cdrtools

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cdrtools
Original author(s) Jörg Schilling, Eric Youngdale, Heiko Eißfeldt, James Pearson
Developer(s) Jörg Schilling
Initial release 4 February 1996; 18 years ago (1996-02-04)
Stable release

3.00 (2 June 2010 (2010-06-02)) [±][1]

[2]
Preview release 3.01a23 (4 March 2014 (2014-03-04)) [±][3]
Development status Active
Written in C
Operating system Cross-platform (see Compatible operating systems)
Available in English
Type CD/DVD/Blu-ray writing
License CDDL, GNU GPL and GNU LGPL
Website cdrecord.berlios.de
As of March 2014

cdrtools (formerly known as cdrecord) is a collection of independent projects of free software/open source computer programs, created by Jörg Schilling and others.

The most important parts of the package are cdrecord, a console-based burning program; cdda2wav, a CD audio ripper that uses libparanoia; and mkisofs, a CD/DVD/BD/UDF/HFS filesystem image creator. Because these tools do not include any GUI, many graphical front-ends have been created.

Features[edit]

The collection includes many features, such as:

Origins and name change[edit]

The first releases of cdrtools were called cdrecord because they only included the cdrecord tool and a few companion tools, but not mkisofs nor cdda2wav. In 1997, a copy of mkisofs[4] (developed at that time by Eric Youngdale) was included in the cdrecord package. In 1998, a copy of an experimental version of cdda2wav[5] (developed at that time by Heiko Eißfeldt) was included in the cdrecord package.

In 2000, Jörg Schilling changed the name of his package from "cdrecord" to "cdrtools"[6] to better reflect the fact that it had become a collection of tools.

Until 2006, cdrtools was the standard and most used software suite in its category on GNU/Linux systems as well as on several other operating systems (mainly BSD-based).[citation needed]

DVD and Blueray-Disc writing support[edit]

DVD writing support (cdrecord-ProDVD) in cdrecord started 1998, but since the relevant information required a non-disclosure agreement and DVD writers were not publicly available, it was not included in the source code. In 2002, Jörg Schilling started offering free license keys to the closed-source variant cdrecord-ProDVD for educational, and research use, shortly thereafter also for private use. Unregistered free licenses were initially limited to single-speed writing and would expire every year. On May 15th 2006, support for DVD writing was added to the open-source version 2.01.01a09 after switching the license to CDDL; thereby removing the need to get a license key. Blueray Disc support was added starting 2007.

The lack of open-source DVD writing support in 2001 led to heated discussions on the mailing lists, and to a number of unofficial patches for supporting the Pioneer DVD-R A03, the first DVD writer to reach mass market, and forks of cdrecord ("bastardized variants", as repeatedly titled by Jörg Schilling): Mandrake shipped a version called cdrecord-dvdhack,[7] whereas Redhat had dvdrecord.[8] Often these patches were not maintained for a long time, but they were eventually (around 2003) integrated in what became cdrkit.

License disagreement[edit]

Starting with version 2.01.01a09, most code from cdrtools has been relicensed under the CDDL, while mkisofs remains licensed under the GPL. This change led to an ongoing disagreement about whether distribution or use of precompiled cdrtools binaries is legally possible. The following is are one-sentence summaries of the different positions:

  • Jonathan Corbet, founder of the LWN.net news source argued this change makes it impossible to legally distribute cdrtools binaries according to his interpretation of the license.[9]
  • Debian,[10] Red Hat,[11] Fedora,[12] OpenSUSE,[13] Mandriva[14] and Ubuntu[15] dropped the versions of cdrtools with CDDL code from their distributions and switched to the Debian project created cdrkit, a fork of the last GPL-licensed cdrtools version.[16]
  • Slackware and Gentoo Linux are unaffected, as the potential licensing issue only affects the distribution of precompiled binaries and these distributions compile from source code. They offer both versions.
  • Jörg Schilling denies a license problem in cdrtools. In his interpretation, it consists of independent works and thus do not mix incompatible licenses. He continues to develop his version of cdrtools under the CDDL and GPL (mkisofs) licenses, whereas the cdrkit fork has received next to no updates since.
  • In fall 2013, OpenSUSE Factory added back the original cdrtools in addition to the forked version.

As is common with the GPL and other open source licenses, very little case law exists to provide guidance to users.

Timeline of licensing disagreement[edit]

The project was originally licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

CD burning is done through the SCSI interface. Burning a CD requires the user to provide a SCSI device (which is identified by a triplet of numbers). By 2002 more and more burners were using the ATAPI interface. Linux 2.6 allowed the users to detect the SCSI ID of a device from a more traditional device path and made identifying the burner device for cdrecord simpler. Schilling, however, rejected this approach as well as other fixes used by linux distributions. By 2004 Linux distributions were maintaining this change, along with a number of other changes rejected by Schilling.[17]

With version 1.11a17 (released in 2002), a section of cdrtools' source code was modified to include an invariant section, with the intent to prevent people from distributing variants with intentional bugs under the original name.[18] The purpose of this invariant section was to make sure any modification to cdrecord would be properly reported as such to the user. Publishing the modified cdrtools code under the restricted terms of the invariant section is still permitted if the code is distributed with a different name,[18] as is common in open source projects.[19] A snippet of the invariant section in cdrecord.c is shown below.

In May 2006, most parts of cdrtools were switched to the CDDL with permission from their authors.[20] After this license change some parts of cdrtools (e.g. mkisofs, which is still GPL-licensed) use code that was switched to CDDL, (e.g. libscg, the SCSI Transport Layer developed by Jörg Schilling).

According to the Free Software Foundation, the CDDL is compatible with the OpenSource definition of free software, but incompatible with the GNU General Public License (GPL).[21] Jonathan Corbet, founder of the LWN.net news source argued this makes it impossible to legally distribute cdrtools binaries.[22]

On 31 Jan 2006, Debian had opened a bug over this license change when noticing the change in the previous version 2.01.01a03 [23] with concerns about how the GPL license in some of its components interacted with the CDDL license in cdrtools makefiles, which fall under the requirement of the GPL license to distribute source code.[24] GPL allows code with different licenses to be aggregated as collective works in the same distribution when one is not derived from the other,[25] but not for software that makes a derivative work.[26] Whether linking to GPL code constitutes a derivative work is open to debate; Debian developers decided, according to the point of view that dynamic and static linking violate GPL, that the files under the CDDL license were incompatible with their distribution[22] and removed them.[23]

Jörg Schilling's position is that any open source operating system can distribute cdrtools as long as the terms of the licenses are respected.[27][28] In September 2006, four months after the license change, Schilling added support for dynamic-linking cdrtools,[29] hoping this would be enough for the GNU/Linux distributions to restart distributing cdrtools.

Several GNU/Linux distributions stopped distributing the re-licensed cdrtools in 2006. Debian,[30] Red Hat,[31][32] and Mandriva[33] have all either dropped cdrtools or reverted to the last non-CDDL release of cdrtools, and have not reverted that decision until now. Just before dropping cdrtools in 2006, the Debian project created cdrkit, a fork of cdrtools.[34] cdrkit is distributed by most of the GNU/Linux distributions which have dropped cdrtools.

In August 2008, Mark Shuttleworth offered to ask the Software Freedom Law Center for a legal opinion on whether cdrtools could be included in Ubuntu, provided Schilling agreed to accept the opinion.[35] SFLC's chairman Eben Moglen published a summary of his discussion with Schilling.[36] Eblen stated that the GPL compatibility of mkisofs was broken, because fulfilling all clauses of GPL and CDDL at the same time is impossible, and that Schilling would need to allow permission to use the software under the GPL terms to make distribution of the combined work possible.

According to Moglen, Schilling disagreed that additional permissions were required, and Shuttleworth abandoned the attempt to include cdrtools in Ubuntu. However, Jörg Schilling denied the accuracy of Moglen's version, stating that his depiction of their conversation was in conflict with what really happened.[37]

Invariant section in the license[edit]

The Linux-2.6 kernel introduced an incompatible interface change for the SCSI generic interface just when cdrtools 2.01-final have been published. This interface change affected cdrecord and for this reason, some versions of cdrtools included warnings against using Linux Kernel Version 2.6.x or SUSE Linux.[38] These warnings were wrapped in an invariant section, to prevent removal. Jörg Schilling said they are part of the "appropriate copyright" and "no warranty" notice required by the GPL. Corbet disagreed with Jörg, and stated that the GPL only requires printing of an "appropriate" copyright notice, but do not require to use the exact text provided by the original author and this warning may therefore be replaced with a neutral copyright attribution.[38]

The snippet of the invariant section was sent to a Debian mailing list on 2 September 2004.[39] In cdrtools 2.01, it starts at line 296 (and ends at line 408) of file cdrtools-2.01/cdrecord/cdrecord.c of the cdrtools-2.01.tar.bz2 source archive.

cdrtools versus cdrkit versus libburnia[edit]

GNU/Linux distributions which still ship cdrkit consider it as legacy software and plan to move to libburnia,[40][41] which is not based on cdrtools but has a smaller feature set than cdrtools (see tables below).

Main commands in each software suite
Software suite Commands for
CD/DVD/Blu-ray CD-Audio
pre-mastering burning reading extraction
cdrtools mkisofs[42] cdrecord[43] readcd[44] cdda2wav[45]
cdrkit genisoimage[46] wodim[47] readom[48] icedax[49]
libburnia xorriso[50] xorriso / cdrskin[51] xorriso / telltoc cdrskin

The following tables list some differences between cdrtools, cdrkit and libburnia. (The comparisons apply to the latest releases of each software suite.)

Comparison of cdrtools, cdrkit and libburnia
Topic Suites compared
cdrtools cdrkit libburnia
License(s) CDDL (cdrecord, libscg, etc.),
GPL (mkisofs), LGPL (libparanoia)
GPL GPL
Can be built from source code on most architectures of most[weasel words] operating systems Yes[52] Some Some
Is included in most major GNU/Linux distributions Some[a] Yes Yes
Is included in all BSD-based distributions Yes Some[b] Some[c]
Implements privilege separation from calling code to avoid the need of security auditing for callers Yes Yes Partial[d]
Year of first public release 1996 2006 2006
Development status Active Inactive Active
Comparison of cdrecord, wodim and cdrskin
Topic Commands compared
cdrecord[43] (cdrtools) wodim[47] (cdrkit) cdrskin[51] (libburnia)
Has support for Blu-ray Discs Yes No Yes
Has support for most existing[weasel words] hardware, including models with buggy[weasel words] firmware Yes Some Some
Has support for DVD-9 (8.5 GB dual layer DVD) media Yes No Yes
Has support for custom Layer Jump Recording (to tell the burner when to switch to the second layer on dual-layer DVDs) Yes No No
Has support for automatic Layer Jump Recording (the burner decides when to switch to the second layer on dual-layer DVDs) Yes No Yes
Has support for capability-based security (on GNU/Linux systems supporting it), which means the burn program does not need to be installed with setuid access rights (in other words, burn operations can be performed by unprivileged users with increased security) Yes[53] No No
Supports "Disc Tattooing" CD-R and DVD media with DiscT@2-capable burners Yes No No
Supports ".inf" files for CD-audio Yes Partial[e] No
Supports ".cue" files for CD-audio Yes Partial Partial
Comparison of mkisofs, genisoimage and xorriso
Topic Commands compared
mkisofs[42] (cdrtools) genisoimage[46] (cdrkit) xorriso[50] (libburnia)
Has support for big files (size ≥ 4 GiB) and multi-extent files Yes No Yes
Has support for UDF filesystems (required for video DVD/BD) Yes Partial[54] No[55]
Has support for Rock Ridge Yes Partial[56] Yes
Supports editing existing images No No Partial[57]
Has support for sub-second time stamp granularity in Rock Ridge extensions Yes[58][f][g] No No
Has support for microsecond time stamp granularity in UDF filesystems Yes[h] No No
Has support for all three Unix times ("atime", "ctime" and "mtime") in both Rock Ridge and UDF Yes[59][60] Partial[i] Partial[j]
Has EFI boot support (for creating bootable media) Yes[k] Some[l] Yes
Has built-in Jigdo support (for creating .jigdo and .template files along with the ISO image file) No[m] Yes Yes
Has support for a built-in POSIX-compliant "-find" option Yes No[n] Some[o]
Can be instructed to ignore and bypass a user supplied list of errors during image masterisation (not recommended unless used with the "-print-size" option) Yes[p] No Yes
Comparison of cdda2wav, icedax and cdrskin
Topic Commands compared
cdda2wav[45] (cdrtools) icedax[49] (cdrkit) cdrskin[51] (libburnia)
Has support for capability-based security (on GNU/Linux systems supporting it), which means the audio extraction program does not need to be installed with setuid access rights (in other words, ripping can be performed by unprivileged users with increased security) Yes[53] No[q] No
Supports to use libparanoia for audio extraction Yes Yes[r] No
Supports to display C2 errors in paranoia mode Yes No No
libparanoia statitstics work Yes No No
Supports to extract hidden tracks Yes No No
Supports to create .inf files Yes Partial[e] No
Supports to create .cue files Yes No No
Supports to compute MD5 checksums for the extracted audio data Yes No No
Implements remote controlled mode for better DAE properties in GNOME Yes No No

Compatible operating systems[edit]

The latest alpha release of cdrtools can be compiled on the following operating systems :

Availability of precompiled binary packages[edit]

Several operating system vendors, but not all, do distribute cdrtools. Unofficial 3rd-party builds of cdrtools exist. This table lists some popular operating systems, as well as some GNU/Linux distributions that ship cdrtools.

Availability of precompiled cdrtools
Operating system Kernel family Builds of cdrtools
official 3rd-party
Arch Linux Linux Yes
Calculate Linux Linux Yes
CentOS Linux No Yes[s]
Debian Linux No
DragonFly BSD xBSD (DragonFly) Yes
Fedora Linux No Yes[s]
FreeBSD xBSD (FreeBSD) Yes
Frugalware Linux Linux Yes
Gentoo Linux Linux Yes
GoboLinux Linux Yes
Haiku BeOS clone Yes
Illumos OpenSolaris fork Yes
KaOS Linux Yes
Kwheezy Linux Yes
Linux Mint Linux No
magiclinux-plus Linux Yes
Manjaro Linux Linux Yes
NetBSD xBSD (NetBSD) Yes
OpenBSD xBSD (OpenBSD) Yes
openmamba Linux Yes
openSUSE Linux Yes
Oracle Linux Linux No Yes[s]
Oracle Solaris Solaris Yes
OS X Mach No Yes[t]
Pardus Linux No
Parted Magic Linux Yes
PC-BSD xBSD (FreeBSD) Yes
Porteus Linux Yes
RHEL Linux No Yes[s]
Sabayon Linux Yes
Salix OS Linux Yes
Scientific Linux Linux No Yes[s]
Slackware Linux Yes
SlavankaOS Linux Yes
Slax Linux Yes
SystemRescueCD Linux Yes
Ubuntu Linux No Yes[u]
Windows Windows No Yes

Note that while Arch Linux carries an official cdrecord package in its repositories, packages such as Brasero and k3b depend on "cdrkit" and will pull the package cdrkit by default.[v] This also applies to other distributions derived from Arch such as Manjaro.

Version history[edit]

Version history of cdrtools
Project Name Preview Releases Stable Release Notes
first last version date
cdrecord Old version, no longer supported: 1.00 1996-02-04
Old version, no longer supported: 1.01 1996-10-04
Old version, no longer supported: 1.02 1996-12-20
Old version, no longer supported: 1.03 1997-05-16
Old version, no longer supported: 1.04 1997-05-23
1.5a1 1.5a9 Old version, no longer supported: 1.05 1997-09-15
1.6a01 1.6a15 Old version, no longer supported: 1.06 1998-04-18
1.6.1a1 1.6.1a7 Old version, no longer supported: 1.06.1 1998-10-19
1.8a01 1.8a40 Old version, no longer supported: 1.08 2000-01-28
1.8.1a01 1.8.1a09 Old version, no longer supported: 1.08.1 2000-04-27
1.9a01 1.9a05 Old version, no longer supported: 1.09 2000-07-20
cdrtools 1.10a01 1.10a19 Old version, no longer supported: 1.10 2001-04-22
1.11a01
2.0pre1
1.11a40
2.0pre3
Old version, no longer supported: 2.00 2002-12-25
Old version, no longer supported: 2.00.3 2003-05-28
2.01a01 2.01a38 Old version, no longer supported: 2.01 2004-09-09 This series was the last GPL-licensed version and was used as base for the fork cdrkit.
2.01.01a01 2.01.01a80 Current stable version: 3.00[1][2] 2010-06-02 On May 2006, most parts of cdrtools were switched to the CDDL,[20] resulting in a package containing both GPL-ed and CDDL-ed sources. However, 4 months later, the author added support for dynamic-linking.[29] Blu-ray support is available since July 2007[88]
3.01a01 Latest preview version of a future release: 3.01a23[3] 2014-03-04[3]
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Examples of use[edit]

mkisofs[edit]

mkisofs has many options,[42] but only a few are usefull for most basic uses.

Main options of mkisofs
Option Purpose
-V volid Specify a volume identifier (i.e. a string of at most 32 characters) that will appear as the name or label of the CD/DVD/BD.
-J Enable Joliet (recommended to allow long names to be seen on Windows systems).
-r Enable "rationalized" Rock Ridge, i.e. with Rock Ridge but using default file ownerships and modes (recommended to allow long names on Unix-like systems).
-o filename File name to use for the ISO image.

The examples given below show how to create a simple ISO image for a data CD/DVD/BD.

  • Simplified syntax:
mkisofs [ -J ] [ -r ] [ -V "my dvd" ] -o image.iso source
  • To create an image with both Rock Ridge and Joliet, using the contents of the source directory:
mkisofs -J -r -o image.iso source
  • The same as above, but with a title for the CD/DVD/BD, and without Rock Ridge:
mkisofs -J -V "my dvd" -o image.iso source
  • To create an image with Rock Ridge but no Joliet, using the contents of the source directory, but using short Rock Ridge time stamps (option "-short-rr-time" is recommended on Linux[g]):
mkisofs -r -short-rr-time -o image.iso source
  • To print the estimated filesystem size (in multiples of 2048 bytes) of an image but without creating it, replace "-o image.iso" by "-print-size", like this:
mkisofs -J -r -print-size source

cdrecord[edit]

cdrecord has many options,[43] but only a few are usefull for most basic uses.

cdrecord -scanbus
  • To eject the media of the default optical disc drive, or just open its tray:
cdrecord -eject
  • To close the tray of the default optical disc drive:
cdrecord -load
  • To show the capabilities of the default optical disc drive:
cdrecord -prcap
  • To show the table of contents of a media in the default optical disc drive:
cdrecord -toc
cdrecord -dao image.iso
  • The same as above, but with the "-overburn" option, if the image is bigger than the default media size:
cdrecord -dao -overburn image.iso

In all commands above, it is possible to specify a device using the "dev=x,y,z" syntax (where "x,y,z" is the identifier of the optical disc drive as listed by the "-scanbus" option). This is required unless there is only one possible choice.

Forks[edit]

Software that can use cdrtools[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Most GNU/Linux distributions stopped distributing cdrtools after the license change. See section #Licensing issues. However, during the past years some GNU/Linux distributions did restart shipping cdrtools.
  2. ^ Only missing from OpenBSD
  3. ^ Only missing from OpenBSD
  4. ^ No privilege separation available in case libburn is called as library.
  5. ^ a b No support for hidden tracks and other features introduced since 2004.
  6. ^ The time stamp granularity with Rock Ridge extensions in mkisofs is 1 centi-second with the "-long-rr-time" option (enabled by default), and 1 second with the "-short-rr-time" option.
  7. ^ The time stamp granularity in UDF filesystems created with mkisofs is 1 microsecond.
  8. ^ Support for all three Unix times in genisoimage is only available for Rock Ridge.
  9. ^ Support for all three Unix times in xorriso is only available for Rock Ridge because xorriso does not create UDF filesystems.
  10. ^ EFI boot support in mkisofs is available with the "-eltorito-platform efi" option.
  11. ^ EFI boot support in genisoimage is available for Fedora/RHEL/CentOS (with an -E option). But it is missing in the non modified genisoimage.
  12. ^ Although jigdo is a very usefull tool, the lack of built-in support for it in mkisofs is not a big issue since most users who create jigdo files already know how to use the stand-alone jigdo-file(1) command.
  13. ^ An external POSIX-compliant find command can of course be used with genisoimage, but if the length of its output exceeds the maximum command line lengh, then genisoimage will not get the complete list of files.
  14. ^ The -find option of xorriso is not POSIX-compliant and its syntax is very different from that of the find Unix command.
  15. ^ Error control in mkisofs may be specified with the "errctl=" option.
  16. ^ icedax is not installed with setuid access rights and as a result can only use functions that are available to unpriviledged users. This prevents vendor specific commands that deliver better DAE quality in edge cases.
  17. ^ But using an outdated version of libparanoia that does not work well with todays drives.
  18. ^ a b c d e YUM repositories for supported versions of Fedora and RHEL is available at [1].
  19. ^ Users of OS X may build cdrtools with this cdrtools portfile from the MacPorts Project.
  20. ^ Brandon Snider's PPAs for cdrtools are available here for Ubuntu.
  21. ^ See cdrkit on the Arch Linux packages database

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Schilling, Jörg (18 May 2010). "cdrtools 3.00 release announcement". Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  2. ^ a b Schilling, Jörg (2 June 2010). "cdrtools 3.00 release notes". Retrieved 2010-06-02. 
  3. ^ a b c Schilling, Jörg (4 March 2014). "cdrtools 3.01a23 announcement". Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  4. ^ mksofs-1.11 was incorporated to cdrecord-1.5a3 on 5 July 1997 (source: AN-1.5a3)
  5. ^ cdda2wav-0.95beta07 was incorporated to cdrecord-1.8a6 on 27 October 1998 (source: AN-1.8a6)
  6. ^ cdrecord and its friends (mkisofs and cdda2wav) are distributed in a common package called cdrtools since 27 July 2000 (source: AN-1.10a01).
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ Jonathan Corbet. "cdrtools - a tale of two licenses". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  10. ^ "#377109 - RM: cdrtools -- RoM: non-free, license problems - Debian Bug report logs". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  11. ^ "Information for build cdrtools-2.01-11.fc7". Retrieved 2007-08-04. "moved back to version 2.01 (last GPL version), due to incompatible license issues" 
  12. ^ "[Fedora-legal-list] Legal CD/DVD/BD writing software for RedHat and Fedora". 
  13. ^ OpenSuSE 10.3 release notes
  14. ^ "Mandriva Cooker : The Inside Man V". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  15. ^ "Minutes from the Technical Board meeting, 2008-08-26". Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  16. ^ "cdrkit (fork of cdrtools) uploaded to Debian, please test". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  17. ^ Jonathan Corbet (2004-08-11). "The value of middlemen". LWN.net. LWN.net. Retrieved 2014-04-07. 
  18. ^ a b See the file LIMITATIONS
  19. ^ "Trademark and OSS". 
  20. ^ a b The license change took place on 15 May 2006, when cdrtools-2.01.01a09 was released. (Source: AN-2.01.01a09)
  21. ^ "Various Licenses and Comments About Them - Common Development and Distribution License". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2006-12-31. 
  22. ^ a b Jonathan Corbet (2006-08-12). "cdrtools - a tale of two licenses". LWN.net. LWN.net. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  23. ^ a b "RM: cdrtools -- RoM: non-free, license problems". Debian Bug report logs. 
  24. ^ "A Quick Guide to GPLv3 – GNU Project – Free Software Foundation (FSF)". Free Software Foundation.  "Both versions of the GPL require you to provide all the source necessary to build the software, including supporting libraries, compilation scripts, and so on."
  25. ^ [4]
  26. ^ Dangerous Liaisons - Software combinations as Derivative Works?, Lothar Determan
  27. ^ cdrtools may be distributed in source and/or binary form, as indicated in file "COPYING" of any recent source tarball, (e.g. COPYING for the current stable release).
  28. ^ See message 17 in bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/cdrtools/+bug/213215.
  29. ^ "#377109 - RM: cdrtools -- RoM: non-free, license problems - Debian Bug report logs". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  30. ^ "Information for build cdrtools-2.01-11.fc7". Retrieved 2007-08-04. "moved back to version 2.01 (last GPL version), due to incompatible license issues" 
  31. ^ "[Fedora-legal-list] Legal CD/DVD/BD writing software for RedHat and Fedora". 
  32. ^ "Mandriva Cooker : The Inside Man V". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  33. ^ "cdrkit (fork of cdrtools) uploaded to Debian, please test". Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  34. ^ "Minutes from the Technical Board meeting, 2008-08-26". Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  35. ^ "Eben Moglen's view on mkisofs GPL (non-)compliance". Arch Linux. 
  36. ^ "Eben Moglen's view on mkisofs GPL (non-)compliance". Arch Linux.  - reply by Jörg Schilling.
  37. ^ a b Corbet, Jonathan (2009-08-12). "The unending story of cdrtools". LWN.net. LWN.net. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  38. ^ https://lists.debian.org/debian-legal/2004/09/msg00003.html
  39. ^ libburnia is expected to replace cdrkit on those distributions that do not ship cdrtools. Source: cdrtools, cdrkit and cdrskin: Untying the knot.
  40. ^ In January 2012 former Debian Project Leader Steve McIntyre wrote : "I’m the primary maintainer of cdrkit at this point, but I’d prefer to have it go away. Xorriso and the associated software in libisoburn is almost capable of replacing all the aging cdrtools-derived software that we have in Debian, The only missing feature that I’m aware of is creating the HFS hybrid filesystems that we use for installations on Mac systems. I’ve been talking with the upstream folks about this for some time already, and I’m hoping we can finish this soon enough that we can get it into Wheezy." Source: McIntyre, Steve (13 January 2012). "People Behind Debian: Steve McIntyre, debian-cd maintainer, former Debian Project Leader". Retrieved 2014-02-02.  As of March 2014 this did not happen yet, and Wheezy was released in May 2013 [5] with cdrkit.
  41. ^ a b c mkisofs(8) man page.
  42. ^ a b c cdrecord(1) man page.
  43. ^ readcd(1) man page.
  44. ^ a b cdda2wav(1) man page.
  45. ^ a b genisoimage(1) man page.
  46. ^ a b wodim(1) man page.
  47. ^ readom(1) man page.
  48. ^ a b icedax(1) man page.
  49. ^ a b xorriso(1) man page.
  50. ^ a b c cdrskin(1) man page.
  51. ^ Recent releases of cdrtools compile from source code on most architectures of most operating systems, as shown in section #Compatible operating systems
  52. ^ a b Support for capability-based security was added on 22 April 2013 with the release of cdrtools 3.01a14. (Source: AN-3.01a14)
  53. ^ Snippet from the genisoimage(1) man page: «UDF support is currently in alpha status and for this reason, it is not possible to create UDF-only images. UDF data structures are currently coupled to the Joliet structures, so there are many pitfalls with the current implementation. There is no UID/GID support, there is no POSIX permission support, there is no support for symlinks.»
  54. ^ «xorriso does not produce UDF filesystems which are specified for official video DVD or BD.» Source: xorriso overview and xorriso(1) man page.
  55. ^ genisoimage is compliant with Rock Ridge version 1.10 (producing the "RRIP_1991A" signature) but not with version 1.12, which has a "IEEE_1282" signature and embeds file serial numbers in the "PX" SUSP tags.
  56. ^ Cdrskin does not support UDF and thus cannot edit hybrid images that include an UDF filesystem
  57. ^ The "-long-rr-time" option appeared with cdrtools 3.01a01 on 24 November 2010. (Source: AN-3.01a01)
  58. ^ Support for all three Unix times for Rock Ridge extensions was already available in mkisofs 1.11 which was shipped with cdrecord 1.5a1 on 22 June 1997. (Source: lines 376 to 380 of file cdrecord-1.5/mkisofs-1.11/rock.c of archive cdrecord-1.5a1.tar.gz)
  59. ^ Support for all three Unix times for UDF was added to cdrtools 3.01a13 on 26 February 2013. (Source: AN-3.01a13)
  60. ^ a b c Support for SunOS-4.1.3 or later, Solaris 2.3 or later and Linux were already present in cdrecord 1.04 which was released on 23 May 1997. (Source: file AN-1.4 of archive cdrecord-1.5a1.tar.gz)
  61. ^ Support for FreeBSD was added on 5 July 1997 to cdrecord-1.5a3. (Source: AN-1.5a3)
  62. ^ a b c d e cdrecord 1.05, released on 15 September 1997, was the first stable release to support *BSD (FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD), IRIX and HP-UX.(Source: AN-1.05)
  63. ^ a b Support for NetBSD and OpenBSD was added on 8 July 1997 to cdrecord-1.5a4. (Source: AN-1.5a4)
  64. ^ Support for IRIX was added on 26 August 1997 to cdrecord-1.5a6. (Source: AN-1.5a6)
  65. ^ Support for HP-UX was added on 1 September 1997 to cdrecord-1.5a7. (Source: AN-1.5a7)
  66. ^ Support for AIX was added on 29 November 1997 to cdrecord 1.6a7. (Source: AN-1.6a7)
  67. ^ First Apple Rhapsody support (binary only) added on 8 February 1998 to cdrecord 1.6a8. (Source: AN-1.6a8)
  68. ^ a b c Support for Apple Rhapsody, OS X and NeXTSTEP was added on 16 September 1999 to cdrecord 1.8a28. (Source: AN-1.8a28)
  69. ^ a b c d e f g cdrecord 1.08, released on 28 January 2000, was the first stable release to support OS/2, BeOS, SCO OpenServer, Apple Rhapsody, Mac OS X, NeXTSTEP and QNX. The QNX port, however, does not yet have SCSI transport. (Source: AN-1.08)
  70. ^ Support for BSD/OS was added on 23 August 1998 to cdrecord 1.6.1a1 with a new SCSI transport code. (Source: AN-1.6.1a1)
  71. ^ cdrecord compiles on Windows NT with Cygwin since 23 August 1998. (Source: AN-1.6.1a2)
  72. ^ a b Support for Windows NT/9x and SCO OpenServer was added to cdrtools/cdrecord 1.8a22 on 13 May 1999 and also works on newer releases of Windows NT. (Source: AN-1.8a22)
  73. ^ cdrtools builds without any patch on Windows with MinGW since 4 January 2014. (Source: AN-3.01a21).
  74. ^ Support for OSF-1 was added on 6 October 1998 to cdrecord 1.6.1a4. (Source: AN-1.6.1a4)
  75. ^ Support for OS/2 was initiated on 22 November 1998 with cdrecord 1.8a11. (Source: AN-1.8a11)
  76. ^ Support for BeOS was added on 6 December 1998 to cdrecord 1.8a14. (Source: AN-1.8a14)
  77. ^ Partial support for QNX (without SCSI transport code) was added on 7 January 2000 to cdrecord 1.8a39 (Source: AN-1.8a39)
  78. ^ Support for SCO UnixWare was added on 26 August 2000 to cdrecord 1.10a03 (Source: AN-1.10a03)
  79. ^ cdrtools builds without any patch on AmigaOS since 18 January 2002. (Source: AN-1.11a13)
  80. ^ Support for DOS/DJGPP was added on 10 December 2003 to cdrtools 2.01a20. (Source: AN-2.01a20)
  81. ^ Support for DragonFly BSD was added on 30 January 2006 to cdrtools 2.01.01a05. (Source: AN-2.01.01a05)
  82. ^ Support for Zeta was added on 9 February 2006 to cdrtools 2.01.01a06. (Source: AN-2.01.01a07)
  83. ^ Support for Atari MiNT was added on 25 December 2008 to cdrtools 2.01.01a54. (Source: AN-2.01.01a54)
  84. ^ a b Support for Haiku and Syllable was added on 9 March 2009 to cdrtools 2.01.01a58. (Source: AN-2.01.01a58)
  85. ^ Support for OpenVMS was added on 1 November 2009 to cdrtools 2.01.01a67. (Source: AN-2.01.01a67)
  86. ^ cdrtools builds without any patch on Debian GNU/kFreeBSD since 15 August 2012. (Source: AN-3.01a08)
  87. ^ Support for Blu-ray Discs was added on 4 July 2007 to cdrtools 2.01.01a29. (Source: AN-2.01.01a29)

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