Lalawigan sa Sugbo
Lalawigan ng Cebu
|— Province —|
|Province of Cebu|
|Region||Central Visayas (Region VII)|
|Founded||April 27, 1565|
|• Type||Province of the Philippines|
|• Governor||Hilario P. Davide III (Liberal Party)|
|• Vice Governor||Agnes A. Magpale (Bakud/Liberal Party)|
|• Total||4,943.72 km2 (1,908.78 sq mi)|
|Area rank||21st out of 80|
|Excludes independent cities|
|• Rank||4th out of 80|
|• Density||530/km2 ( 1,400/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||7th out of 80|
|Excludes independent cities|
|• Independent cities||3|
|• Component cities||6|
including independent cities: 1,203
|• Districts||1st to 6th districts of Cebu (shared with Mandaue and Lapu-Lapu cities)
including independent cities: 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|ZIP codes||6000 - 6053|
|Spoken languages||Cebuano, Filipino, English|
Cebu Province (Cebuano: Lalawigan sa Sugbo, Filipino: Lalawigan ng Cebu), Tagalog pronunciation: ['sebu]) is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city in the Philippines, which forms part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area together with four neighboring cities which include Danao City, Lapu-Lapu City, Mandaue City and Talisay City and eight other municipalities. Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Mactan island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines.
Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade, education and industry in the Visayas. Condé Nast Traveler Magazine named Cebu the 7th best island destination in the Indian Ocean-Asia region in 2007, 8th best Asian-Pacific island destination in 2005, 7th in 2004 and in 2009. In a decade it has transformed into a global hub for furniture making, tourism, business processing services, and heavy industry.
Cebu is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands. Cebu is a long narrow island stretching 225 kilometres (140 mi) from north to south, surrounded by 167 neighbouring, smaller islands, which include Mactan, Bantayan, Malapascua, Olango and the Camotes Islands. Cebu has narrow coastlines, limestone plateaus and coastal plains. It also has rolling hills and rugged mountain ranges traversing the northern and southern lengths of the island.
Cebu's highest mountains are over 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) high. Flat tracts of land can be found in the city of Bogo and in the towns of San Remigio, Medellin and Daanbantayan at the northern region of the province.
Its land area is 494,372 hectares (1,221,620 acres), or 534,200 hectares (1,320,000 acres) including the independent cities.
Though Cebu has two seasons, dry and wet, rainfall is usually not particularly high, with average rainfall hitting around 100 millimetres (3.9 in) per month. The wet season usually comes from June to December, while the dry season comes from January until May. Rainfall is highest in June and July. Cebu's temperatures can reach a high of 36 °C (97 °F) from March to May, to as low as 18 °C (64 °F) in the mountains during the cooler season from October to January. The average temperature in Cebu is around 24 to 32 °C (75 to 90 °F), and does not fluctuate much except for the month of May, which is the hottest month. Cebu averages 70–80 percent humidity.
Between the 13th and 16th century Cebu then known as Zubu (or Sugbo) was an island inhabited by Hindus, animists and Muslims ruled by Rajahs and Datus. It was a kingdom of the defunct Rajahnate of Cebu.
The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which used to exist in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri 'Lumay' otherwise known as 'Rajamuda Lumaya', a native prince of the Chola dynasty which had invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead.
Losing favor for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands from king Manuel I of Portugal, by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On September 20, 1519, Magellan led five ships with a crew of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to Southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean. They reached the Philippines on March 16, 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and have provisions.
Arriving in Cebu City, Magellan, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu and persuaded the natives of allegiance to Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were given Christian names and baptized as Carlos and Juana. The Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On April 14, Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized.
Magellan soon heard of Datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu. It was thought that Humabon and Lapu-Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On April 27, the Battle of Mactan occurred where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan killed by the natives of Mactan in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels. Magellan's second in command, Juan Sebastián Elcano took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed their fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world.
Survivors of the Magellan expedition brought tales of a savage island in the East Indies with them when they returned to Spain. Consequently, several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailing from Mexico arrived in 1565 and established a colony. The Spaniards fought the King Rajah Tupas and occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santíssimo Nombre de Jesús" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus). Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos (University of San Carlos) was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its forts to foreign trade. The first printing house ("Imprenta de Escondrillas y Cia") was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion (College of the Immaculate Conception) was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu ("El Boletin de Cebú") began publishing in 1886. In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on February 24, 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians.
Cebu, being one of the most densely populated island in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942. The 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was reestablished on 1942 to 1946 and the 8th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again on 1944 to 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu City and Cebu Province and started by the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helping Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces. Almost three years later in March 1945, combined Filipino and American forces landed and reoccupied the island during the liberation of the Philippines. Cebuano guerrilla groups led by an American, James Cushing is credited for the establishment of the Koga Papers which is said to have changed the American plans to retake the Philippines from Japanese occupation in 1944, by helping the combined United States and the Philippine Commonwealth Army forces enter Cebu in 1945. The following year the island achieved independence from colonial rule in 1946.
|Population census of Cebu|
|Excludes independent cities
Source: National Statistics Office 
The population of Cebu in 2010 was 2,619,362 persons. The three largest cities, Cebu City, Lapu-Lapu, and Mandaue, had 866,171, 350,467, and 331,320 residents respectively. Therefore there are a total of 4,167,320 people living on Cebu, with a population density of 780.1 persons per km2.
Cebuano is the official language spoken in Cebu and it is also spoken in most areas of the Visayas, including Bohol, western Leyte, Negros Oriental and some provinces of Mindanao (Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Davao City, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Camiguin, Compostela Valley, South Cotabato and Sarangani.
The population of Central Visayas is predominantly young with about 37 percent of its population below 10 years old. This is very evident in the very broad base of the population pyramid in the region which has prevailed since 1970 but at a declining rate. A decline of 2.29 percentage points in the proportion of household population below 15 years old was noted from 1980 to 1995. Conversely, an increase of 3.06 percentage points was observed in the 15-64 age group during the same period. The population of the region is evenly distributed between male and female. However, the male population in the region has been increasing at a faster rate compared to the female population.
The image of Santo Niño de Cebú (Holy Child of Cebu), the oldest Christian image in the Philippines, is enshrined and venerated at the Basilica of Santo Niño. According to Philippine historical documents, the statue of the Santo Niño (Holy Child) was given to the wife of the Rajah of Cebu by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. The friendship is depicted in Cebu's cultural event, the Sinulog where street parades and loud drum beats preceded by a Christian mass is celebrated every third Sunday of January. Cebu has a Roman Catholic Archdiocese and has several major churches, including the Basilica Minor del Santo Niño de Cebu, Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral, Santo Rosario Parish Church, San José-Recoletos Church, Sacred Heart Church, Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, National Shrine of Our Lady of the Rule, National Shrine of Saint Joseph, Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Cebu and other Christian churches, as well as several other non-Catholic churches, mosques and temples.
The Mactan-Cebu International Airport on Mactan Island serves the general area of Cebu City and its surrounding area.
The Cebu International Port is the largest shipping hub in the Visayas. Notable business districts are the Cebu Business Park and the Cebu IT Park, built on what was once the location of the Lahug Airport (Cebu's old airport prior to Mactan-Cebu International Airport). This area hosts industries related to the information technology industry such as software development, telecommunications, engineering research and development centers, and business process outsourcing.
About 80% of domestic and international shipping operators and shipbuilders in the Philippines is located in Cebu. Its extensive port facilities and its proximity to intra-Asian shipping and air routes are major factors which led multinational companies to establish offices or factories on the main island, as well as in the island of Mactan, where they are clustered in special economic zones known as the Mactan Economic Processing Zone 1 (MEPZ-1) and the Mactan Economic Processing Zone 2 (MEPZ-2).
Cebu's labor force is oriented towards industrial lines. High domestic and foreign tourist arrivals, geographic location, accessibility and natural resources have fueled the development growth of Cebu. The province hosts various national and international corporations.
Due to its burgeoning furniture-making industry, Cebu has been named as the furniture capital of the Philippines. The Department of Trade and Industry in Cebu is aiming to develop this aspect of Cebu's economy by specifically targeting small to medium enterprises or SMEs whose products are considered export quality. Cebu is also becoming an IT hub as many companies have established their headquarters in Cebu. The city has become a site for various business process outsourcing centers. The Cebu Chamber of Commerce and Industry, an organization of Cebu's businesses, is promoting the city's growth and economy on information and communications technology, with the aim of making it a premier ICT investment, software and e-services hub in Southeast Asia. Shipbuilding companies in Cebu have manufactured bulk carriers of up to 70,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT) and double hulled fastcrafts as well.
The Philippine elementary school begins from Grade 1 to Grade 6. The high school program takes six years to finish, taken after graduating from elementary school. Cebu is the main educational institute in the central region of the country. It has several large universities each with a number of college branches throughout Cebu City and more than a dozen other schools and universities specializing in various courses such as Medicine, Engineering, Nautical courses, Nursing, Law, Commerce, Education, Computer and IT and other professions.
The most prominent of these universities are the University of San Carlos, University of the Philippines Cebu, University of San Jose–Recoletos, Cebu Normal University, University of Cebu, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Southwestern University, and the University of the Visayas. The Cebu Doctors' University (formerly Cebu Doctors' College) located in the Cebu Boardwalk in nearby Mandaue City. It was elevated to university status in November 2004. Another medical school is the Velez College in affiliation with Cebu Institute of Medicine. The Cebu Institute of Technology – University (formerly Cebu Institute of Technology) located in N. Bacalso Ave. and the Cebu Technological University (formerly Cebu State College of Science and Technology) which is located in M.J. Cuenco Avenue cor. R. Palma Street, Cebu City are the newest universities. CIT-U and CTU were elevated to university status in the year 2010. The Cebu's first film school, The International Academy of Film and Television was established on Mactan Island in 2004. The Asian College of Technology, is also located in Metro Cebu.
Cebu has television and cable stations namely: MyChannel (channel 28), Real Cebu Television (channel 36), Amazing Cebu (channel 56), Sugbo TV (channel 14, the official TV channel operated by the Cebu Provincial Government) and the Cebu Catholic Television Network (channel 47, a religious station partly owned and endorsed by the Archdiocese of Cebu). MyChannel, RCTV, Amazing Cebu and Sugbo TV are only seen on cable television while CCTN operates an UHF frequency on channel 47. It can also be accessed through Skycable's channel 56.
Despite having these local stations, Cebuanos prefer to watch the Philippines' three dominant television networks namely: ABS-CBN, TV5 and GMA Network Inc. While national newspapers have presence in the island, Cebu has English-language local newspapers: The Freeman (under the Star Group), Sun.Star Cebu and Cebu Daily News (under the Inquirer Group), while there are also Cebuano language newspapers, SunStar SuperBalita owned by Sun Star and Banat News owned by The Freeman. Each of the local newspapers sell for about 10 peso a copy, which is much cheaper than their national counterparts.
Cebu is known for being the hometown of teen pop duo "Iyan Myk and Eydriyan", who attribute their success to growing up in Cebu. African-Cebuano Marsam Tagsip, a local TV host, is also critically acclaimed for his observational comedy, where he uses humour to highlight racial, ethnic, class and cultural stereotypes. He often refers to his own life experiences growing up with "Nigerian-black" complexion.
- Governor: Hilario P. Davide III (Liberal Party)
- Vice Governor: Agnes A. Magpale (Barug Alang sa Kauswagan ug Demokrasya/Liberal Party)
- 1st district: Rep. Gerald Anthony V. Gullas Jr. (Nacionalista)
- 2nd district: Rep. Wilfredo S. Caminero (Liberal Party)
- 3rd district: Rep. Gwendolyn F. Garcia (One Cebu/United Nationalist Alliance)
- 4th district: Rep. Benhur L. Salimbangon (One Cebu/National Unity Party)
- 5th district: Rep. Joseph Felix Mari H. Durano (Liberal Party)
- 6th district: Rep. Gabriel Luis R. Quisumbing (Liberal Party)
In 2007, the towns of Bogo, Carcar and Naga became cities. They, along with 13 other cities in the country, were demoted back to municipalities the following year by the Philippine Supreme Court, citing that these 16 cities did not pass the requirements of cityhood. However, on December 22, 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators." As such, the cityhood status of Bogo, Carcar and Naga, was effectively restored.
On August 27, 2010, the cities of Bogo, Carcar and Naga reverted back to municipalities again. It shared the fate of 13 other cities, after the Supreme Court reinstated a 2008 decision declaring as “unconstitutional" the cityhood laws converting 16 municipalities into cities. A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least P100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.
Voting 7-6, with two justices not taking part, the SC reinstated its November 18, 2008, decision declaring as unconstitutional the Republic Acts (RAs) converting 16 municipalities into cities. The most recent development in the legal battles surrounding the "League of 16" came on February 15, 2011. Voting 7-6, the Supreme Court (SC) ruled that 16 towns that became cities in 2007 can stay as cities. It was the fourth time the SC has ruled on the case and the third reversal. It said the conversion of the 16 towns into cities met all legal requirements.
- San Fernando
- San Francisco
- San Remigio
- Santa Fe
- Basilica Minore del Santo Niño
- Cebu Taoist Temple
- Fort San Pedro
- Lapu Lapu shrine
- Magellan shrine
- Magellan's Cross
Sinulog is a religious festival celebrated every third Sunday of January. The feast is held in honor of the patron, Señor Santo Niño de Cebú (Lord Holy Child of Cebu) and the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the Philippines. The Fiesta Señor (Festival Lord) converge a procession and take part in a Mardi Gras-like parade.
All cities and municipalities in the province have their own different respective cultural festivals. Only the municipalities of Asturias, Compostela, Pilar and Tabogon have no designated annual celebrations.
- Pintos Festival - Bogo City
- Karansa Festival - Danao City
- Garbo sa Lapu Lapu Festival - Lapu-Lapu City
- Panagtagbo Festival - Mandaue City
- Halad Inasal Festival - Talisay City
- Dagitab Festival - Naga City
- Hinulawan Festival - Toledo City
- Kabkaban Festival - Carcar City
International Relations & Sisterhood Agreements 
- Cebu Province hosted two major Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and telecom events, the 12th ASEAN Telecommunications and IT Ministers Meeting (TELMIN) and the 13th ASEAN Telecommunications and IT Senior Officials Meeting (TELSOM) in 2012.
- Cebu Province hosted the international 4th Dance Xchange, a project organized by the National Dance Committee of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts in 2012.
- Cebu Province as member hosted the 11th East Asia Inter-Regional Tourism Forum in 2011
- Cebu Province join as a participating member of Inter-Island Tourism Policy Forum in 2011 (ITOP Forum)
- Cebu Province hosted the 12th ASEAN Summit in 2007.
Existing Sisterhood Agreements
National Sisterhood Agreements
- Antique, Philippines
- Ilocos Norte, Philippines
- South Cotabato, Philippines
- Bukidnon, Philippines
- Masbate, Philippines
- Laguna, Philippines
- Quezon, Philippines
- "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities". 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Condé Nast Traveler Readers' Choice Top Islands".
- "Guide to Cebu-Weather in Cebu www.guidetocebu.com".
- "Welcome to Cebu- history". www.sinulog.ph.
- "Cebu's history". www.plantationbay.com.
- "Cebu - History". www.cebu.gov.ph.
- Jovito Abellana, Aginid, Bayok sa Atong Tawarik, 1952
- "Philippine History-Spanish Colonization". www.philippinecountry.com. Retrieved 2006.
- "Philippine history, part2 The first Spanish expedition of 1521".
- "Cebu - History". www.cebu.gov.ph.
- "Philippine history, part3 The Spanish colonization".
- "More on demographics". The Commission on Population of the Philippines. Retrieved 2011-08-27.
- "Cebu - Paradise: Culture and Lifestyle". www.cebu.gov.ph.
- Napallacan, Jhunex (2008-11-21). "Cities’ demotion worries DepEd execs". Cebu Daily News. Inquirer.net. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
- Benjamin B. Pulta. "SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities". The Daily Tribune.
- Rey E. Requejo. "Cityhood ruling overturned". Manila Standard Today.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "11th EAST-ASIA TOURISM FORUM (EATOF) INTEGRATED ACADEMIC, TOURISM AND BUSINESS FORUM BUSINESS MATCHING | Cebu Chamber of Commerce and Industry". Cebuchamber.org. 2011-09-12. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
- [dead link]
- "ASEAN Leaders Sign Five Agreements at the 12th ASEAN Summit, Cebu, the Philippines, 13 January 2007" (Press release). ASEAN Secretariat. 2007-01-13. Archived from the original on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-28. "12th ASEAN Summit, five."
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cebu|
- Official Website of the Provincial Government of Cebu
- The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines - Cebu
- Philippine Census Information
Negros Oriental / Tañon Strait
|Camotes Sea / Leyte|
|Cebu Strait / Bohol|