|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
4 January 1811|
|Died||13 October 1899
Aristide Cavaillé-Coll (French: [aʁistid kavaje kɔl]; 4 February 1811 – 13 October 1899), was a French organ builder. He has the reputation of being the most distinguished organ builder of the 19th century. He pioneered innovations in the art and science of organ building that permeated throughout the profession and influenced the course of organ building through the early twentieth century. The organ reform movement sought to return organ building to a more Baroque style, but in the last few decades of the twentieth century Cavaillé-Coll's designs came back into fashion. After Cavaillé-Coll's death, Charles Mutin maintained the business into the 20th century. Cavaillé-Coll was the author of many scientific journal articles and books on the organ in which he published the results of his researches and experiments. He was the inventor of several organ sounds/ranks/stops such as the flûte harmonique. A documentary film about his life and work was filmed in 2011 and released in 2012.
- 1 Life
- 2 Organ building innovations
- 3 Legacy
- 4 Film
- 5 List of organs built or modified by Cavaillé-Coll whether or not extant
- 6 Existing Cavaillé-Coll organs
- 7 Asteroid
- 8 Further reading
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Born in Montpellier, France, to Dominique, one in a line of organ builders, he showed early talent in mechanical innovation. He exhibited an outstanding fine art when designing and building his famous instruments. There is a before and an after Cavaillé-Coll. His organs are "symphonic organs": that is, they can reproduce the sounds of other instruments and combine them as well. His largest and greatest organ is in Saint-Sulpice, Paris. Featuring 100 stops and five manuals, this magnificent instrument, which unlike many others remains practically unaltered, is a candidate to become a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Cavaillé-Coll was also well known for his financial problems. The art of his handcrafted instruments, unparalleled at that time, was not enough to ensure his firm's survival. It was inherited in 1898, shortly before his death in Paris, by Charles Mutin. He continued in the organ business, but by World War II the firm had almost disappeared.
Organ building innovations
Cavaillé-Coll is responsible for many innovations that revolutionized organ building, performance and composition. Instead of the Positif, Cavaillé-Coll placed the Grand-Chœur manual as the lowest manual, and included couplers that allowed the entire tonal resources of the organ to be played from the Grand-Chœur. He refined the English swell box by devising a spring-loaded (later balanced) pedal with which the organist could operate the swell shutters, thus increasing the organ's potential for expression. He adjusted pipemaking and voicing techniques, thus creating a whole family of stops imitating orchestral instruments such as the bassoon, the oboe and the english horn. He popularized the harmonic flute stop, which, together with the montre, the gambe and the bourdon, formed the fonds (foundations) of the organ. He introduced divided windchests which were controlled by ventils. These allowed the use of higher wind pressures and for each manual's anches (reed stops) to be added or subtracted as a group by means of a pedal. Higher wind pressures allowed the organ to include many more stops of 8' (unison) pitch in every division, so complete fonds as well as reed choruses could be placed in every division, designed to be superimposed on top of one another. Sometimes he placed the treble part of the compass on a higher pressure than the bass, to emphasize melody lines and counteract the natural tendency of small pipes (especially reeds) to be softer.
|“||It is he [Cavaillé-Coll] who conceived the diverse wind pressures, the divided windchests, the pedal systems and the combination registers; he who applied for the first time Barker's pneumatic motors, created the family of harmonic stops, reformed and perfected the mechanics to such a point that each pipe—low or high, loud or soft—instantly obeys the touch of the finger… From this result: the possibility of confining an entire division in a sonorous prison—opened or closed at will—the freedom of mixing timbres, the means of intensifying them or gradually tempering them, the freedom of tempos, the sureness of attacks, the balance of contrasts, and, finally, a whole blossoming of wonderful colors—a rich palette of the most diverse shades: harmonic flutes, gambas, bassoons, English horns, trumpets, celestes, flue stops and reed stops of a quality and variety unknown before.||”|
—Charles-Marie Widor, Avant-propos to the organ symphonies, tr. John Near
For a mechanical tracker action and its couplers to operate under these higher wind pressures, pneumatic assistance provided by the Barker lever was required, which Cavaillé-Coll included in his larger instruments. This device made it possible to couple all the manuals together and play on the full organ without expending a great deal of effort. He also invented an ingenious pneumatic combination action system for his five-manual organ at Église Saint-Sulpice, Paris. All these innovations allowed a seamless crescendo from pianissimo all the way to fortissimo, something never before possible on the organ. His organ at the Basilique Ste-Clotilde, Paris (proclaimed a basilica by Pope Leo XIII in 1897) was one of the first to be built with several of these new features. Consequently, it influenced César Franck, who was the titular organist there. The organ works of Franck have inspired generations of organist-composers who came after him.
Marcel Dupré stated once that "composing for an orchestra is quite different from composing for an organ... with exception of Master Cavaillé-Coll's symphonic organs: in that case one has to observe an extreme attention when writing for such kind of majestic instruments." Almost a century beforehand, César Franck had ecstatically said of the rather modest Cavaillé-Coll instrument at l'Eglise St.-Jean-St.-François in Paris with words that summed up everything the builder was trying to do: "Mon nouvel orgue ? C'est un orchestre !" ("My new organ? It's an orchestra!"). Franck later became organist of a much larger Cavaillé-Coll organ at Ste. Clotilde in Paris. In 1878 Franck was featured recitalist on the four-manual Cavaillé-Coll organ at the Palais du Trocadéro in the Trocadéro area of Paris; this organ was subsequently rebuilt by V. & F. Gonzales in 1939 and reinstalled in the Palais de Chaillot which replaced the Palais de Trocadéro to Palais, then rebuilt in 1975 by Danion-Gonzales and relocated to the Auditorium Maurice Ravel in Lyon. Franck's Trois Pièces were premiered on the Trocadéro organ.
A documentary film titled The Organs of Cavaillé-Coll was released in 2012 by Fugue State Films, to mark both the 200th anniversary of Cavaillé-Coll's birth in 2011 and the 150th anniversary of his organ at St Sulpice.
List of organs built or modified by Cavaillé-Coll whether or not extant
After Gilbert Huybens, Cavaillé-Coll: Liste des travaux exécutés/Werkverzeichnis, Orgelbau-Fachverlag Rensch, Lauffen/Neckar, 1985.
Existing Cavaillé-Coll organs
- Caen: Église de Ste.-Étienne
- Carcassonne: St. Michel's Cathedral,
- Épernay: Saint-Pierre Saint-Paul church
- Lyon: Church of St. François-de-Sales, Lyon
- Orléans: Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Cathédrale du Saint-Croix - since slightly modified by Haerpfer)
- Mazamet Eglise Saint-Sauveur
- Nancy: Cathedral (65 stops, 4 manuals)
- Paris: Église Saint-Roch
- Paris: Église de la Madeleine (since rebuilt and modified by Gonzales)
- Paris: Notre-Dame-de-la-Croix
- Paris: American Cathedral in Paris
- Paris: Notre Dame de Paris (modified)
- Paris: Saint Clotilde Basilica (extensively modified, rebuilt by Dargassies in 2004)
- Paris: Saint-Sulpice (by François-Henri Clicquot, reconstructed and improved by Cavaillé-Coll)
- Paris: Saint Vincent de Paul
- Paris: Sainte-Trinité
- Paris: Église Saint-Jean-de-Montmartre (moved from École Sacré-Cœur de la Ferrandière, Lyon)
- Paris: Basilique du Sacré-Cœur, Paris
- Paris: Val-de-Grâce chapel organ
- Courbevoie (near Paris): Église Saint-Maurice de Bécon 
- Perpignan: Cathedral
- Rouen: Church of St. Ouen
- Saint-Denis: St. Denis
- Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche : Collégiale du Moustier
- Toulouse: Saint-Sernin Basilica
- Trouville-sur-Mer: Église Notre-Dame des Victoires
- Lavaur: Saint-Alan Cathedral
- Rabastens: Notre-Dame-du-Bourg Church (smallest, with 20 stops) near Cavaillé-Coll dynasty cradle town of Gaillac
The organ of St. Ouen de Rouen is believed to be completely unmodified in any way (save for normal maintenance) since its completion, and is frequently recorded as an example of "pure" Cavaillé-Coll sound.
- Lekeitio: Basílica de la Asunción de Nuestra Señora (Lekeitio) (es)
- Madrid: Basílica de San Francisco el Grande
- Alegia: San Juan
- Azkoitia: Santa María
- Azpeitia: Basílica de Loyola
- Getaria (Guetaria): San Salvador
- Irún: Santa María
- Mutriku (Motrico): Santa Catalina
- Oiartzun: San Esteban
- Pasaia (Pasajes)
- San Sebastián (Donostia): Résidence de Zorroaga
- San Sebastián (Donostia): San Marcial d’Altza
- San Sebastián (Donostia): Santa María del Coro
- San Sebastián (Donostia): Santa Teresa
- San Sebastián (Donostia): San Vicente
- Urnieta: San Miguel
- Vidania (Bidegoyan), San Bartolomé
In the United Kingdom
- Warrington: Parr Hall, Warrington (England)
- St Michael's Abbey, Farnborough, Hampshire
- Manchester Town Hall
- Jersey: Highlands College, Jersey (Channel Islands)
- Paisley: Paisley Abbey
In the Netherlands
- Lisbon, Portugal: Igreja de São Luís dos Franceses www.meloteca.com/foto-orgao-lisboa-sao-luis-dos-franceses.html
- Lisbon, Portugal: Igreja de São Mamede - offered by the Dukes of Palmela in 1956
- Rome, Italy: Chapel of the Casa Santa Maria of the Pontifical North American College
- Moscow, Russia: Bolshoi Hall of Moscow Conservatory, Russia (installed by Charles Mutin)
In Latin America
- Caracas: Iglesia de la Parroquia San Francisco. Used for regular service.
- Caracas: Iglesia de la Parroquia Altagracia (Inoperative)
- Caracas: Iglesia de la Parroquia Santa Teresa. Used for regular service.
- Caracas: Iglesia de la Parroquia San José (In a delicate situation)
- Caracas: Parroquia La Encarnación del Valle. After several decades of silence, it's been played regularly since in 2011.
- Los Teques: Catedral (Inoperative)
- Campinas, Brazil: Catedral Metropolitana.
- Campo Largo,Pr -Brasil - Igreja Matriz de Nossa Senhora da Piedade
- Belém, Brasil: Catedral da Sé
- Lorena, Brazil: Catedral Nossa Senhora da Piedade
- Mazatlán, Mexico: Catedral Basílica de la Inmaculada Concepción
- Lujan, Argentina. Basilica de Lujan.
- Cavaillé-Coll, Cécile (1929). Aristide Cavaillé-Coll: Ses Origines, Sa Vie, Ses Oeuvres. Paris: Fischbacher.
- Douglass, Fenner (1999). Cavaillé-Coll and the French Romantic Tradition. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Bicknell, Stephen. Cavaillé-Coll's Four Fonds
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aristide Cavaillé-Coll.|
-  Association Aristide Cavaille-Coll
-  French government Cavaillé-Coll site with sound extracts
- Writings of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll (in French).