Causation is a belief that events occur in predictable ways and that one event leads to another. If the relationship between the variables is non-spurious (there is not a third variable causing the effect), the temporal order is in line (cause before effect), and the study is longitudinal, it may be deduced that it is a causal relationship.
- Jon Shepard and Robert W. Greene, Sociology and You, Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 2003, ISBN 0-07-828576-3.
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