Caxias do Sul

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Caxias do Sul
City of Caxias do Sul, Top left:Ambiance Museum of Rock House (Museu Ambiência Casa de Pedra), Top middle:Italian Immigrant Monument, Top right:Cathedral of Caxias do Sul, Middle:Panorama view of Caxias do Sul, from Festa da Uva Hills, Bottom left:Liberdade Statue in Dante Alghieri Park, Bottom middle:Metalurgica Abramo Eberle Foundation Headquarter, Bottom right:Caxias Culture House (Caxias Casa de Cultura)
City of Caxias do Sul, Top left:Ambiance Museum of Rock House (Museu Ambiência Casa de Pedra), Top middle:Italian Immigrant Monument, Top right:Cathedral of Caxias do Sul, Middle:Panorama view of Caxias do Sul, from Festa da Uva Hills, Bottom left:Liberdade Statue in Dante Alghieri Park, Bottom middle:Metalurgica Abramo Eberle Foundation Headquarter, Bottom right:Caxias Culture House (Caxias Casa de Cultura)
Official seal of Caxias do Sul
Seal
Nickname(s): Pearl of the Colonies
Location of Caxias do Sul
Location of Caxias do Sul
Caxias do Sul is located in Brazil
Caxias do Sul
Caxias do Sul
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 29°10′00″S 51°11′00″W / 29.16667°S 51.18333°W / -29.16667; -51.18333Coordinates: 29°10′00″S 51°11′00″W / 29.16667°S 51.18333°W / -29.16667; -51.18333
Country Brazil Brazil
Region South
State Rio Grande do Sul
Founded June 20, 1890
Government
 • Mayor Alceu Barbosa Velho (PDT)
Area
 • Total 1.643 km2 (0.634 sq mi)
Elevation 817 m (2,680 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 446,911[1]
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Postal Code 95000-000
Area code(s) +55 54
Website Caxias, Rio Grande do Sul

Caxias do Sul (Portuguese pronunciation: [kaˈʃias du ˈsuw]) is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, situated in the state's mountainous Serra Gaúcha region. Coordinates: 29°10′0″ S, 51°11′0″ W. It was established by Italian immigrants on June 20, 1890. Today it is the second largest city in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The demonym of the citizens of Caxias do Sul is Caxiense.

History[edit]

The history of Caxias do Sul starts before the arrival of the Italians, when the region was being roamed by cattlemen and occupied by Indians. Back then, the region was called "Indians' Field". The Italian immigrants' occupation, mostly farmers from the Veneto region (northern Italy), started taking place in 1875 in Nova Milano. Hence, they were in search of a better place to live. They also met people from Lombardy, Trento, and other places. Although they had gotten some governmental support, such as tools, supplies, and seeds, everything had to be reimbursed.[2][3]

Two years later, the colonial headquarters of the Indians' Field was given the name Caxias Colony. The town was created on July 20, 1890 and acknowledged in the same year, on August 24.[2] Many economic cycles marked the evolution of the city throughout that century. The first one is connected to the most peculiar aspect of its cultural identity: the growth of vines and the production of wine for own consumption at first, and later on, for commercialization.[4]

On June 1, 1910, Caxias do Sul was elevated to the category of city. On the same day, the first train arrived connecting the region to the state capital. Although the immigrants were farmers, many of them used to perform other activities. They settled down, urbanized the region, and started a fast-paced process of industrialization.[5]

In the countryside, subsistence agriculture concentrates on the cultivation of grapes, wheat, and corn. Home-based manufacturing started to emerge and the overproduction was commercialized. Home-based manufacturing and Caxias do Sul evolved from having small home-based workshops to today's big factories, which are known internationally.[4]

Nowadays, Caxias do Sul is an important city, and due to its industrious colonists, is home to vast vineyards, wineries, a varied industrial park, and a rich and dynamic market. Those attributes grant this land great importance, the reason why Caxias do Sul, called "pearl of the colonies", is considered the center of the Italian presence in Southern Brazil.[6][7][8]

Caxias do Sul is today the hub centralizing the region more diverse than Brazil, with its industrious settlers, its vast vineyards, his winery, his varied industrial park and a rich and dynamic trade, which gives the land a further dimension, why Caxias do Sul, the "Pearl of the Colonies", is, by itself, the pole centralizing the Italian brand in southern Brazil.

Population growth[edit]

The following table shows the development of the number of inhabitants according to census data of IBGE[citation needed].

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1994 307,921 —    
1996 325,694 +5.8%
2000 360,419 +10.7%
2004 396,419 +10.0%
2008 427,858 +7.9%
2012 446,911 +4.5%

Climate[edit]

Caxias do Sul
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
145
 
26
17
 
 
152
 
26
17
 
 
206
 
24
16
 
 
132
 
22
12
 
 
109
 
19
11
 
 
152
 
17
8
 
 
155
 
17
8
 
 
178
 
18
9
 
 
203
 
19
10
 
 
173
 
21
12
 
 
140
 
23
13
 
 
170
 
26
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [2] br.weather

The city is located in the mountains of the Serra Gaucha, 760 m (about 2000 feet) above sea level.[9] Under the Köppen climate classification, Caxias do Sul features a subtropical highland climate[10] or oceanic temperate climate. The average annual temperature is 16°C (60.8°F). In July, the coldest month, the average high temperature is 17°C (62.6°F) and the average low is 8°C (46.4°F); in January, the hottest, they're 26°C (78.8°F) and 16°C (60.8°F), respectively.[11] Frosts are common in the winter and snow can occur, but it is less common. The last significant snowfall it was in August 2013, when 10–15 cm of snow fell over the city.[9][12]

Snow in Caxias do Sul, in 2013


Economy[edit]

In Caxias do Sul, several small, medium, large and multinational companies were founded. The city is recognized as an Entrepreneurial-Exporting Hub in the country.[15][16] Some of these companies are:

  • Marcopolo (buses and truck frames, present in six countries)
Main article: Marcopolo S.A.
  • Randon S.A. - Implementos e Participações is a mixed holding company, leader of a group of seven companies that employ a workforce of 6,6 thousand employees. They operate in the sectors of road equipment / railway wagons / specialty vehicles/ auto parts/ automotive systems, and services;[17]
  • Agrale S/A which owns 4 industrial plants, being the only Brazilian company with 100% national capital making vehicles, tractors and diesel engines;
  • Tramontina silverware company based in Carlos Barbosa with plants throughout Brazil;
  • Grendene, a manufacturer of shoes based in neighboring Farroupilha;
  • Todeschini, a manufacturer of furniture based in nearby Bento Gonçalves, the wine capital of Brazil;
  • Hyco Hidrover, a manufacturer of hydraulic cylinders for mobile applications.

The per capita income in Caxias do Sul is one of the highest in Brazil according to IBGE.

Languages[edit]

University of Caxias do Sul.

Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. Elderly people can often speak Talian, a regional language based on Venetian but also very much influenced by other Italian dialects and by Portuguese.[18]

Colleges and universities[edit]

  • Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS);
  • Faculdade da Serra Gaúcha (FSG);
  • Faculdade de Tecnologia (FTEC);
  • Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS)
  • Faculdade Anglo-Americano;
  • Anhanguera Faculdades;
  • Faculdade América Latina;
  • Faculdade dos Imigrantes;
  • and smaller HEIs

Culture[edit]

City Museum.
House of Culture.

Culture in Caxias do Sul was not greatly favoured by the first Italian settlers, as they were mostly involved with survival concerns in an area until then unexplored. In the beginning of the 20th century, however, there was some cultural interest developing, and some sculptors, painters and decorators made a significant career in the city and around, like as Pietro Stangherlin, Francisco Meneguzzo and the Zambelli family. They left the first examples of artworks worth of mention, specially in sacred art and building decoration. Julio Calegari and Ulysses Geremia, both photographers, also deserve close attention for their huge collections of portraits and views of the old city.[19]

As of historical architecture, one may find a few eclectic houses built for rich families, public buildings and Neo-Gothic churches, like as the Cathedral and the Chapel of Santo Sepulcro (Sacred Tomb). The first houses of the immigrants, made of stone, and later traditional wooden buildings, nearly all disappeared as the city developed, but some survive in the rural area, as well as many old chapels.[20] Current laws protect every building older than 50 years, but many have been destroyed or altered, despite official protection.[20][21]

The city nowadays has many intensely active museums and cultural centers, both private and official,[22] and a great university which sponsors an art gallery, a museum, a huge library and a symphonic orchestra.[23][24]

Tourism and recreation[edit]

The city has many tourist attractions: museums, churches, culture, music and all types of leisure activities. Nature can be found in the city and the surroundings.[22]

The city also hosts the popular National Grape and Wine Festival, which celebrates the Italian heritage. It's one of the most famous events in the country and it's called Festa da Uva, when lots of merrymaking, wine drinking, grapes and people animate the month of February, every two years (on even-numbered years).[25] Visitors may eat cheese, grapes and various Brazilian wines. Visitors interested in the regions wine can also visit the Château Lacave Castle, a 6th Century-style medieval structure that currently functions as a winery. Caxias do Sul is also one of the four settlements along the beautiful Caminhos da Colônia scenic tourist route in the Serra Gaúcha.[26]

Caxias do Sul is served by Hugo Cantergiani Airport, formerly called Campo dos Bugres Airport.[27]

Soccer teams[edit]

Caxias do Sul is home to the S.E.R. Caxias and Juventude soccer clubs. Even though both teams have in recent times claimed the Campeonato Gaúcho, Juventude has had greater luck at national level, making it into the first division of the Campeonato Brasileiro for over ten years and winning the 1999 edition of the Copa do Brasil, while Caxias has been playing in the third division since 2006. Juventude joins Caxias in the third division for the 2014 season. S.E.R. Caxias[28] has the third biggest population of fans in the state, just behind the two major teams of the state capital city, Porto Alegre.

In the 2010 season, both teams played the Brazilian Third Division. S.E.R. Caxias didn't manage to go forward on the competition after the first group stage.Juventude was relegated and will be part of the Brazilian Fourth Division in 2011.

Foto panorâmica do estádio Esporte Clube Juventude.

Gallery[edit]

Panoramic View of Caxias do Sul seen from the Grape Festival.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population in 2012 (Portuguese)
  2. ^ a b Nome. Prefeitura Municipal. Acesso 25 set 2010
  3. ^ Giron, Loraine Slomp. Identidade, Trabalho e Turismo. IV SeminTUR – Seminário de Pesquisa em Turismo do MERCOSUL. Caxias do Sul: Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 7 e 8 de Julho de 2006. pp. 3-5
  4. ^ a b Giron, pp. 10-12
  5. ^ Sales, Fabiana de Lima. O desenvolvimento econômico de Caxias do Sul na perspectiva do acervo do Museu Municipal. Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 2006. p. 2
  6. ^ Giron, pp. 12-13
  7. ^ Machado, Maria Abel & Herédia, Vania Beatriz Merlotti. "Associação dos Comerciantes: Uma Forma de Organização dos Imigrantes Europeus nas Colônias Agrícolas no Sul do Brasil". In Scripta Nova. Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales. Universidad de Barcelona. Nº 94 (28), 1 de agosto de 2001, pp. 77-80
  8. ^ Ribeiro, Cleodes M. P. J. Festa e Identidade: Como se fez a Festa da Uva. Caxias do Sul: UCS, 2002. pp. 137-144.
  9. ^ a b Beretta, Pier Luigi. Boletim Geográfico 243. Rio de Janeiro: IBGE, 33(243), nov./dez., 1974. pp. 5-10.
  10. ^ De Souza, Daniele T. P. et alii. Proposta de um espaço multiuso para a divulgação de estratégias sustentáveis na Serra Gaúcha. Congresso Internacional Sustentabilidade e Habitação de Interesse Social. Porto Alegre, 4 a 7 de maio de 2010. p. 3
  11. ^ "Médias e registros - Caxias do Sul, Brasil". The Weather Channel.
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ "Caxias do Sul Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 6, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Euzebio Beltrao de Queiroz, Rio Grande do Sul". Weatherbase. Retrieved May 6, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Caxias do Sul segue com o maior Índice de Desenvolvimento Socioeconômico do RS". Zero Hora, 18/09/2008
  16. ^ Hunoff, Roberto. "Economia de Caxias do Sul cresce em 6 meses o que o Brasil projeta para 1 ano". O Caxiense, 5 de agosto de 2010
  17. ^ "Empresas Randon conquistam Prêmio Exportação RS". Acionista.com, 22/06/2010
  18. ^ Prefeitura Municipal de Caxias do Sul - RS
  19. ^ Tedesco, João Carlos. "A Família e a Carreta: as bases da vida nos primórdios da colônia". IN Suliani, Antônio (org). Etnias & carisma: polianteia em homenagem a Rovílio Costa. EDIPUCRS, 2001. pp. 582-586
  20. ^ a b "A preservação não recusa o novo". In Boletim Memória. Caxias do Sul: Museu e Arquivo Histórico Municipal, nº4, 1992
  21. ^ "Caxias possui 28 bens tombados". Gazeta de Caxias, 03/03/2010
  22. ^ a b Apresentação. Secretaria da Cultura
  23. ^ Projeto Mostra UCS Campus 8 – Cidade das Artes. UCS, 2004
  24. ^ "Música Erudita em especial aos 75 anos do município". O Informante, 10 de Dezembro de 2009
  25. ^ Schleder, Adriana. "Festa Nacional da Uva: uma nova identidade?". Curitiba: XXXII Congresso Brasileiro de Ciências da Comunicação, 4 a 7 de setembro de 2009. pp. 1-10
  26. ^ "Caxias do Sul abre as porteiras para o turismo rural". Agência Sebrae de Notícias, 3 de Agosto de 2009
  27. ^ Aeroportos Rio G. Sul RS. Aeroportos do Brasil.
  28. ^ http://globoesporte.globo.com/platb/teoria-dos-jogos/2011/12/17/a-pesquisa-da-vez-caxias-do-sulrs-exclusivo/

External links[edit]