||This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2012)|
Aerial view of the Caucasus Mountains
|Elevation||5,642 m (18,510 ft)|
|Length||1,100 km (680 mi)|
|Width||160 km (99 mi)|
The Caucasus Mountains include:
The Greater Caucasus Range extends from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, generally trending east-southeast and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea, while the Lesser Caucasus runs parallel to the greater range, at a distance averaging about 100 km (62 mi) south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura-Aras Lowland. In the southeast are the Talysh Mountains. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of 5,642 metres (18,510 ft) above sea level. Mountains near Sochi will host part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
The Caucasus Mountains formed largely as the result of a tectonic plate collision between the Arabian plate moving northward with respect to the Eurasian plate. The entire region is regularly subjected to strong earthquakes from this activity. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains on the other hand, is largely of volcanic origin. The Javakheti Volcanic Plateau in Georgia and the surrounding volcanic ranges which extend well into central Armenia are some of the youngest features of the region.
Notable peaks 
Europe's highest mountain is usually listed as Mount Elbrus 5,642 m (18,510 ft), in the Caucasus Mountains, though in a few sources, Mont Blanc 4,810 m (15,780 ft), in the Alps is listed. The Caucasus Mountains are generally considered as in both Europe and Asia. In fact, the main Greater Caucasus range is the most common definition for the continental divide. For a detailed history of the Asia-Europe definition, see Boundaries between continents. While clearly not a scientific definition, most mountain climbers consider Mt. Elbrus to be the highest mountain in Europe.
The table below lists some of the highest peaks of the Caucasus. With the exception of Shkhara, the heights are taken from Soviet 1:50,000 mapping. There are higher and more prominent, but nameless, peaks than some of the peaks included below.
|Peak Name||Elevation (m)||Prominence (m)||Country|
The climate of the Caucasus varies both vertically (according to elevation) and horizontally (by latitude and location). Temperature generally decreases as elevation rises. Average annual temperature in Sukhumi, Abkhazia at sea level is 15 degrees Celsius while on the slopes of Mt. Kazbek at an elevation of 3700 metres, average annual temperature falls to -6.1 degrees Celsius. The northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range are 3 degrees (Celsius) colder than the southern slopes. The highlands of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are marked by sharp temperature contrasts between the summer and winter months due to a more continental climate.
Precipitation increases from east to west in most areas. Elevation plays an important role in the Caucasus and mountains generally receive higher amounts of precipitation than low-lying areas. The northeastern regions (Dagestan) and the southern portions of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are the driest. The absolute minimum annual precipitation is 250 mm (9.84 in) in the northeastern Caspian Depression. Western parts of the Caucasus Mountains are marked by high amounts of precipitation. The southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range receive higher amounts of precipitation than the northern slopes. Annual precipitation in the Western Caucasus ranges from 1,000–4,000 mm (39.37–157.48 in) while in the Eastern and Northern Caucasus (Chechnya, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Ossetia, Kakheti, Kartli, etc.) precipitation ranges from 600–1,800 mm (23.62–70.87 in). The absolute maximum annual precipitation is 4,100 mm (161.42 in) around the Mt. Mtirala area which lies on the Meskheti Range in Ajaria. The precipitation of the Lesser Caucasus Mountain Range (Southern Georgia, Armenia, western Azerbaijan), not including the Meskheti Range, varies from 300-800 mm (31.50 in) annually.
The Caucasus Mountains are known for the high amount of snowfall, although many regions which are not located along the windward slopes do not receive nearly as much snow. This is especially true for the Lesser Caucasus Mountains which are somewhat isolated from the moist influences coming in from the Black Sea and receive considerably less precipitation (in the form of snow) than the Greater Caucasus Mountains. The average winter snow cover of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains ranges from 10–30 cm (3.94–11.81 in). The Greater Caucasus Mountains (especially the southwestern slopes) are marked by heavy snowfall. Avalanches are common from November to April.
Snow cover in several regions (Svaneti and northern Abkhazia) may reach 5 metres (16 ft). The Mt. Achishkho region, which is the snowiest place in the Caucasus, often records snow depths of 7 m (23 ft).
The Caucasus Mountains have a varied landscape which mainly changes vertically and according to the distance from large bodies of water. The region contains biomes ranging from subtropical low-land marshes/forests to glaciers (Western and Central Caucasus) as well as highland semideserts/steppes and alpine meadows in the south (mainly Armenia and Azerbaijan).
The northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains are covered by oak, hornbeam, maple, and ash forests at lower elevations while birch and pine forests take over at higher elevations. Some of the lowest locations/slopes of the region are covered by steppes and grasslands. The slopes of the Northwestern Greater Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria, Cherkessia, etc.) also contain spruce and fir forests. The alpine zone replaces the forest around 2,000 metres above sea level. The permafrost/glacier line generally starts around 2,800-3,000 metres. The south-eastern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains are covered by beech, oak, maple, hornbeam, and ash forests. Beech forests tend to dominate in higher locations. The south-western slopes of the Greater Caucasus are covered by Colchian forests (oak, buxus, beech, chestnut, hornbeam, elm) at lower elevations with coniferous and mixed forests (spruce, fir and beech) taking over at higher elevations. The alpine zone on the southern slopes may extend up to 2,800 metres above sea level while the glacier/snow line starts from 3,000-3,500 metres.
The northern and western slopes of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are characterized both by Colchian and other deciduous forests at lower elevations while mixed and coniferous forests (mainly spruce and fir) dominate at higher elevations. Beech forests are also common at higher elevations. The southern slopes of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are largely covered by grasslands and steppes up to an elevation of 2,500 metres. The highest areas of the region contain alpine grasslands as well. Volcanic and other rock formations are common throughout the region. The volcanic zone extends over a large area from southern Georgia into Armenia and southwestern Azerbaijan. Some of the prominent peaks of the region include Mt. Aragats, Didi Abuli, Samsari, and others. The area is characterized by volcanic plateaus, lava flows, volcanic lakes, volcanic cones and other features. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains lack the type of glaciers/glacial features that are common on the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Caucasus.|
- Reilinger; McClusky; Oral; King; Toksoz; Barka; Kinik; Lenk et al. (Jan 1997). "Global Positioning System measurements of present-day crustal movements in the Arabia-Africa-Eurasia plate collision zone". Journal of Geophysical Research 102 (B5): 9983–9999. doi:10.1029/96JB03736/abstract.
- Philip, H.; Cisternas, A.; Gvishiani, A.; Gorshkov, A. (1 April 1989). "The Caucasus". Tectnophysics 161 (1–2): 1–21. doi:10.1016/0040-1951(89)90297-7. Unknown parameter
- "Caucasus Mountains". Peakbagger.com.
Further reading 
- Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus By Svante E. Cornell
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Caucasus mountains|
- NASA Earth Observatory images of the Caucasus: 
- "Highest Peaks of the Caucasus from peakbagger.com". Peakbagger.com.
- Topographic map of the Caucasus (K-38) 1 : 50 000
- List of the most prominent mountains in the Caucasus