|State of Ceará|
|— State —|
|Motto: Terra da Luz (Land of Light)|
|Capital and Largest City||Fortaleza|
|• Governor||Cid Ferreira Gomes|
|• Vice Governor||Francisco José Pinheiro|
|• Total||146,348.3 km2 (56,505.4 sq mi)|
|• Density||59/km2 ( 150/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||11th|
|• Total||R$ 84,360,000,000 (12th)|
|• Per capita||R$ 9,666 (List of Brazilian states by gross domestic product)|
|Time zone||BRT (UTC-3)|
|• Summer (DST)||Brasília Summer (UTC-02)|
|Postal Code||60000-000 to 63990-000|
|ISO 3166 code||BR-CE|
Ceará (Portuguese pronunciation: [siaˈɾa]) is one of the 27 states of Brazil, located in the northeastern part of the country, on the Atlantic coast. It is currently the 8th largest Brazilian State by population and the 17th by area. It is also one of the main touristic destinations in Brazil. The state capital is the city of Fortaleza.
Literally, the name Ceará means "sings the jandaia". According to José de Alencar, one of the most important writers of Brazil and an authority in Tupi Guaraní, Ceará means turquoise or green waters. There are also theories that the state name would derive from Siriará, a reference to the crabs from the seashore.
The state is best known for its extensive coastline, with 600 kilometers (370 mi) of sand. There are also mountains and valleys producing tropical fruits. To the south, on the border of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Piauí, is the National Forest of Araripe.
Ceará has an area of 148,016 km². It is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba, on the south by Pernambuco state, and on the west by Piauí.
Ceará lies partly upon the northeast slope of the Brazilian Highlands, and partly upon the sandy coastal plain. Its surface is a succession of great terraces, facing north and northeast, formed by the denudation of the ancient sandstone plateau which once covered this part of the continent; the terraces are seamed by watercourses, and their valleys are broken by hills and ranges of highlands. The latter are the remains of the ancient plateau, capped with horizontal strata of sandstone, and having a remarkably uniform altitude of 2000 to 2,400 ft (730 m) The flat top of such a range is called a chapada or taboleira, and its width in places is from 32 to 56 miles (90 km). The boundary line with Piauí follows one of these ranges, the Serra de Ibiapaba, which unites with another range on the southern boundary of the state, known as the Serra do Araripe. Another range, or escarpment, crosses the state from east to west, but is broken into two principal divisions, each having several local names. These ranges are not continuous, the breaking down of the ancient plateau having been irregular and uneven.
The rivers of the state are small and, with one or two exceptions, become completely dry in the dry season. The largest is the Jaguaribe, which flows entirely across the state in a northeast direction.
Ceará has a varied environment, with mangroves, caatinga, jungle, scrubland and tropical forest. The higher ranges intercept considerable moisture from the prevailing trade winds, and their flanks and valleys are covered with a tropical forest which is typical of the region, gathering species from tropical forests, caatinga and cerrado. The less elevated areas of the plateaus are either thinly wooded or open campo. Most of the region at the lower altitudes is characterized by scrubby forests called caatingas, which is an endemic Brazilian vegetation. The sandy, coastal plain, with a width of 12 to 18 miles (29 km), is nearly bare of vegetation, although the coast has many enclaves of restingas forests and mangroves.
The soil is, in general, thin and porous and does not retain moisture, consequently the long, dry season turns the country into a barren desert, relieved only by vegetation along the riverways and mountain ranges, and by the hardy, widely distributed Carnauba Palm (Copernicia cerifera), which in places forms groves of considerable extent. Some areas in the higher ranges of Serra da Ibiapaba, Serra do Araripe and others are more appropriate to agriculture as its soil and vegetation are less affected by the dry seasons.
The endless stretch of beaches in the state is a major tourist attraction. Ceará has several famous beaches such as Canoa Quebrada, Jericoacoara, Morro Branco, Taíba and Flexeiras. The beaches are divided into two groups (in relation to the capital Fortaleza): Sunset Coast (Costa do Sol poente) and Sunrise Coast (Costa do Sol nascente).
The climate is hot and humid on the coast, tempered by the cool trade winds; but in the more elevated, semi-arid regions it is very hot and dry (often above 22 °C, but seldom above 30 °C), although the nights are cool. However, in the higher ranges (Serra da Ibiapaba, Chapada do Araripe and several less larger highlands) the temperatures are cooler and vary from about 14 °C to 18 °C (the record minimum temperature registered in Ceará took place in Jardim, a small city in Chapada do Araripe: 8 °C).
The year is divided into a rainy and dry season, the rains beginning in January to March and lasting until June. The dry season, July to December, is sometimes broken by slight showers in September and October, but these are of very slight importance. This environment and temperature attracts many tourists, especially ecotourists. The climate is hot almost all year round. The temperature in the state varies from 22 °C to 36 °C with the lowest temperatures not being typical in the capital Fortaleza but in the numerous mountains in the state.
Sometimes the rains fail altogether, and then a drought ("seca") ensues, causing famine and pestilence throughout the entire region. The most destructive droughts recorded in the 18th and 19th centuries were those of 1711, 1723, 1777–1778, 1790, 1825, 1844–1845, and 1877–1878, the last-mentioned (known by local people as "a Grande Seca", "the Great Drought") destroying nearly all the livestock in the state, and causing the death through starvation and pestilence of nearly half a million people, or over half the population. Because of the constant risk of droughts, nowadays there are lots of dams (called "açudes") throughout Ceará, the largest of them being the Açude Castanhão. Thanks to the dams, the Jaguaribe River doesn't become completely dry anymore.
The territory of Ceará was originally inhabited by different Indians peoples, such as the Tabajara, Potyguara, Anacés, Kariri, Inhamum, Jucá, Kanindé, Tremembé, Paicaú and others, who had commercial relations with various Europeans people, including the French, before the Portuguese decided to include the area in Brazil.
The first Portuguese crown plan for settling in Ceará dated from 1534, but the first attempts to settle the territory failed, and the earliest Portuguese settlement was made near the mouth of the Ceará River in 1604, by Pero Coelho de Sousa. He established the fort of São Tiago, but one year later he and his family abandoned Ceará because the period of drought, a natural phenomenon that periodically afflicts the province, and which the Portuguese settlers were ill-equipped to endure.
Portugal wanted to form a military base in Ceará to support the Portuguese operations in the war against the French. The first attempt with Pero Coelho de Sousa in 1603, was not successful, and the French continued operating from Maranhão and Ibiapaba, where they had established a base in 1590. The Indians and French formed political and military alliances. In 1607, two Jesuits, Francisco Pinto and Pereira Figueira, arrived in Ceará with a mission to spy in the area of Ibiapaba. In October, that year Franciso Pinto was killed by the Indians and Pereira Filgueira returned with more information about the area and the French and Indian alliance.
In 1612, the French were successfully expelled from Ceará and Maranhão by a military expedition under the command of Portuguese Martim Soares Moreno. In the same year he constructed the fortress of São Sebastião on the same site as São Tiago, and one year later his left Ceará for Portugal. It was only in 1618 that Martim Soares Moreno returned to Ceará, and it is from this time that the Portuguese presence dates. This was restricted at first to the area of the Ceará River: Martim Soares Moreno made an alliance with the Indians of the Potiguara tribe. In 1631, Martim Soares Moreno left Ceará to help the Portuguese against the Dutch in Pernambuco and the fort of São Sebastião lost its importance.
At this time, what is today Brazil was hotly contested by the Dutch and the Portuguese. The area was invaded twice by the Dutch, in 1637 and in 1649. In 1637, the Dutch and the Indians took the Fort of São Sebastião and dominated Ceará. The Dutch expanded their presence in Ceará and made alliances with different Indian tribes. In 1639, Georg Marcgrave made an expedition in Ceará, but in 1644 the Indians attacked the Dutch Governor of Ceará, Gideon Morris, the Dutch soldiers were are killed, and São Sebastião was destroyed.
There were no Europeans in the region between 1644 and 1649, but in 1649, before negotiations with the different Indian tribes, Matias Beck is arrived in Ceará to explore silver mines of Maranguape. Good-quality silver was not however to be had, but in this period the Dutch built another fort, by the banks of river Pajeú, and named it Fort Schoonenborch after one of their commanders. In 1654, the Dutch were expelled from Brazil; the Portuguese took Schoonenborch, changed its name to Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora de Assunção (The Fortress of Our Lady of the Assumption), and the different Indian tribes that had made alliance with the Dutch had to flee from Portuguese persecution.
In 1661, the Netherlands formally ceded their Brazilian territories to the Portuguese crown, ending conflict in the region. Ceará became a dependency of Pernambuco in 1680; this relationship lasted until 1799, when the Captaincy of Ceará was made independent.
The fight for Brazilian independence in 1822 was fierce in Ceará, with the area being a rebel stronghold that incurred vicious retribution from loyalists. The captaincy became a province in 1822 under Dom Pedro I. A revolution followed in 1824, the president of the province was deposed fifteen days after his arrival, and a republic was proclaimed. Internal dissensions immediately broke out, the new president was assassinated, and after a brief reign of terror the province resumed its allegiance to the empire.
Ceará was one of the first provinces of Brazil to abolish slavery.
The state of Ceará became a bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church in 1853, the bishop residing at Fortaleza.
Two railway lines running inland from the coast (the Baturité line from Fortaleza to Senador Pompeu, 179 miles (288 km), and the Sobral line from the port of Camocim to Ipu, 134 miles), were built by the national government after the drought of 1877–1878 to give work to the starving refugees, and were later operated under leases. Dams were also begun for irrigation purposes.
The population numbered 805,687 in 1890, and 849,127 in 1900. In 1900 approximately five-sixths of the population lived on estates, owned no property, paid no taxes, and derived few benefits from the social and political institutions about them. Education was then confined almost exclusively to the upper classes, from which came some of the most prominent men in Brazilian politics and literature.
In the early 20th century the sandy zone along the coast was nearly barren, but the more elevated region behind the coast with broken surfaces and sandy soil produced fruit and most tropical products when conditions were favourable. The natural vegetable production was important, and included manigoba or Ceará rubber, carnahuba wax and fibre, caju wine and ipecacuanha. The principal agricultural products were cotton, coffee, sugar, manioc and tropical fruits. The production of cotton increased largely with the development of cotton manufacture in Brazil.
The higher plateau was devoted almost exclusively to cattle raising, once the principal industry of the state, although recurring droughts created an obstacle to its profitable development. The state exported considerable amounts of cattle, hides and skins.
Since 1960, the Orós Dam, comparable in size to the Aswan Dam has supplied Ceará with much of its water, and in 1995 construction began on the enormous Castanhão Dam, completed in 2003, which is able to hold 6.5 km³ of water.
According to the IBGE of 2008, there were 8,472,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 55.2 inh./km².
The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 5,370,000 Brown (Multiracial) people (63.39%), 2,800,000 White people (33.05%), 257,000 Black people (3.03%), 28,000 Asian people (0.33%), 12,000 Amerindian people (0.14%).
Largest cities 
Largest cities or towns of Ceará
(2011 census of Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística)
|Rank||City name||Mesoregion||Pop.||Rank||City name||Mesoregion||Pop.|
Juazeiro do Norte
|3||Juazeiro do Norte||-||253,841||13||Aquiraz||-||73,880|
Interesting facts 
The service sector is the largest component of GDP at 56.7%, followed by the industrial sector at 37.9%. Agriculture represents 5.4% of GDP (2004). Ceará exports: leather footwear 20.3%, crustaceans 17.6%, woven of cotton 16.9%, cashew 14.7%, leather 13.1%, fruits, juices and honey 5.4% (2002). It is one of only three Brazilian states which together produce the world's entire supply of carnauba wax.
Share of the Brazilian economy: 2,04% (2010).
According to the data from IPECE and IBGE, the GDP of Ceará reached BRL 94 billion in 2012. The economic growth of the State in 2012 was of 3.6%, four times higher than the overall growth of Brazil, which was of 0.9%.
Traditionally an agriculture-based state, Ceará began an industrialisation program under the military regime (1964–1985), and the industrial sector continues to expand annually. In 1999, industry accounted for 39.3% of the state's GDP. Tourism also plays a large role in Ceará's economy, with the state's many waterfalls, beaches and rainforests. On average, Fortaleza alone receives half a million tourists annually.
There are more than 53 higher education institutions in the state of Ceará
Higher education institutions 
- Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) (Federal University of Ceará);
- Universidade Estadual do Ceará (UECE) (State University of Ceará);
- Faculdade 7 de Setembro (FA7);
- Instituto Federal do Ceará (IFCE);
- Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR) (University of Fortaleza);
- Universidade do Vale do Acaraú (Uva) (University of Acaraú Valley);
- Universidade Regional do Cariri (URCA) (Regional University of Cariri);
Tourism and recreation 
The state has several tourist attractions but is famous for its eco-tourism capabilities with hundreds of nearly deserted beaches and sand dunes. Besides the famous coast, Ceará has also a big tourist potential in the countryside, with the rainforests and waterfalls of the Highlands (such as Ibiapaba, Araripe, Meruoca and Guaramiranga) and some semi-arid regions which are ideal for tourists who like extreme sports and adventure, especially the town of Quixadá, a famous spot for paragliding, hang gliding and climbing. The city of Santana do Cariri, in the more elevated areas of Serra do Araripe, is also noted for its great paleontological importance, being the place of major searches and discoveries (including a new species of dinosaur, the Santanaraptor placidus).
Jericoacoara National Park is a beautiful windswept region, with local fisherman mixing it with travellers keen to get off the beaten track - and provides a local relaxed atmosphere, incredible forro dancing and music and Capoeira with famous kite and windsurfing adventures, sand buggy tours to the stunning Lagoa Azul nearby, and interesting opportunities available including following the shamans path into the experiences of Ayahuasca - often viewed as one of the most effective tools of enlightenment.
Main Tourist Attractions
- Canoa Quebrada Beach (in Aracati)
- Morro Branco
- Praia Do Futuro
- Jericoacoara Beach (profiled on E! Network's Wild On! series in 2000)
International airport 
The Pinto Martins International Airport is situated in Fortaleza. The passenger terminal is air conditioned and has four levels. The basement level has parking for 1,000 cars as well as automatic teller machines and a stop for regular city buses. The ground level has 31 check-in counters, airline offices, car rental agencies, special tourist information, a juvenile court bureau to facilitate travel of minors, a National Civil Aviation Agency (ANAC) office, information counter, passenger arrival area and access to two taxi stops.
The second level contains shops, a food court and domestic and international boarding lounges. The top floor has a beer garden and panoramic deck overlooking the maneuvering apron with a view of the Fortaleza skyline. The apron is 152,857 square meters and can accommodate 14 aircraft at once in pre-established positions (“boxes”).
The scheduled airlines operating out of Fortaleza are Cabo Verde Airlines, TAP, Delta Air Lines, Gol, TAM, Webjet, OceanAir and TAF. The airport also frequently receives domestic and international charter flights. The passenger terminal, opened in 1998, was designed to have a useful life of 50 years. The former terminal, called the General Aviation Terminal, is now used for general aviation and the fire brigade. The control tower is located alongside.
Construction of a cargo terminal is the next big step planned by Infraero. The new terminal will have roughly eight thousand square meters, boosting the cargo storage and handling capacity fourfold. Plans then call for the new terminal to be integrated with highway and railroad links.
Highways in Ceará include:
The Port of Fortaleza is located in the inlet of the Mucuripe and is a man-made port, including an oil platform. The quay stretches 1,054 meters. There are 6,000 square meters of warehouses and more than 100,000 square meters of dock for containers. There are still two wheat mills, interconnected to the railway system by an extensive maneuvering dock.
Fortaleza provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. The most popular sport here, as well as in the remainder of Brazil, is soccer. The Championship of Ceará has its main games in Fortaleza. There are several association football (soccer) clubs, such as Ceará SC, Fortaleza EC and Ferroviário AC. Strong winds make the Praia do Futuro an excellent place for nautical sports, and Fortaleza hosts world competitions of surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing. Fortaleza appears to have a culture conducive to the production of high-level athletes in combat sports, as evidenced by several Fortalezans' recent success in mixed martial arts.
The flag of Ceará is nearly identical to that of the federal Brazilian flag, the sole difference being the blue hemisphere in the Brazilian flag replaced by the Ceará state coat of arms.
See also 
- In Brazilian Portuguese variant spoken in Ceará. The European Portuguese pronunciation is [siɐˈɾa].
- "Língua Indígena. O nome Ceará.". Revista do Instituto do Ceará. 1999. Retrieved 2007-09-06.[dead link]
- Source: PNAD.
- (PDF) (in Portuguese). Ceará, Brazil: IBGE. 2008. ISBN 85-240-3919-1 http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.asp?z=pnad&o=3&i=P&c=262. Retrieved 2010-01-18. Missing or empty
- "ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 1º DE JULHO DE 2011" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 30 August 2011. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Source: IBGE.
- Estimativa do PIB Cearense em 2010 e seu Desempenho Setorial (PDF) (in Portuguese). Ceará, Brazil: IPECE. 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-11.
- "Crescimento do PIB do Ceará em 2012 supera quatro vezes o resultado da média nacional" (in Portuguese). Diário do Nordeste. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- Universidades no Ceará
- "Move Over Rio, Make Room for Fortaleza". MMAPredictions. Retrieved 2007-07-16.
- "Castelao rising above the Fortaleza skyline". FIFA. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
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- (Portuguese) Official Website
- The Birds of the Interior of Ceará Site about birds of the caatinga, with photos, voice recordings and notes.
- Ceará Photo Gallery by Alex Uchôa at pbase.com
- English speaking Real Estate Agents Specialising in Ceará