greek Macedonia in the mid-1990s.[8]

However, the largest number of Caucasus Greeks from north-eastern Anatolian who settled in Georgia were those who fled Ottoman reprisals following the 1768-74 Russo-Turkish war and also following the Greek War of Independence and the 1828-29 Russo-Turkish War.[9] In both these wars between the Russian empire and Ottoman Turkey many north-eastern Anatolia Greeks fought in or collaborated with the Russian Army that occupied Erzurum, Gümüşhane, Erzinjan, and Kars (all now in north-eastern Turkey).[10][11] Most of their descendants settled in Georgia (in areas such as Tsalka and Samtskhe-Javakheti), the Russian Trans-Caucasus, and other parts of southern Russia. A smaller number of such Pontic Greeks had of course settled in Georgia and the Russian Caucasus well before the Russo-Turkish wars, most notably those belonging to leading families from the pre-Ottoman Empire of Trebizond.[12] These included several members of the late Byzantine Komnenos or Comnenid dynasty and collateral branches, who often married into princely families from neighbouring Georgia, including those of the Bagrationi and especially the Gurieli and Andronikashvili.[13] Among those who remained in the Pontic Alps and north-eastern Anatolia some led local revolts against the Ottomans, while many others actually intermarried into the Ottoman ruling elite, thereby converting to Islam and joining the Turkish millet.[14]

Several Ottoman-era sources tell us, however, that even among Pontic Greeks belonging to local noble families - such as those of Gavras, Doukas and the Komnenoi - who had turned Turk, many remained Crypto-Christian (in north-eastern Anatolia often referred to as Stavriotes), openly renouncing Islam and taking up arms against Ottoman troops based around Gümüşhane and Erzinjan during the Russo-Turkish wars, before following the Russian army back into Georgia and southern Russia.[15] It was some of these Pontic Greek community leaders that claimed noble lineages extending back to the Empire of Trebizond who subsequently became officers in the Russian Imperial army, as many Armenian and Georgian princes such as Ivane Andronikashvili had previously done.[16] These Caucasus Greek officers, whether of noble Byzantine or more humble Pontic Greek origin, played a significant role in the 1877 Russian conquest of Kars and Ardahan, where many of them settled with their families and other displaced Greeks from northeast Anatolia and Georgia (the latter themselves the descendants of pre-1877 Greek refugees and exiles from northeast Anatolia now re-settled in Kars by the Russian Imperial government).[17]

Caucasus Greek cleric and community leaders

A large number of Caucasus Greeks who settled in Georgia became referred to as Urum (from the Turkish for '[Byzantine] Romans') and speak a Turkish dialect with a large admixture of Pontic Greek, Georgian, and Armenian vocabulary.[18] According to local Greek legend, after the suppression of their revolt against Ottoman rule these Turkish-speaking but Christian Orthodox Caucasus Greeks had been given the choice by Sultan Selim I (aka Selim the Grim) either to accept Islam but continue to use their Greek mother tongue, or to use the Turkish language but retain their Christian Orthodox faith.[19] Selim I had of course been based in the Trebizond region before he became Sultan in 1512, since he was himself of Pontic Greek origin on the side of his mother Gülbahar Sultan.[20]

Nevertheless, most Caucasus Greeks had never had to face this predicament of having to choose between their Christian Orthodox faith and their Pontic Greek language and so were able to retain both, although when in Russian territory they eventually came to adopt Russian as their second language for public and educational purposes.[21] Caucasus Greeks also often maintained some command of Turkish as more or less a third language, thanks to their own roots in north-eastern Anatolia, where they had after all lived (usually very uneasily and in a state of intermittent warfare) alongside Turkish-speaking Muslims since the Seljuk-backed Turkish migrations into 'the lands of Rum' or Anatolia during the 11th and 12th centuries.[22] Pontic Greeks in Georgia and the Russian Caucasus also maintained this command of Turkish so as to communicate with their Muslim neighbours living in the region, most of whom used Turkish as a lingua franca or even adopted it as their first language irrespective of actual ethnic origin.[23] This situation is in stark contrast to that of the Greek Muslims of western Greek Macedonia called Vallahades and the Cretan Muslims, both of whom generally remained ignorant of Turkish, continued to use Greek as their first language, and retained Greek culture and traditions long after superficially converting to Turkish Islam in the middle Ottoman period. Of course, while many Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks had also adopted Islam as early as the 1500s or before, these "new Turks" generally either adopted Turkish and then assimilated into the Turkish-speaking Muslim Ottoman population or they remained Crypto-Christian and then openly reverted to their Christian Orthodoxy on the occasion of the 1828 Russian occupation of northeastern Anatolia or after the passing of the Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856.

Russian siege of Kars, 1828

It should be stressed, then, that the vast majority of these eastern Pontic Greeks who had settled in southern Russia, Georgia, and the Trans-Caucasus region but preserved their distinct Greek identity were mainly the descendants of the Greeks who left the Pontic Alps and the northeast Anatolian highland region after the three Russo-Turkish wars of 1768-74 and 1828–29.[24] Contrary to certain popular myths, these Pontic Greek settlers therefore had absolutely nothing to do with the Byzantine, Hellenistic, or Ancient Greek communities who had previously settled in the region in the pre-Ottoman period. According to conservative estimates these eastern Pontic Greeks who collaborated with and/or followed the Russian army into Georgia and southern Russia following the 1828 Russian occupation of Erzurum and Gümüşhane had made up around 20% of the entire Greek population of the eastern Black Sea coastline and the Pontic Alps that formed its mountain hinterland.[25] They were subsequently resettled by the Russian Imperial government in the Ukraine and other parts of southern Russia, but also especially Georgia and (after 1878) Kars Oblast.[26] Like those Pontic Greeks who fought for Russia in the 1768-74 Russo-Turkish war, most male Greeks who settled in Russian territory following the 1828-29 war continued to serve in the Russian Imperial army, often bearing their own community's hopes to re-capture more Christian Greek territory from the Muslim "Turks" on the back of the Russian Empire.[27]

Pontic Greek militia fighters.

The 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War and the Treaty of San Stefano and Treaty of Berlin that brought it to a close led to the Russian Empire making permanent gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire in north-eastern Anatolia.[28] These centred around the fortified city of Kars in historical northern Armenia, which Russia now administered as Kars Oblast, i.e. the militarily administered province of Kars, which also included the towns and districts of Ardahan and Sarikamish. As in the 1828-29 war, many Greeks of north-eastern Anatolia and Pontus fought in or collaborated with the Imperial Russian Army in the 1877-78 war against the Ottomans, often serving as soldiers and officers in an army that included large numbers of Georgians, Armenians, and Cossacks, as well as Russians proper - the Georgians and Armenians in particular being represented among the senior ranks.[29] Although the Ottoman province or 'vilayet' of Kars already had a several Greek villages dating back to 1830 or sometimes even earlier, most of these later pro-Russian Greeks of north-eastern Ottoman Anatolia settled in Kars province after it was incorporated into the Russian empire in 1878.[30]

It was precisely because most of the Greek settlers in Kars Oblast had entered the region with the Russians from the direction of Georgia, where they had been living for the previous 50–100 years, that contemporaries - and academics later on - came to define them as Caucasus Greeks or Russianized Pontic Greeks, in contrast to those Greek who had never left Ottoman-ruled North-eastern Anatolia. Even in Russian occupied Georgia, however, these Greeks had generally lived in the southern areas of the country which - like the Kars-Ardahan region - were part of the Low Caucasus highland plateau, rather than among the deep valleys and jagged mountain peaks of the High Caucasus range in northern Georgia. In terms of population, the areas in both Georgia and Kars province inhabited by the Caucasus Greeks tended to be those that also had large concentrations of Armenian population - one well-known product of this Greek-Armenian mix being the famous mystic and theosophist George Gurdjieff. These same areas also had various pockets of Muslims of Turkish and non-Turkish (convert) ethnic origin - though the latter had generally become Turkish in speech and culture.

Pontic Greek leaders from Georgia

The Caucasus Greeks of Kars Oblast were mainly concentrated in around 77 towns and villages as part of official Russian government policy to people a traditionally Turkish, Kurdish, Georgian-Muslim (here often called Chveneburi) and Laz-Muslim or Christian but generally non-Orthodox Armenian area with a staunchly pro-Russian Christian Orthodox community.[31] In general they were settled on grassy highland plateaux, such as the Gole/Kiolias plateau of present-day Ardahan province, since these resembled their original lands in the Pontic Alps and later ones they had settled on in Georgia. In towns like Kars, Ardahan, and Sarikamish ethnic Greeks constituted only a small minority (10-15%) of the inhabitants, most of whom were Christian Armenians, Kurdish Muslims, or smaller numbers of Orthodox Georgians, while even many of the mainly ethnic Greek villages still included small numbers of Armenians (including Greek Orthodox Armenians), Georgians, and even Kurds, employed by the Greeks to look after the sheep, cattle, and horses.[32] The Caucasus Greeks of Kars Oblast were generally reasonably well educated, every village having its own school, although most were involved in farming, horse breeding, or mining for their livelihoods. A smaller but still significant number did, however, work outside the agricultural and mining sectors. In particular, many pursued careers as regular soldiers and officers in the Russian Imperial Army, in the regional police force, as clergymen, or even within the provincial Russian administration. Unlike the Pontic Greeks of the Black Sea coastal cities like Trebizond, however, very few Caucasus Greeks were involved in trade.[33]

Caucasus Greek family from Magaradžik (now Ataköy), Kars Oblast, circa 1900.
Caucasus Greek officer in the Russian Imperial Army - Vasil-Aga (Vasilis Anthopoulos) and his family
Mount Falakro, Drama Prefecture, eastern Greek Macedonia, where many Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks resettled

Caucasus Greeks were often multilingual, able to speak, read, and write Greek, Russian, Turkish, and sometimes also Georgian and Armenian.[34] Although their native language was Greek, generally only the most highly educated - such as scholars, lawyers, members of the Orthodox clergy educated in Russian universities, and other community leaders claiming noble or royal lineage extending back to the Empire of Trebizond - had more than an intermediate-level knowledge of formal Demotic Greek and the more classicizing Katharevousa of the late Byzantine period.[35] The majority were restricted to their own variant of Pontic Greek, which had a somewhat larger admixture of Turkish, Georgian, Russian, and Armenian vocabulary than the colloquial form of Greek used in Pontus proper.[36] However, the Caucasus Greeks had had to become fluent Russian speakers, as a result of the schooling and education policies implemented by the Russian Imperial government, although at home and amongst themselves they continued to favour Greek.[37] But Caucasus Greeks were still often conflated or confused with Russians in Kars Oblast because of their use of Russian and worship alongside Russians in the same Orthodox churches as well as their generally Russianized and pro-Russian empire outlook. In fact, one quite popular but stereotyped way local 'Turks' might differentiate Caucasus Greeks from other Pontic Greeks was by stating that the former were "Greeks who had taken the Borscht [soup] from the Russians"![38]

The Caucasus Greeks had closer relations with the Russian Orthodox settlers of Kars Oblast - often worshiping in each other's churches and even intermarrying - than with the Christian Armenians or Orthodox Georgians, primarily because most of the former were not in communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople while many of the latter were becoming increasingly attracted to Georgian nationalism.[39] Since many of the indigenous Turkish-, Kurdish-, and Laz-speaking Muslims from the Kars region had fled westwards into Ottoman territory during and after the 1877-78 war, many other non-Orthodox Christian communities were also resettled there by the Russian administration.[40] These included Russian religious minorities considered "heretical" by the Russian Orthodox Church, such as Dukhobors and Molokans, who as pacifists did not perform Russian military service and so unlike the Caucasus Greeks, Georgians, and Armenians did not play a significant role in the wars against the Ottomans. Even smaller numbers of Caucasus Germans, Estonians, Poles, and Lithuanians, were settled in Kars Oblast, despite none of these communities having any significant historic or cultural links with the Transcaucasus and Eastern Anatolia, in contrast to the long-standing links Pontic Greeks had always had with the region.[41]

Most Caucasus Greeks left Kars Oblast for Greece following the cession of the area back to the Ottoman Empire in 1917 but before the official population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1922-23.[42] They mainly settled in villages in Greek Macedonia previously inhabited by Ottoman Muslims and again generally preferred those situated on grassy plateaux or mountain districts, since these most closely resembled their former home in the South Caucasus. However, like many other Greeks of Pontus and north-eastern Anatolia, significant numbers of Caucasus Greeks who wanted to remain in what was now Turkish territory at any cost chose to convert to Islam and adopt the Turkish language for public purposes so as to be exempted from the population exchange.[43] According to the terms of the population exchange protocol (which was essentially an appendage to the Treaty of Lausanne) the categories 'Greek' and 'Turk' were defined by religious affiliation rather than ethnicity, resulting in large numbers of Greek Muslims from Macedonia and Crete being categorized as 'Turkish in soul' and so resettled in the Turkish Aegean and parts of Anatolia.[44] Those Caucasus Greeks who had remained in north-eastern Anatolia, like the many other Pontic Greeks who had also converted to Islam and adopted the Turkish language, subsequently became assimilated into the wider Turkish-Muslim population of the provinces of Trabzon, Sivas, Erzurum, Erzinjan, Kars, and Ardahan.[45]

The Caucasus Greeks in contemporary Greek Macedonia[edit]

During World War I most able-bodied Caucasus Greek men again fought for Russia against the Ottoman Empire, usually serving in the Russian Caucasus Army, which was led by a coterie of senior Russian, Georgian, and Armenian officers. Most of the Caucasus Greeks of Kars subsequently left for Greece in 1919, before the province was officially re-incorporated into the territory of the new Turkish Republic and the large-scale Greek-Turkish population exchange of 1922-23.[46] Most were resettled in Kilkis province and other parts of central and eastern Greek Macedonia, particularly in villages of the mountainous Drama prefecture that until 1922 had been inhabited largely by "Turks" (in this case Ottoman Muslims of mainly Bulgarian and Greek Macedonian convert origin).[47] During the German occupation of Greece (1940–44) and Greek Civil War of 1943-49 most Caucasus Greek men fought for ELAS, the military wing of EAM, the leading Greek communist guerrilla organisation that fought against the German occupation.[48] Many in Greece argue that the strong communist affiliations of Greek Macedonia's Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks, most of whom even today continue to support the Greek Communist Party KKE, has never had anything to do with ideology but was actually due to residual pro-Russian sentiment and traditional family expectations. However, the communist affiliations of most Caucasus Greeks has also been cited to account for why they often play down or even conceal any previous involvement their ancestors may have had in the Tsarist army or administration during the Russian occupation of the Transcaucasus region.[49] One example of a high ranking Caucasus Greek from Kars Oblast who spent much of his life fighting and propagandizing against Soviet communism was Constantine Kromiadi.

Caucasus Greek community leaders and young army cadets of Kars, circa 1900.

Caucasus Greeks have generally assimilated well into modern Greek society, being successful within a broad range of trades and professions. They are generally conflated by other Greeks with the Pontic Greeks of Pontus proper, whom many in Greece see as very socially conservative, clan-like, and inward-looking. Otherwise, Caucasus Greeks are often inaccurately described by other Greeks as 'Russo-Pontic [Greeks]' and sometimes even confused with the many ethnic Greeks who came from Georgia and southern Russia in the mid-90s, particularly since they often live in the same parts of Salonika, share a similar Pontic Greek dialect, and tend to have surnames ending in '-dis' (from the Ancient Greek for 'the sons of...').[50] However, it is generally the ethnic Greeks who came to Greek Macedonia from Georgia and southern Russia in the mid-1990s rather than the Caucasus Greeks who came shortly after 1919 that other Greeks often accuse of among other things being involved in organised crime in northern Greece and the wider Balkans and creating a kind of parallel, underground society. The Caucasus Greeks and Pontic Greeks in general who settled in northern Greece between 1919 and 1923 have, on the other hand, had a lot more time to assimilate into contemporary Greek society than the more recent arrivals from Georgia and southern Russia, and as a consequence have a far better command of standard Modern Greek and awareness of mainstream Greek culture.[51] The Caucasus Greeks and Pontic Greeks of Greek Macedonia have still managed to preserve some of their unique traditions and have also established many cultural and civil society organisations. The aspect of Pontic Greek culture most apparent to the outside observer is their traditional food, costume, music, and dance, with those of the Caucasus Greeks reflecting heavier Russian, Georgian, and Armenian influences. For example, the traditional costume of Caucasus Greek women resembles that of southern Russian women, while the men's costume is light grey, in contrast to the black attire worn by Greek men from Pontus proper, which they share with the Muslim Laz of the eastern Pontic Alps.[52]

List of settlements in the Russian Transcaucasus with either a sizeable population of Greeks[edit]

Although precise figures are difficult to verify it is likely a total of around 56,350 Greeks lived within Kars Oblast until 1919. The following is a list of the towns and villages in which they lived, given in both Greek and English transliteration. The names of the vast majority of these settlements are evidently of Turkish or Armenian origin in Kars Oblast’, of Georgian origin in Batum Oblast’ and even many majority-Greek settlements were also inhabited by Christians from other ethnic groups, particularly Orthodox Georgians, Orthodox and/or Gregorian Armenians, and Orthodox and/or “Sectarian” Russians.[53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]

View from former Caucasus Greek village of Vargenis (now Yanaltı) across onto Ardahan plateau
A former Caucasus Greek village - Ali-Sofi of the Hellenes (Alisofu) today.
Greek village of Khandara (now Handere) church and school, circa 1890

A1) Villages and settlements with purely Caucasus Greek population in BATUM OBLAST’:

  1. Ačkua.
  2. Akhalšeni.
  3. Dagva of the Hellenes.
  4. Kvirike of the Hellenes.

A2) Towns, villages and settlements with part Greek population in BATUM OBLAST’:

  1. ARTVIN.
  2. BATUM.
  3. Kobulety.

B1) Villages and settlements with purely or majority Caucasus Greek population in KARS OBLAST’:

  1. Abul’vart ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Khorosan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Kurbançayır köyü. Old Russian: Абульвартъ Abul’vart. Official Greek: Ἀμπουλβὰρτ Ampoulvàrt, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αμπουλβάρ, Αμπουλβάρτ, Αμπουλμπάρτ, Απουλβάρτ, Απουλπάτ, etc.―. Armenian: Աբուրվարդ Aburvard. Turkish: Abulbard.
  2. Ali-Sofi of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Alisofu köyü. Old Russian: Али-Софи греческій Ali-Sofi grečeskiy, to avoid confusion with the not-far Али-Софи туркменскій Ali-Sofi turmenskiy inhabited by Alevi Turcomans. Official Greek: Ἀλῆ-Σοφῆ Alē̂-Sophē̂, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αλή Σοφή, Αλήσοφη, Αλή-Σοφή, Αλίσοφι, etc.―. Armenian: Ալիսոֆի Alisofi. Turkish: Rum Alisofu.
  3. Ardost ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Akbaba köyü. Old Russian: Ардостъ Ardost. Official Greek: Ἁρτός Artós, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αρδίστ, Αρντίστ, Αρντόστ, Αρτός, Αρτόστ,etc.―. Armenian: Արդոստ Ardost. Turkish: Ardos.
  4. Arsenyak of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty, nowday Ormanlı köyü. Old Russian: Арсенякъ греческій Arsenyak grečeskiy, to avoid confusion with the nearby Арсенякъ турецкій Arsenyak turetskiy inhabited by Sunni Turks. Official Greek: Ἀρσενιάκ Arseniák, written in many monotonic versions ―Αρσανάκ, Αρσενέκ, Αρσενιά, Αρσενιάκ, Αρσενιάν, Ερσενέκ,etc.―. Armenian: Արսենյակ Arsenyak. Turkish: Ersinek.
  5. Azat ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Azat köyü. Old Russian: Азатъ Azat. Official Greek: [Ἅγιος?] Ἀζὰτ [Hágios?] Azàt, written in monotonic version as Αζάτ. Armenian: Ազատ Azat. Turkish: Azat.
  6. Bagdat of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Ovapınar köyü. Old Russian: Багдатъ греческое Bagdat grečeskoe, to avoid confusion with the nearby Багдатъ турецкое Bagdat turetskoe inhabited by Sunni Turks, with whom it constituted a single village until 1914. Official Greek: Μπαγτὰτ Mpagtàt, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Βαγδάτ, Μπαγδάτ, Μπαγντάτ, Μπαγτάτ, Παγδάτ, Παγντάτ, Παγτάτ, etc.―. Armenian: Բաղդատ Baghdat. Turkish: Bağdat.
  7. Bardus ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Olti/Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Gaziler köyü. Old Russian: Бардусъ Bardus. Official Greek: Μπαρτούζ Mpartoúz, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μπαρδούς, Μπαρντούζ, Μπαρτούς, Παρντούζ, Παρτούζ, Παρτούς,etc. ―. Armenian: Բարդուս Bardus and, historically, also Բարտեզ Bartez. Turkish: Bardız.
  8. Beberek ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Çetinsu köyü. Old Russian: Беберекъ Beberek. Official Greek: …?, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ζεμπερέκ, Μπεμπερέκ, Πεπερέκ, Πιαπιαριάκ, Πιπερέκ, etc.―. Turkish: Beberek.
  9. Belyuk-Baš ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Bölükbaşı köyü. Old Russian: Белюкъ-Башъ Belyuk-Baš. Official Greek: Μπελιοὺκ-Μπὰς Mpelioùk-Mpàs, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μπελίκ-Μπάς, Μπελιούκ-Μπας, Πελιηπήσκιοϊ, Πελικμπάς, Πελίκπας, Πελίκ-Πάσκιοϊ, Πελιούκ-Πας, Πελιούκ-Πάς,etc.―. Turkish: Bölükbaşı.
  10. Bezirgyan-Kečit ~ ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Eskigeçit köyü. Old Russian: Безиргянъ-Кечитъ Bezirgyan-Kečit. Official Greek: Μπεζιρκιὰν-γκετσὶτ Mpezirkiàn-gketsìt, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μπεζιργκέν-Κετσήτ, Μπεζιργκιάν-γκετσίτ,Μπεζιργκιάν-κατσίτ,Μπεζιργκιάν-Κετσήτ, Πεζεργκάν Κατσίτ, Πεζιργκιάν-κετσίτ, Πεζιρκιάν-γκετσίτ, Πεζιρκιάνκετσιτ, Πεζιρκιάν-Κετσίτ, etc.―. Armenian: Բեզիրգանքեչիկ Bezirgank’yech’ik. Turkish: Bezirgângeçit.
  11. Čapik lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Aşağıdamlapınar köyü. Old Russian: Чапикъ нижній Čapik nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Τσαπὶκ Kátō Tsapìk, written in monotonic version as Κάτω Τσαπίκ or Κάτω Τσιαπίκ. Armenian: Չափիկ Ներքին Ch’ap’ik Nerk’in. Turkish: Aşağı Çeplik.
  12. Čapik upper ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Yukarıdamlapınar köyü. Old Russian: Чапикъ верхній Čapik verkhniy. Official Greek: Ἐπάνω (= Ἄνω) Τσαπὶκ Epánō (= Ánō) Tsapìk, written in monotonic version as Άνω Τσαπίκ or Άνω Τσιαπίκ. Armenian: Չափիկ Վերին Ch’ap’ik Verin. Turkish: Yukarı Çeplik.
  13. Čatakh ~ ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Çatak köyü. Old Russian: Чатахъ Čatakh. Official Greek: Τσατὰχ Tsatàk, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Τζιατάχ, Τσατάκ, Τσατάχ, Τσιαδάχ, etc.―. Turkish: Çatak.
  14. Čermuk lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Kaynak Aşağı Mahallesi. Old Russian: Чермукъ нижній Čermuk nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Τσορμίκ Kátō Tsormík, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Κάτω Τσερμίκ, Κάτω Τσιορμίκ, Κάτω Τσορμίκ, etc.―. Turkish: Aşağı Çermik.
  15. Čermuk upper ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Kaynak Yukarı Mahallesi. Old Russian: Чермукъ верхній Čermuk verkhniy. Official Greek: Ἄνω Τσορμίκ Ánō Tsormík, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Άνω Τσερμίκ, Άνω Τσιορμίκ, Άνω Τσορμίκ, etc.―. Turkish: Yukarı Çermik.
  16. Čilakhana ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Çilehane köyü. Old Russian: Чилахана Čilakhana. Official Greek: Τσιλαχανὰ Tsilakhanà, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Σιλαχανά, Τζηλαχανέ, Τσιλαχανά, Τσιλεχανέ, etc.―. Turkish: Çilehane.
  17. Čiplakhly ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Çıplaklı köyü. Old Russian: Чиплахлы Čiplakhly. Katharevousa|Official Greek]]: Τσιπλαχλὶ Tsiplakhlì or Γυμνὸν Gumnòn, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Τζηπλαχλή, Τσιπκακλί, Τσιπλαχλή, Τσίπλαχλη, Τσιπλάχλι, etc.―. Turkish: Çıplaklı.
  18. Demur-Kapi of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Gel’e sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Yenidemirkapı köyü. Old Russian: Демуръ-Капи греческій Demur-Kapi grečeskiy, to avoid confusion with the nearby Демуръ-Капи куртинскій Demir-Kapu kurtinskiy, inhabited by Sunni Kurds. Official Greek: Ντεμὶρ-Καποῦ Ntemìr Kapoū̂ or Σιδηρᾶς Πύλης Sidērā̂s Púlēs, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Δεμίρ Καπού, Δεμίρ-Καπού, Δεμίρ-Καπότ, Νδεμίρ-καπού, Ντεμίρκαπι, Ντεμίρ-Καπού, Ντεμίρκαπου, Τεμίρ Καπού,etc. ―. Turkish: Demirkapı[-i] Rum.
  19. Divik ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Yayıklı köyü. Old Russian: Дивикъ Divik. Official Greek: Τιβίκ Tivík, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Διβίκ, Ντιβίκ, Τιβίκ, etc.―. Armenian: Դիվուկ Divuk. Turkish: Divik.
  20. Dort-Kilisa ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Uğurtaş köyü. Old Russian: Дортъ-Килиса Dort-Kilisa. Official Greek: Ντὸρτ-Κιλισὲ Ntòrt-Kilisè or Τέσσαρες Ἐκκλησίες Téssares Ekklēsíes, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Διορτ-Κιλισέ, Δορτ Κίλισα, Δορτ Κλισέ, Δορτ-Κιλισά, Δορτ-Κιλισέ, Ντιορτ Κιλσέ, Ντιόρτκιλισε, Ντορτ Κιλισέ, Ντορτ-κιλισέ, Ντορτ-κιλσέ, Τόρτ Κλισέ, Τόρτ-κιλισσέ, etc.―. Armenian: Դոռթ-Քիլիսա Dorrt’-K’ilisa or Դորտքիլիա Dortk’ilia. Turkish: Dörtkilise.
  21. El-Kečmaz ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Yolgeçmez köyü. Old Russian: Елъ-Кечмазъ El-Kečmaz. Official Greek: …?, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γελκεσμέζ, Γελκετζμέζ, Γελκετσμέζ, Γελ-Κετσμέζ, Γελκετσμές, Γιόλγκετσμεζ, Γιολ-Κεσμέζ, Γιολκετσμέζ, Ελκετσμέζ, etc.―. Armenian: Յոլքեչմազ Yolk’yech’maz. Turkish: Yolgeçmez.
  22. Engidža ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Yenice köyü. Old Russian: Енгиджа Engidža. Official Greek: Γεϊτζά Geïtzá or Γενιτζὲ Genitzè, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γέγκζα, Γέϊτζα, Γέϊτζε, Γέϊτζια, Γέιτσα, Γενητζέ, Γενιτζέ, Γενιτσέ, Ενκιτζά, etc.―. Armenian: Ենգիջա Yengija. Turkish: Yenice.
  23. Enikey ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Horasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Yeniköy köyü. Old Russian: Еникей Enikey. Official Greek: Γενήκιοϊ Genḗkioï, Γενῆ-κιοϊ Genē̂-kioïor Νεοχῶρι Neokhō̂ri, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γενή-κιοϊ, Γενίκιοϊ, Γενί-Κιοϊ, Γενί-κιοϊ, Ενί-Κέϊ, etc.―. Armenian: Ենիքյոյ Yenik’yoy, renamed in 1918 by Armenian autohorities Նորաշեն Վերին Norashen Verin. Turkish: Yeniköy.
  24. Fakhrel’ ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Kartalpınar köyü. Old Russian: Фахрель Fakhrel’. Official Greek: Φαχρὲλ Phakhrèl, written in monotonic versions as Φαχρέβ or Φαχρέλ. Turkish: Fahrel or Fahril.
  25. Gadži-Vali ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Šuragel’ sub-district (old Russian: Шурагельскій участокъ Šuragel’skiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Hacıveli köyü. Old Russian: Гаджи-Вали Gadži-Vali. Official Greek: Χατζῆ-Βελῆ Gatzē̂-Velē̂, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Χατζή Βελή, Χατζή-Βαλή, Χατζή-βελή, Χατζί-Βελή, etc.―. Armenian: Հաջի-Վալի Haji-Vali. Turkish: Hacıveli.
  26. Garam-Vartan ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Karaçoban köyü. Old Russian: Гарамъ-Вартанъ Garam-Vartan. Official Greek: Ἀράμ-Βαρτὰν Arám-Vartànor Χαραμῆ-Βαρτὰν Kharamē̂-Vartàn, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αράμ Βαρτάν, Αραμιβαρτάν, Γαράμ-Βαρτάν, Γαραμή Βαρτάν, Χαραμβαρτάν, Χαραμή Βαρτάν, Χαραμή βαρτάν, etc.—. Armenian: Արա-Վարդան Ara-Vardan or Հարամ-Վարդան Haram-Vardan. Turkish: Hram[i] Vartan.
  27. Gyulyabert ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Çamlıçatak köyü. Old Russian: Гюлябертъ Gyulyabert. Official Greek: Κιουλεπὲρτ Kioulepèrt or Προσήλιο Prosḗlio, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γιηλιαμπέρτ, Γκιουλεμπέρτ, Γκιουλεπέρτ, Γκιουλιαμπέρτ, Γουλιαμπέρτ, Κιουλεπέρ, Κιουλεπέρτ, Κιουλιαπέρτ, etc.―. Armenian: Գյուզաբերդ Gyuzaberd. Turkish: Gölebert.
  28. Islamzor ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Aydınalan köyü. Old Russian: Исламзоръ Islamzor. Official Greek: Ἰσλαμσόρ Islamsór, written in monotonic versions as Ιασλαμψώρ or Ισλαμσόρ. Armenian: Իսլամձոր Islamdzor. Turkish: Arslansor or İslâmsor.
  29. Ivanpol’ ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Mollamustafa köyü. Old Russian: Молла-Мустафа Molla-Mustafa, renamed in the first 1880s Иванполь Ivanpol’. Official Greek: Μολὰ-Μουσταφᾶ Molà Moustaphā̂ or Μουλᾶ Μουσταφᾶ Moulā̂ Moustaphā̂, renamed Ἰβανπὸλ Ivanpòl or Ἰωαννούπολις Iōannoúpolis, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μελά Μουσταφά, Μόλα-Μουσταφά, Μολλά-Μουσταφά, Μολομουσταφά, Μουλά-Μουσταφά, Ιβανπόλ, Ιβάν-πολ, etc.―. Armenian: Մոլլա-Մուստաֆա Molla-Mustafa, renamed Իվանպոլ Ivanpol. Turkish: Mollamustafa.
  30. Kamyšly ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Kamışlı köyü. Old Russian: Камышлы Kamyšly. Official Greek: Γαμισλὶ Gamislì, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γαμισλή, Γάμισλη, Γαμισλί, Καμισλή, Κάμισλη, Καμισλί, Κάμισλι, etc.―. Turkish: Kamışlı.
  31. Karakilisa ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Gelinalan köyü. Old Russian: Каракилиса Karakilisa. Official Greek: Καρὰ-Κιλισὲ Karà-Kilisè or Μαυροκκλήσηον Mavrokklḗsēon, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γαράκιλσα, Γαράκλησε, Καρά Κιλισέ, Καρακηλισά, Καρά-Κιλις, Καρακλής, Καράκλησε, Καράκλισε, etc.―. Armenian: Ղարաքիլիսա Վերին Gharak’ilisa Verin. Turkish: Karakilise.
  32. Karakurt ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Horasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Karakurt köyü. Old Russian: Каракуртъ Karakurt. Official Greek: Καρὰ-Κοὺρτ Karà-Koùrt, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γαραγούρτ, Γαρά-Κούρτ, Καρακουρούτ, Καρακούρτ, Καρακούρτ, Καρακούρτ, Καρά-Κούρτetc.―. Armenian: Ղարաղուտ Gharaghut. Turkish: Karakurt.
  33. Karaurgan ~ ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Hurasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Karaurgan köyü. Old Russian: Караурганъ Karaurgan. Official Greek: Καρὰ-Οὐργάν Karà-Ourgán, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γαράουργαν, Γαρά-Ουργάν, Καράοργαν, Καραουργάν, Καράουργαν, Καρά-Ουργάν, Καράουργκαν, etc.―. Armenian: Կարաուրգան Karaurgan. Turkish: Karaurgan.
  34. Kečevan ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Tunçkaya köyü. Old Russian: Кечеванъ Kečevan. Official Greek: Κετσιβάν Ketsiván, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Κετσεβάν, Κετσηβάν, Κετσιβάν, Κιατσιβάν, etc.―. Armenian: … Kech‘ravan and, historically, also Կեչրոր Kech’ror. Turkish: Geçivan or Keçivan.
  35. Ker-ogly ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Horasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Köroğlu köyü. Old Russian: Керъ-оглы Ker-ogly. Official Greek: Κιόρογλου Kióroglou, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Κέρογλι, Κιόρογλη, Κιόρογλι, Κιόρογλου, Κόρογλου, etc.―. Armenian: Քյոռօղլի K’yorroghli and, historically, also ԶաղինZaghin and ԶեղինZeghin. Turkish: Köroğlu, Zağin or Zeğin.
  36. Kešar ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Gel’e sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Dedekılıcı köyü. Old Russian: Кешаръ Kešar. Official Greek: Κεσὲρ Kesèr. written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Κεσάρ, Κεσέρ, Κιασάρ, Κιασιάρ, Κιασσιάρ, etc.―. Turkish: Keşar.
  37. Khalif-ogly of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Halefoğlu köyü. Old Russian: Халифъ-оглы греческій Khalif-ogly grečeskiy until 1909, to avoid confusion with the nearby Халифъ-оглы куртинскій Khalif-ogly kurtinskiy inhabited by Sunni Kurds, abolished in 1908 due to the voluntary dispersion of his inhabitants. Official Greek: Χαλίφ-Ὀγλῆ Khalíph-Oglē̂, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Χαλήφ-Ογλού, Χαλήφ-ογλού, Χαλίφ Ογλού, Χαλίφ-Ογλί, Χαλίφογλου, etc.―. Armenian: Խալիֆօղլի Khalifoghli. Turkish: Halefoğlu.
  38. Khanakh lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Hanak Aşağı Mahallesi. Old Russian: Ханахъ нижній Khanak nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Χανὰκ Kátō Khanàk, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Κάτω Γανάχ, Κάτω Κανάκ, Κάτω Χανάκ, Κάτω Χανάχ, etc.―. Armenian: Խանախ Մեծ Khanakh Mets. Turkish: Aşağı Hanak.
  39. Khandara ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Hurasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Handere köyü. Old Russian: Хандара Khandara. Official Greek: Χαντερὲ Khanterè written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Χάνδαρα, Χαν-Δερέ, Χάνδερε, Χάνδερε, Χάνταρα, Χαντερέ, Χάντιαρε, etc.―. Armenian: Խանդերե Khandere. Turkish: Handere.
  40. Khaskey ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Hasköy köyü. Old Russian: Хаскей Khaskey. Official Greek: Χάσκιοϊ Kháskioï, written in monotonic version as Χάσκεϊ or Χάσκιοϊ. Armenian: Խասքեյ Khask’yey. Turkish: Hasköy, Hoçuvan or Hoçvan.
  41. Khaznadar ~ settlement (Old Russian: поселокъ poselok) and, from 1914, village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie), in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Kağızman Haznedar mahallesi. Old Russian: Хазнадаръ Khaznadar. Official Greek: Χαζναντὰρ Khaznantàr, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Χαζναδάρ, Χαζναντάρ, Χαζνατάρ, Χασκαντάρ, etc.―. Armenian: Խանախ Ներքին Khanakh Nerk’in. Turkish: Haznedar.
  42. Khinzrik ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Çağlayan köyü. Old Russian: Хинзрикъ Khinzrik. Official Greek: Χιντζιρίκ Khintzirík, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Χινζιρίκ, Χινζφίκ, Χιντζιρίκ etc.―. Turkish: Hınzırik.
  43. Kizil-Kilisa ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Uzungazi köyü. Old Russian: Кизилъ-Килиса Kizil-Kilisa. Official Greek: Κιζὶλ-Κιλισὲ Kizìl-Kilisè or Κόκκινη Ἐκκλησία Kókkinē Ekklēsía, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γιζίλ-κιλισσέ, Γυζίλ Κλισέ, Κηζήλ-κλησέ, Κιζίλ Κιλίσε, Κιζίλ-Κιλίσα, Κιζίλ-Κιλισέ, Κυζίλ Κλισέ,etc.―. Armenian: Կզըլքիլիսա Kzylk’ilisa or Ղզըլքիլիսա Ghzylk’ilisa. Turkish: Kızılkilise.
  44. Konk ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Kuzupınarı köyü. Old Russian: Конкъ Konk. Official Greek: Κὸνκ Kònk, written in monotonic versions as Κόγκ or Κόνκ. Armenian: Կոնք Konk’. Turkish: Konk.
  45. Lale Varkenez village, now Balčeşme köyü. Often confused with Varkenez, the current, officially Turkish named village of Yanatlı köyü.
  46. Lal-ogly ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Laloğlu köyü. Old Russian: Лалъ-оглы Lal-ogly. Official Greek: Λάλογλη Láloglē, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Λάλογλη, Λάλ-Ογλή, Λάλ-Όγλη, Λάλογλι, Λάλ-Ογλί, Λάλ-Όγλι, Λάλογλου, Λάλ-Ογλού, etc.―. Armenian: Լալօղլի Laloghli. Turkish: Laloğlu.
  47. Magaradžik ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Ataköy köyü. Old Russian: Магараджикъ Magaradžik. Official Greek: Μαγαρατζίκ Magaratzík, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μαγαρατζήκ, Μαγαρατζίκ, Μαγαρατσίκ, etc.―. Armenian: Մաղարաջիկ Վերին Magharajik Verin, renamed in 1918 by Armenian autohorities Այրիվան Ayrivan. Turkish: Mağaracık.
  48. Makhsudžik ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Maksutçuk köyü. Old Russian: Махсуджикъ Makhsudžik. Official Greek: Μασουρτσίκ Masourtsík, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μασαρτζίκ, Μασουρτζίκ, Μασουρτζούχ, Μασουρτσίκ, etc.―. Armenian: Մախսուջիկ Վերին Makhsujik Verin. Turkish: Maksutçuk.
  49. Mečetly ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Horasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Mescitli köyü. Old Russian: Мечетлы Mečetly. Official Greek: Μετζιτλὶ Metzitlì, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μετζιτλή, Μετζιτλί, Μετσιτλή, Μέτσιτλη, Μέτσιτλι, Μιάτσιτλη, etc.―. Turkish: Mescitli.
  50. Medžingert lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Horasan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday İnkaya köyü. Old Russian: Меджингертъ нижній Medžingert nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Μεντζιγκέρτ Katō Mentzigkért, written in many monotonic versions ―for example Κάτω Μεντζικέρτ, Κάτω Μετζιγγέρτ, Κάτω Μιτζινγκέρτ, Κάτω Μουζιγκέρτ, Κάτω Μουζινγκέρτ, etc.—. Armenian: Միջինբերդ Ստորին Mijinberd Storin. Turkish:Micingerd[-ı] Ulya or Yukarı Micingirt.
  51. Medžingert upper ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Khorosan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Çamyazı köyü. Old Russian: Меджингертъ верхній Medžingert verkhniy. Official Greek: Ἄνω Μεντζιγκέρτ Ánō Mentzigkért, written in many monotonic versions ―for example Άνω Μεντζικέρτ, Άνω Μετζιγγέρτ, Άνω Μιτζινγκέρτ, Άνω Μουζιγκέρτ, Άνω Μουζινγκέρτ, etc.—. Armenian: Միջինբերդ Վերին Mijinberd Verin. Turkish: Micingerd[-ı] Süfla or Aşağı Micingirt.
  52. Merdenek ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan, now GöleGel'e/Kiolias. Old Russian: Гелье Gel’e or Мерденекъ Merdenek. Official Greek: Γκιόλε Gkióle , [Γ]Κιόλια [G]Kólia or Μερτενέκ Mertenék, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γκιόλε, Γκιόλια, Κιόλια, Μερδενέκ, Μερτενέκ, Μερτινίκ, etc.―. Armenian: Մերդենեկ Merdenek or Մերռենեկ Merrrenek, renamed in 1918 by Armenian autohorities Մարտենիք Martenik’, and, historically, also Կող [ամրոց]Kogh [amrots’] or Կողա [ամրոց]Kogha [amrots’]. Turkish: Mardenik or Merdenik.
  53. Merines lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Aşağıbakraçlı köyü. Old Russian: Меринесъ нижній Merines nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Μερινὶς Kátō Merinìs, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Κάτω Μερενές, Κάτω Μερενίζ, Κάτω Μερενίξ, Κάτω Μερινέζ, Κάτω Μερινίξ, Κάτω Μερινίς, etc.—. Armenian: Մերինես Ստորին Merines Storin. Turkish: Aşağı Merinis.
  54. Merines upper ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Yukarıbakraçlı köyü. Old Russian: Меринесъ нижній Merines nižniy. Official Greek: Ἄνω Μερινὶς Ánō Merinìs, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Άνω Μερενές, Άνω Μερενίζ, Άνω Μερενίξ, Άνω Μερινέζ, Άνω Μερινίξ, Άνω Μερινίς, etc.—. Armenian: Մերինես Վերին Merines Verin. Turkish: Yukarı Merinis.
  55. Muzaret ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Çakırüzüm köyü. Old Russian: Мюзаретъ Myuzaret. Official Greek: Μουζερέτ Mouzerét, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Μεζερέτ, Μουζαράτ, Μουζαρέτ, Μουζερέτ, etc.―. Armenian: Մուզարեթ Muzaret’. Turkish: Muzaret.
  56. Nariman ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Ünlükaya köyü. Old Russian: Нариманъ Nariman, renamed Нариманъ греческій Nariman grečeskiy in 1915 when, after the liberation of Theodosioupolis, the Russian Imperial Army conquested Нариманъ мусульманскій Nariman musul’manskiy, better known as Идъ Id. Official Greek: Ναρμάν Narmán, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ναρεμάν, Ναριμάν, Ναρμάν, Νάρμαν, etc.―. Armenian: Նարիման Nariman and, historically, also Նամրավան [Փոքր]Namravan [P’vok’r] and . Turkish: Narman.
  57. Olukhly ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Oluklu köyü. Old Russian: Олухлы Olukhly. Official Greek: Ὀλουχλῆ Oloukhlē̂, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ολουγλή, Ολουκλού, Όλουχλη, Ολουχλί, etc.―. Armenian: Օլուխլի Olukhli. Turkish: Oluklu.
  58. Ortakey ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Ortaköy köyü. Old Russian: Ортакей Ortakey. Official Greek: Ὀρτάκιοϊ Ortákioï, Ὀρτᾶ-κιοϊ Ortā̂-kioï or Μεσοχῶρι Mesokhō̂ri, written in monotonic versions as Ορτάκιοϊ or Ορτά-Κιοϊ. Armenian: Օրթաքյոյ Ort’ak’yoy. Turkish: Ortaköy.
  59. Panžuret ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Olti/Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty until 1909, when it was transferred to Tausker sub-district (old Russian: Таускерскій участокъ Tauskerskiy učastok) of Ol’ty, now İnceçay köyü. Old Russian: Панжуретъ Panžuret. Official Greek: Παντζαρότ Pantzarót or Παντζαρώτ Pantzarṓt, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Παντζαρότ, Παντζαρώτ, Παντζερότ, Παντζουρέτ, Πατσαρότ, Πατσουρέρ, Πατσουρέτ, etc.―. Armenian: … Panchrud. Turkish: Pancırot or Pançırud.
  60. Posik ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Olti]]/Ol’ty sub-district (old Russian: Ольтинскiй участокъ Ol’tinskiy učastok) of Ol’ty,now Gezenek köyü. Old Russian: Посикъ Posik. Official Greek: Ποσίκ Posík, written in monotonic versions as Ποσέκ or Ποσίκ. Armenian: Փոսիկ P’vosik. Turkish: Posik.
  61. Salut ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Dereyolu köyü. Old Russian: Салутъ Salut. Official Greek: Σαλοὺτ Saloùt, written in monotonic versions as Σαλιούτ or Σαλούτ. Armenian: Սալուտ Salut. Turkish: Salot or Salut.
  62. Salut lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Aşağısallıpınar köyü. Old Russian: Салутъ нижній Salut nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Σαλοὺτ Katō Saloùt, written in monotonic versions as Κάτω Σαλιούτ or Κάτω Σαλούτ. Armenian: Սալուտ Ներքին Salut Nerk’in. Turkish: Aşağı Salut.
  63. Samzalek ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Yeleçli köyü. Old Russian: Самзалекъ Samzalek. Official Greek: Ζεμζελέκ Zemzelék, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ζαμζελέκ, Ζεμζελέκ, Σεμζελέκ, etc.―. Armenian: Սազմաչեկ Sazmach’yek. Turkish: Samzalek or Semzelek.
  64. Šaraf ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now ruined. Old Russian: Шарафъ Šaraf. Official Greek: Σαρὰφ Saràph or Ἀφρός Aphrós, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αφρός, Σαράφ, Σιαράφ, etc.―. Armenian: Շարաֆ Sharaf. Turkish: Şeref.
  65. Sindizgem ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Yalnızçam köyü. Old Russian: Синдизгемъ Sindizgem. Official Greek: Σιντισκὸμ Sintiskòm, written in many monotonic versions ―for example Σινδιζκόμ, Σινδισκόμ, Σιντιζκώμ, Σιντισγόν, Σιντισκέμ, Σιντισκόμ, etc.—. Armenian: Սինդիզգեմ Sindizgem. Turkish: Sindizkom.
  66. Subatan of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Šuragel’ sub-district (old Russian: Шурагельскій участокъ Šuragel’skiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Subatan köyü. Old Russian: Субатанъ греческій Subatan grečeskiy, to avoid confusion with the nearby Субатанъ мусульманскій Subatan musul’manskiy, inhabited by Sunni Turks and Sunni Kurds, with whom it constituted a single village until 1903. Official Greek: Σουμπατὰν Soumpatàn, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Σουμπατάν, Σούμπαταν, Σουπατάν, etc.―. Armenian: Սուբոտան Subotan, renamed in 1918 by Armenian autohorities Վարդաշեն Vardashen. Turkish: Subatan.
  67. Syrbasan ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Khorosan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Sırbasan köyü. Old Russian: Сырбасанъ Syrbasan. Official Greek: Σουρπασὰν Sourpasàn, written in many monotonic versions ―for example Σιρπασάν, Σουρμπασάν, Σούρμπασαν, Σουρπασάν, etc.—. Armenian: Սրբասան Srbasan. Turkish: Sırbasan.
  68. Takhtakran ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Tahtakıran köyü. Old Russian: Тахтакранъ Takhtakran. Official Greek: Ταχταγράν Takhtagrán, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ταχτάγ-γραν, Ταχταγιρά, Ταχταγράν, Ταχτακηράν, Ταχτά-κηράν, Ταχτακιράν, Ταχτάκιραν, Ταχτακράν, Ταχταουράν, etc.―. Turkish: Tahtakıran.
  69. Teknally of the Hellenes ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Tekneli köyü. Old Russian: Текналы греческое Teknaly grečeskoe, to avoid confusion with the nearby Текналы мусульманское Teknaly musul’manskoe, inhabited by Sunni Turks and Sunni Kurds, with whom it constituted a single village until 1914. Official Greek: Τεκνελῆ Teknelē̂, written in monotonic versions as Τεκνελή. Armenian: Թաքնալի T’ak’nali. Turkish: Tekneli.
  70. Torokhev lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Ardahan sub-district (old Russian: Ардаганскiй участокъ Ardaganskiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Çimenkaya köyü. Old Russian: Торосхевъ нижній Toroskhev nižniy. Official Greek: Κάτω Τοροσχὲβ Katō Toroskhèv, written in many monotonic versions ―for example Κάτω Τοροσκέβ, Κάτω Τοροσκέφ, Κάτω Τοροσκώβ, Κάτω Τοροσκώφ, etc.—. Armenian: Թորոսխև Ներքին T’voroskhev Nerk’in. Turkish: Aşağı Toreshev.
  71. Tuygun ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Tuygun köyü. Old Russian: Туйгунъ Tuygun. Official Greek: Τουϊγοὺν Touïgoùn or Τουϊγοῦν Touïgoū̂n, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Τοϊγούν, Τουγιγκούν, Τουιγούν, Τουϊγούν, etc.―. Turkish: Tuygun.
  72. Turkašen ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Yiğitkonağı köyü. Old Russian: Туркашенъ Turkašen. Official Greek: …?, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Τουρκασέν, Τουρκασόν, Τουρκεσόν, Τουρκεσσιέν, Τουρκιασσέν, etc.―. Armenian: Թուրքաշեն T’urk’ashen. Turkish: Türkaşen or Türkeşen.
  73. Uč-Kilisa ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Yavuzlar köyü. Old Russian: Учъ-Килиса Uč-Kilisa. Official Greek: Οὔτς-Κιλισὲ Oúts-Kilisè or Τρεῖς Ἐκκλησίες Treī̂s Ekklēsíes, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ουστ-κιλισέ, Ουτζ Κίλισα, Ουτζ-Κιλισέ, Ούτσι Κελσέ, Ουτσ-Κιλισά, Ουτς-Κιλισέ, Ούτσκιλισε, Ουτσ-κιλισσέ, Ουτς-Κλισέ, etc.―. Armenian: Ուչ-Քիլիսա Uch’-K’ilisa. Turkish: Üçkilise.
  74. Varkenez ~ village (Old Russian: селен Yanallenie) in the Göle/Gel’e/Kiolia sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardahan,now Yanatlı köyü. Old Russian: Варгенисъ Vargenis. Official Greek: Βαρκενὲς Varkenes, written in many monotonic versions ― for example: Βαργενέζ, Βαργενίς, Βαργκενές, Βαργκενίς, Βαρκενέζ, Βαρκενές, etc. Armenian: Վարգինիս Varginis. Turkish: Varginis. The village now has a mixed Kurdish and Turkish population, originally from southern and central Anatolia, who still prefer to use the original Greco-Armenian name instead of the post-1950 Turkish Yanatlı. Some of the current inhabitants claim an even older spelling had actually been with 't' rather than 'k'/'g', i.e., Vartenez.
  75. Verišan ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Gürbüzler köyü. Old Russian: Веришанъ Verišan. Official Greek: Βερισὰν Verisàn, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Βερισάν, Βερισιάν, Βερισσάν, etc.—. Turkish: Verişan.
  76. Vezinkey ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Ölçülü köyü. Old Russian: Везинкей Vezinkey. Official Greek: Βεζίνκιοϊ Vezínkioï, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Βεζίν Κιοϊ, Βεζίνκεϊ, Βεζίνκιοϊ, Βεζίν-κιοϊ, etc.—. Armenian: Վիզինքյոյ Vizink’yoy, renamed in 1918 by Armenian autohorities Վժան Vzhan. Turkish: Vezin[köy].
  77. Yagbasan ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Yağıbasan köyü. Old Russian: Ягбасанъ Yagbasan. Official Greek: Γιὰγ-Πασάν Giàg-Pasán, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γιαγμπασάν, Γιαγ-Μπασάν, Γιάγμπασαν, Γιαγπασάν, Γιαγπασάν, Γιαγ-Πασάν, etc.―. Armenian: Յաղբասան Yaghbasan. Turkish: Yağıbasan.
  78. Yalaguz-Čam ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kagyzman sub-district (old Russian: Кагызманскій участокъ Kagyzmanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Yalnızçam köyü. Old Russian: Ялагузъ-Чамъ Yalaguz-Čam. Official Greek: Γιαλαούζ-Τσάμ Gialaoúz-Tsám or Μονοπεύκη Monopeúkē, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γιαλαγούζ-Τσιάμ, Γιαλαγούτσιαμ, Γιαλαούζ τζαμί, Γιαλαούζ-τσαμ, Γιαλαούτσαμ, Γιαλασίζ-Τσαμ, Γιαούζ-Τσάμ, Γιόλαγουζτσαμ, etc.―. Armenian: Յալաղուզչամ Yalaghuzch’am. Turkish: Yalnızçam.
  79. Yemirkhan ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Sarıgüney köyü. Old Russian: Эмирханъ Ėmirkhan. Official Greek: Ἐμὶρ- Χάν Emìr-Khán, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αμιρχάν, Αμίρ-Χάν, Εμίρ-Χάν, Εμιρχάν, etc.―. Armenian: Էմերխան Emerkhan. Turkish: Emirhan or Kârcık.
  80. Zalladža ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Darboğaz köyü. Old Russian: Залладжа Zalladža. Official Greek: Ζελετζά Zeletzá, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Ζάλατζα, Ζέλετζε, Ζέλετσα, Ζέλετσε, Ζιάλατσα, Ζιάλιατσια, etc.—. Turkish: Zellice.

B2) Towns, villages and settlements in Kars Oblast in which Caucasus Greeks made up a minority of the inhabitants:

  1. Akhkoz ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Khorosan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Camuşlu köyü. Old Russian: Ахкозъ Akhkoz. Official Greek: Ἀτκὸς Atkòs, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Άτγκιοζ, Άτκιοζ, Άτκιος, Ατκόζ, Ατκός, etc.―.
  2. ARDAGAN ~ town (Old Russian: мѣстечко městečko),now Ardahan. Old Russian: Ардаганъ Ardagan. Official Greek: Ἀρταχὰν Artakhàn, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Αρδαγκάν, Αρδαχάν, Αρνταχάν, Αρταχάν, etc.—. Armenian: Արդահան Ardahan, and, historically, also Արտահան Artahan, Արտան Artan, Արտան(ի) Artan(i), Արտատաքան Հուր Artatak’an Hur, Քաշաց բերդ K’ajatun, Քաջատուն K’ashats’ berd, Քաջաց ցիխե K’ajats’ ts’ikhe, Քաջաց քաղաք K’ajats’ k’aghak’ and Քաջթաքալաքի K’ajt’ak’alak’i. Turkish: Ardahan.
  3. Begli-Akhmed ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in Kars sub-district (old Russian: Карсскій участокъ Karsskiy učastok) of Kars,now Benliahmet köyü. Old Russian: Бегли-Ахмедъ Begli-Akhmed. Official Greek: Μπεγλῆ-Ἀχμέτ Mpeglē̂-Akhmét, written in monotonic version as Μπεγλή–Αχμέτ. Armenian: Բեգլի-Ահմեդ Begli-Ahmed. Turkish: Benliahmet.
  4. Eddykilisa ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Yenigazi köyü. Old Russian: Еддыкилиса Eddykilisa. Official Greek: Γεντὶ-Κιλισὲ Gentì-Kilisè or Ἑπτά Ἐκκλησίες Heptá Ekklēsíes, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Γεντί-Κιλισά, Γεντί-Κιλισέ, Γεντί-κιλισσέ, Γεντί-Κιλσέ, Γεντί-Κλισέ, etc.—. Armenian: Եդդիքիլիսա Yeddik’ilisa. Turkish: Yedikilise.
  5. KAGYZMAN ~ town (Old Russian: мѣстечко městečko), nowday Kağızman. Old Russian: Кагызманъ Kagyzman. Official Greek: Καγισμὰν Kagysmàn, written in monotonic version as Καγισμάν or Καγκισμάν. Armenian: Կաղզվան Kaghzvan, and, historically, also ԱղզևանիAghzevani, Երասխաձորի բերդ Yeraskhadzori berd, Կաղզման Kaghzman, Կաղզովան Kaghzovan and Կաղըզվան Kaghyzvan. Turkish: Kağızman.
  6. KARS ~ city (Old Russian: городъ gorod),now Kars. Old Russian: Карсъ Kars. Official Greek: Κὰρς Kàrs, written in monotonic version as Κάρς or Kαρσούντα. Armenian: Կարս Kars and, historically, also Կարք Kark’ and Ղարս Ghars. Turkish: Kars.
  7. Novo-Selim ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Selim. Old Russian: Селимкей Selimkey, renamed in the first 1880s Ново-Селимъ Novo-Selim. Official Greek: Σελίμκιοϊ Selímkioï, renamed Νόβο-Σελὶμ Nóvo-Selìm, written in monotonic version as Σελίμκιοϊ, Νοβοσελίμ or Νόβο-Σελίμ. Armenian: Նոր-Սելիմ Nor-Selim. Turkish: Selim[köy].
  8. Okam ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Gel’e sub-district (old Russian: Гельскій участокъ Gel’skiy učastok) of Ardagan,now Çayırbaşı köyü. Old Russian: Окамъ Okam. Official Greek: Ὀκάμ Okám, written in monotonic version as Οκάμ. Turkish: [H]okam.
  9. OL’TY ~ town (Old Russian: мѣстечко městečko) now Oltu. Old Russian: Ольты Olty. Official Greek: Ὄλτι Ólti, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Όλτη, Όλτι, Όλτου, Όλτυ, etc.—. Armenian: Օլթի Olt’i, and, historically, also Ողթիկ Voght’ik and Ուղտիք Ughtik’. Turkish: Oltu.
  10. Sarykamyš lower ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) and, from 1916, town (Old Russian: мѣстечко městečko), in the Soganli sub-district (old Russian: Соганлугскій участокъ Soganlugskiy učastok) of Kars, nowday Sarıkamış. Old Russian: Сарыкамышъ нижній Sarykamyš nižniy and, from 1916, simply Сарыкамышъ Sarykamyš. Official Greek: Σαρῆ-Καμὶς Sarē̂-Kamìs, written in many monotonic versions ―for example: Σαρή-Καμις, Σαρήκαμίς, Σαρικαμίς, Σαρίκαμις, Σαρί-Καμίς, etc.—. Armenian: Սարիղամիշ Sarighamish. Turkish: Sarıkamış.
  11. Zyak ~ village (Old Russian: селеніе selenie) in the Khorosan sub-district (old Russian: Хоросанскій участокъ Khorosanskiy učastok) of Kagyzman, nowday Sırataşlar köyü. Old Russian: Зякъ Zyak. Official Greek: Ζιάκ Ziák or Ὁλιανά Olianá, written in monotonic versions as Ολιανά. Turkish: Zayak or Zek.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Browning, Robert, p. 82.
  2. ^ Browning, Robert, p. 76.
  3. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, Introduction.
  4. ^ Koromela and Evert, 1989
  5. ^ See Michel Bruneau, 'The Pontic Greeks: from Pontus to the Caucasus'
  6. ^ See Michel Bruneau, 'The Pontic Greeks: from Pontus to the Caucasus'
  7. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, pp. 54-62.
  8. ^ Eloyeva, p. 87.
  9. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 29.
  10. ^ Anderson, 1967
  11. ^ Coene (2011), p. 67.
  12. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 28.
  13. ^ Browning, p. 119.
  14. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, p. 66.
  15. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 88.
  16. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 33.
  17. ^ Eloyeva, p. 27.
  18. ^ Eloyeva, 1994
  19. ^ Topalidis, p. 98.
  20. ^ Koromela, p. 43.
  21. ^ Acherson, ch. 10.
  22. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 17.
  23. ^ Coene, ch. 1.
  24. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, Introduction.
  25. ^ Papadopoulos, p. 54.
  26. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 61.
  27. ^ Papadopoulos, p. 75.
  28. ^ Drury, Ian, The Russo-Turkish War of 1877
  29. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, p. 64.
  30. ^ Topalidis, 2006
  31. ^ Koromela, p. 74.
  32. ^ Mikhailidis & Athanasiadis, pp. 45-76.
  33. ^ Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, p. 42.
  34. ^ Koromela, p. 96.
  35. ^ Mikhailidis & Athanasiadis, p. 59.
  36. ^ Topalidis, 1996, and Koromela & Evert, 1989
  37. ^ Mikhailidis & Athanasiadis, p. 60.
  38. ^ Kazanoglu, 'Greeks in Kars'.
  39. ^ Koromela, p. 53.
  40. ^ Caucasus Calendar, Introduction.
  41. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, 1991
  42. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, p. 8.
  43. ^ Papadopoulos, 2012.
  44. ^ Koromela, p. 66.
  45. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, 1991.
  46. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, p. 79.
  47. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, ch. 7.
  48. ^ Woodhouse, 1984
  49. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, p. 143.
  50. ^ Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, p. 121.
  51. ^ Topalidis, p. 82.
  52. ^ Topalidis, p. 137.
  53. ^ Σάββας Καλεντερίδης, “Ανατολικός Πόντος”, 2006.
  54. ^ Ισαάκ Λαυρεντίδη,“Μετοικεσία Καυκασίων 1895-1907”.
  55. ^ Ιωάννης Καλφόγλου Μαρκήσιο-Φωτιάδη, “Οι Έλληνες εν Καυκάσω”, Αθήνα (1908).
  56. ^ Статистика Россійской Имперіи: Перепись 1886 годъ (Statistics of the Russian Empire: Census 1886).
  57. ^ 1-й годъ Памятная Книжка и адресъ-календарь КАРССКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ на 1902 годъ, изданіе КАРССКАГО ОБЛАСТНОГО Статистическаго Комитета подъ редакціею Секретаря Комитета С. В. Ермолаева (1° Memorial Book of the Kars Oblast‘ {1902 Edition}, compiled by the Kars Oblast’ Statistical Committee, edited by the Committee Segretar S. V. Ermolaev).
  58. ^ 3-й годъ Памятная Книжка и адресъ-календарь КАРССКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ на 1906 годъ, изданіе КАРССКАГО ОБЛАСТНОГО Статистическаго Комитета подъ редакціею Секретаря Комитета С. В. Ермолаева (3° Memorial Book of the Kars Oblast‘ {1906 Edition}, compiled by the Kars Oblast’ Statistical Committee, edited by the Committee Segretar S. V. Ermolaev).
  59. ^ 4-й годъ Памятная Книжка и адресъ-календарь КАРССКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ на 1908 годъ, изданіе КАРССКАГО ОБЛАСТНОГО Статистическаго Комитета подъ редакціею Секретаря Комитета С. В. Ермолаева (4° Memorial Book of Kars Oblast‘ {1908 Edition}, compiled by the Kars Oblast’ Statistical Committee, edited by the Committee Segretar S. V. Ermolaev).
  60. ^ 5-й годъ Памятная Книжка и адресъ-календарь КАРССКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ на 1910 годъ, изданіе КАРССКАГО ОБЛАСТНОГО Статистическаго Комитета подъ редакціею Секретаря Комитета С. В. Ермолаева (5° Memorial Book of the Kars Oblast‘ {1910 Edition}, compiled by the Kars Oblast’ Statistical Committee, edited by the Committee Segretar S. V. Ermolaev).
  61. ^ LXVII годъ Кавказскій календарь на 1912 годъ, изданъ по распоряженію Намѣстника ЕГО ИМПЕРАТОРСКАГО ВЕЛИЧЕСТВА на Кавказѣ Канцеляріей Намѣстника (67° Almanac of the Caucasus 1912 Edition, published by order of the office of the Viceroy of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY in the Caucasus).
  62. ^ 6-й годъ Памятная Книжка и адресъ-календарь КАРССКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ на 1912 годъ, изданіе КАРССКАГО ОБЛАСТНОГО Статистическаго Комитета подъ редакціею Секретаря Комитета Подполковника Б. С. Экадзе (6° Memorial Book of the Kars Oblast‘ {1912 Edition}, compiled by the Kars Oblast’ Statistical Committee, edited by the Committee Segretar Lieutenant Colonel B. S. Yekadze).
  63. ^ LXX годъ Кавказскій календарь на 1915 годъ, изданъ по распоряженію Намѣстника ЕГО ИМПЕРАТОРСКАГО ВЕЛИЧЕСТВА на Кавказѣ Канцеляріей Намѣстника, подъ редакціей А.А.Эльзенгера и Н.П.Стельмащукa (70° Almanac of the Caucasus {1915 Edition}, published by order of the office of the Viceroy of HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY in the Caucasus, edited by A. A. Ėl’zenger and N. P. Stel’maščuk).

Select Bibliography[edit]

  • Acherson, Neal, 'Black Sea' (Jonathan Cape, London, 1995).
  • Anderson, A. M., 'The Eastern Question' (1967).
  • Browning, Robert, 'The Byzantine Empire' (1980).
  • Caucasus Calendar, 1912 (British Government War Office Publication, 1914).
  • Coene, Frederik, 'The Caucasus - An Introduction', (2011)
  • Drury, Ian, The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 (1994).
  • Eloyeva, FA, 'Ethnic Greek Group of Tsalka and Tetritskaro (Georgia)', Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and Practice of Linguistic (1994).
  • Gocha, R. Tsetskhladze 'Greek Colonization of the Eastern Black Sea Littoral (Colchis)',(1992).
  • Koromela, Marianna and Evert, Lisa,'Pontos-Anatolia : northern Asia Minor and the Anatolian plateau east of the upper Euphrates : images of a Journey', (1989).
  • Mikhailidis, Christos & Athanasiadis, Andreas, 'A Generation in the Russian Caucasus'- in Greek, Γεννηθείς εις Καύκασον Ρωσίας (Inthognomon, 2007).
  • Morison, John, Ethnic and National Issues in Russian and East European History (Selected Papers from the Fifth World Congress, 2000)
  • Papadopoulos, Stephanos, 'Black Sea' (Kastaniotis Publications, 2012).
  • Soteriou, Dido, 'Farewell Anatolia' (Kedros, 1996).
  • Topalidis, Sam, 'A Pontic Greek History' (2006).
  • Woodhouse, C. M. 'The Struggle for Greece, 1941-1949' (1984).
  • Xanthopoulou-Kyriakou, Artemis, 'The Diaspora of the Greeks of the Pontos: Historical Background', Journal of Refugee Studies, 4, (1991).
  • http://www.arts.yorku.ca/hist/tgallant/documents/xanthopoulou-kyriakouponticmigrationtomacedonia.pdf (article on migration of Pontic Greeks from Russian South Caucasus to Greek Macedonia, between 1897 and 1919)
  • http://www.academia.edu/4067183/ANTON_POPOV_From_Pindos_to_Pontos_the_Ethnicity_and_Diversity_of_Greek_Communities_in_Southern_Russia

External links[edit]