Cebu City

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This article is about the city in the Philippines. For the province in the Philippines, see Cebu.
Cebu City
Highly urbanized city
City of Cebu
(From top, left to right) : Basilica Minore del Santo Niño, Magellan's Cross, Ayala Center Cebu, Globe Innove IT Plaza, Cebu Taoist Temple, Cebu City at night
(From top, left to right) : Basilica Minore del Santo Niño, Magellan's Cross, Ayala Center Cebu, Globe Innove IT Plaza, Cebu Taoist Temple, Cebu City at night
Official seal of Cebu City
Nickname(s): Hara nga Dakbayan sa Sugbo
Queen City of the South
First capital of the Philippines
The Gateway to a Thousand Journeys
Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City
Map of Cebu showing the location of Cebu City
Cebu City is located in Philippines
Cebu City
Cebu City
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 10°17′N 123°54′E / 10.283°N 123.900°E / 10.283; 123.900Coordinates: 10°17′N 123°54′E / 10.283°N 123.900°E / 10.283; 123.900
Country Philippines
Region Central Visayas (Region VII)
Province Cebu (capital)
District First (North) and Second (South) districts of Cebu City
(as Spanish colony)
(as city)

24 February 1937
Barangays 80 (see § Barangays)
 • Mayor Michael L. Rama (UNA)
 • Vice Mayor Edgar D. Labella (UNA)
 • City 315.0 km2 (121.6 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,163.36 km2 (449.18 sq mi)
Elevation 17.0 m (55.8 ft)
Population (2010)[2]
 • City 866,171
 • Density 2,700/km2 (7,100/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,551,100
 • Metro density 2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi)
Demonym Cebuano / Cebuana
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 6000
IDD:area code +63 (0)32
Income class 1st
PSGC 072217000

Cebu City, officially the City of Cebu (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Sugbo, Filipino: Lungsod ng Cebu, Spanish: Ciudad de Cebú), is the capital city of the province of Cebu and is the "second city" of the Philippines, being the center of Metro Cebu, the second most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines after Metro Manila. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 866,171 – making it the fifth most populated city in the country.[2] Cebu City is a significant center of commerce, trade and education in the Visayas area. The City of Cebu is also known as the "Queen City of the South."

The city is located on the eastern shore of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement and the oldest city in the Philippines.[3] Cebu is the Philippines' main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the country's domestic shipping companies.

It is the center of a metropolitan area called Metro Cebu, which includes the cities of Carcar, Danao, Lapu-lapu, Mandaue, Naga, Talisay and the municipalities of Compostela, Consolacion, Cordova, Liloan, Minglanilla and San Fernando . Metro Cebu has a total population of about 2.55 million people (2010 Census). Cebu City is bordered to the northeast by Mandaue City and the town of Consolacion, to the west are Toledo City, and the towns of Balamban and Asturias, to the south are Talisay City and the town of Minglanilla. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island.


The name "Cebu" came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo ("trade"), a shortened form of sinibuayng hingpit ("the place for trading"). It was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbo, the ancient name for Cebu City. Sugbo, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for "scorched earth" or "great fire".[4][5]


A 19th-century map of Cebu City.

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, Cebu city was part of the island-rajahnate and trade center of Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya (literally "[the islands] which belong to Daya"), now better known as the Rajahnate of Cebu. It was founded by a minor prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, the half-Malay and half-Tamil, Sri Lumay. The name Sugbo (shortened form of Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbo, literally "that of Sri Lumay's great fire") refers to Sri Lumay's scorched earth tactics against Muslim Moro raiders (Magalos).[4][5]

On April 7, 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu. He was welcomed by Rajah Humabon (also known as Sri Humabon or Rajah Humabara), the grandson of Sri Lumay, together with his wife and about 700 native islanders. Magellan, however, was killed in the Battle of Mactan, and the remaining members of his expedition left Cebu soon after several of them were poisoned by Humabon due to threats of foreign occupation. The last ruler of Sugbo, prior to Spanish colonization, was Rajah Humabon's nephew, Rajah Tupas (d. 1565).[4][5]

On February 13, 1565, Spanish conquistadors led by Miguel López de Legazpi together with Augustinian friars, whose prior was Andrés de Urdaneta, arrived in Samar, taking possession of the island thereafter. Afterwards, the expedition visited Leyte, Cabalian, Mazaua, Camiguin and Bohol where the famous Sandugo or blood compact was performed between López de Legazpi and Datu Sikatuna, the chieftain of Bohol on March 16, 1565. The Spanish arrived in Cebu on April 15, 1565. They then attempted to parley with the local ruler, Rajah Tupas, but found that he and the local population had abandoned the town. Rajah Tupas presented himself at their camp on May 8, feast of the Apparition of Saint Michael the Archangel, when the island was taken possession of on behalf of the Spanish King. The Treaty of Cebu was formalized on July 3, 1565. López de Legazpi's party named the new city "Villa de San Miguel de Cebú" (later renamed "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús)." In 1567 the Cebu garrison was reinforced with the arrival of 2,100 soldiers from New Spain (Mexico). The growing colony was then fortified with the Fuerte de San Pedro.

By 1569 the Spanish settlement in Cebu had become important as a safe port for ships from Mexico and as a jumping-off point for further exploration of the archipelago. Small expeditions led by Juan de Salcedo went to Mindoro and Luzon, where he and Martín de Goiti played a leading role in the subjugation of the Kingdoms of Tundun and Seludong in 1570. One year later, López de Legazpi departed Cebu to discuss a peace pact with the defeated Rajahs. An agreement between the conquistadors and the Rajahs to form a city council paved the way for the establishment of a new settlement and the construction of the walled city of Intramuros on the razed remains of Seludong.

On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII created the diocese of Cebu as a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Manila.

On April 3, 1898, local revolutionaries led by the Negrense Leon Kilat rose up against the Spanish colonial authorities and took control of the urban center after three days of fighting. The uprising was only ended by the treacherous murder of Leon Kilat and the arrival of soldiers from Iloilo.[6] On December 26, 1898, the Spanish Governor, General Montero, evacuated his troops to Zamboanga, turning over government property to Pablo Mejia.[7]:522 The next day, a provincial government was formed under Luis Flores as President, General Juan Climaco as Military Chief of Staff, and Julio Llorente as Mayor.[7]:522

The signing of the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Spanish-American War provided for the cession of Cebu along with the rest of the Philippine islands to the United States until the formation of the Commonwealth Era (1935-1946). On February 21, 1899, the USS Petrel (PG-2) deployed a landing party of 40 marines on the shores of Cebu.[7]:523 Cebu’s transfer to the Commonwealth government was signed by Luis Flores although others, most notably Gen. Arcadio Maxilom and Juan Climaco, offered resistance until 1901.[7]:524 Governor W. H. Taft visited Cebu on April 17, 1901, and appointed Julio Llorento as the first provincial governor.[7]:526 Juan Climaco was elected to that office in January 1904.[7]:526

After having remained a town since its original founding in 1565, Cebu became a chartered city on February 24, 1937. Many other Philippine cities such as Dansalan (now Marawi), Iloilo City, and Bacolod City were also incorporated at that time (see Cities of the Philippines).

Along with the rest of the country, Cebu came under Japanese occupation during WWII. The Japanese encountered some opposition there from guerrillas led by Col. James Cushing and the Cebu Area Command. It was finally liberated with the Battle for Cebu City in March and April 1945. The military general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 8th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary, active from 1942 to 1946, was stationed in Cebu City during World War II.

Colon Street, the oldest national road in the Philippines, is the center of a dense and compact area in downtown Cebu City that was once the heart of Cebu City's shopping and business activity, with fashionable shops, restaurants and movie houses. In the early 1990s, much of this activity shifted to the more modern and more diverse business districts located in almost all of the urban areas of the city, including in what used to be considered residential and leisure neighborhoods. Colon also serves as a transit point for public utility jeepneys (PUJ) covering arterial routes within the city.


Skyline of central Cebu City

Cebu City has a land area of 315 square kilometres (122 sq mi). To the northeast of the city is Mandaue City and the town of Consolacion; to the west is Toledo City and the towns of Balamban and Asturias; to the south is Talisay City and the town of Minglanilla.

Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island where Lapu-Lapu City is located. Further east across the Cebu Strait is the Island of Bohol.


The city comprises 80 barangays or barrios. These are grouped into two congressional districts, with 46 barangays or barrios in the northern district and 34 in the southern district.

North district[edit]

Aerial view of Cebu City at night
A city lights view of Cebu City taken at the "Tops" in brgy Busay
  • Adlawon
  • Agsungot
  • Apas
  • Bacayan
  • Banilad
  • Binaliw
  • Budla-an
  • Busay
  • Cambinocot
  • Capitol Site
  • Carreta
  • Cogon Ramos
  • Day-as
  • Ermita
  • Guba
  • Hipodromo
  • Kalubihan
  • Kamagayan
  • Kamputhaw (Camputhaw)
  • Kasambagan
  • Lahug
  • Lorega San Miguel
  • Lusaran
  • Luz
  • Mabini
  • Mabolo
  • Malubog
  • Pahina Central
  • Pari-an
  • Paril
  • Pit-os
  • Pulangbato
  • Sambag 1
  • Sambag 2
  • San Antonio
  • San José
  • San Roque
  • Santa Cruz
  • Santo Niño
  • Sirao
  • T. Padilla
  • Talamban
  • Taptap
  • Tejero
  • Tinago
  • Zapatera
  • Tabogon

South district[edit]

  • Babag
  • Banawa
  • Basak Pardo
  • Basak San Nicolas
  • Bonbon
  • Buhisan
  • Bulacao Pardo
  • Buot-Taup Pardo
  • Calamba
  • Cogon Pardo
  • Duljo-Fatima
  • Guadalupe
  • Inayawan
  • Kalunasan
  • Kinasang-an Pardo
  • Labangon
  • Mambaling
  • Pahina San Nicolas
  • Pamutan
  • Pasil
  • Poblacion Pardo
  • Pung-ol-Sibugay
  • Punta Princesa
  • Quiot Pardo
  • San Nicolas Proper
  • Sapangdaku
  • Sawang Calero
  • Sinsin
  • Suba San Nicolas
  • Sudlon I
  • Sudlon II
  • Tabunan
  • Tag-bao
  • Tisa
  • To-ong Pardo
  • Tuburan



Population census of Cebu City
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 610,471 —    
1995 662,299 +1.54%
2000 718,821 +1.77%
2007 799,762 +1.48%
2010 866,171 +2.95%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]

Around the 1960s, the population of the city was about 91,000. The population reached 799,762 people in 2007, and as of the 2010 Census, the city's population has grown to 866,171 in over 161,151 households.[2]


Mid-rise office buildings in Cebu IT Park.

Ceboom, a portmanteau of Cebu and Boom, has been used to refer to the rapid economic development of both Cebu City and Cebu Province in the early 1990s.[9]

With Cebu City's proximity to many islands, beaches, hotel and resorts, diving locations and heritage sites, high domestic and foreign tourist arrivals have fueled the city's tourism industry. Due to its geographic location, accessibility by air, land and sea transportation, Cebu City has become the tourist gateway to Central and Southern Philippines.

The city is a major hub for the business process outsourcing industry of the Philippines. In 2013, Cebu ranked 8th worldwide in the "Top 100 BPO Destinations Report" by global advisory firm, Tholons.[10][11] In 2012, the growth in IT-BPO revenues in Cebu grew 26.9 percent at $484 million, while nationally, the industry grew 18.2 percent at $13 billion.[12]

Cebu Holdings Inc. and the Ayala Corporation created the Cebu Park District, the integrated, master-planned, mixed-use economic zones of the Cebu Business Park and Cebu I.T. Park. Both parks host various regional headquarters for various companies in the banking, finance, IT and tourism sectors, among others.

Cebu Pacific Air Airbus A320

Shipbuilding companies in Cebu have manufactured bulk carriers of up to 70,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT) and double hulled fastcrafts as well. This industry made the Philippines the 4th largest shipbuilding country in the world.[13]

Cebu Pacific Air (Cebu Air Inc.) is an airline owned by the Cebu-based Gokongwei family. In 2008, Cebu Pacific was named as the world's number one airline in terms of growth.[14] The airline carried a total of almost 5.5 million passengers in 2007, up 57.4 per cent from 2006.[15] On January 6, 2011, Cebu Pacific flew its 50 millionth passenger from Manila to Beijing. The airline aims to reach the 100 million passengers mark in 2015.[16] Cebu Pacific commenced international long-haul flights to the Middle East on the Airbus A330-300.[17] It had planned to service the U.S.A., Australia and some parts of Europe in the third quarter of 2013, but the plans have not yet been implemented.

With a revenue growth rate of 18.8 percent in 2012, the real estate industry is the fastest growing sector in Cebu. With the strong economic indicators and high investors’ confidence level, more condominium projects and hypermarkets are being developed in the locality.[18]

The city’s 300-hectare (740-acre) reclaimed South Road Properties is a mixed-use development south of the city that will feature entertainment, leisure, residential and business-processing industries.[19]


Procession during the Feast Day of the Santo Niño.

Cebu City is a significant cultural center in the Philippines. The imprint of Spanish and Roman Catholic culture is evident. The city's most famous landmark is Magellan's Cross. This cross, now housed in a chapel, is reputed to have been erected by Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão Magalhães) when he arrived in the Philippines in 1521. It was encased in hollow tindalo wood in 1835 upon the order of the Augustinian Bishop Santos Gómez Marañon to prevent devotees from taking it home chip by chip. The same bishop restored the present template or kiosk, located at Magallanes Street between the City Hall and Colegio del Santo Niño. Revered by Filipinos, the Magellan's Cross is a symbol of Christianity in the Philippines.

A few steps away from Magellan's Cross is the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño (Church of the Holy Child). This is an Augustinian church elevated to the rank of basilica in 1965 during the 400th anniversary celebrations of Christianity in the Philippines, held in Cebu. The church, which was the first to be established in the islands, is built of hewn stone and features the country's oldest relic, the figure of the Santo Niño de Cebú (Holy Child of Cebu).

Devotees inside the Bascilica del Santo Niño.

This religious event is celebrated during the island's cultural festivities known as the Sinulog festival. Held every third Sunday of January, it celebrates the festival of the Santo Niño, who was formerly considered to be the patron saint of Cebu. (This patronage was later changed to that of Our Lady of Guadalupe after it was realised that the St. Niño could not be a patron saint because he was an image of Christ and not a saint.) The sinulog is a dance ritual of pre-Hispanic indigenous origin. The dancer moves two steps forward and one step backward to the rhythmic sound of drums. This movement resembles somewhat the current (sulog) of the river. Thus, the Cebuanos called it sinulog.

When the Spaniards arrived in Cebu, the Italian chronicler Antonio Pigafetta, sailing under convoy with the Magellan expedition, offered a baptismal gift to Hara Amihan, wife of Rajah Humabon. She was later named Juana, the figure of the Santo Niño. The natives also honored the Santo Niño de Cebú in their indigenous sinulog ritual[citation needed]. This ritual was preserved but limited to honoring the Santo Niño. Once the Santo Niño church was built in the 16th century, the Christianized-Austronesian natives started performing the sinulog ritual in front of the church, the devotees offering candles and indigenous dancers shouting "Viva Pit Señor!"[citation needed].

In the 1980s and 2000s, the city authorities of Cebu added the religious feast of Santo Niño de Cebú during the Sinulog Festival to its cultural event.[clarification needed]

Local government[edit]

Cebu City Hall

Being a highly urbanized city, Cebu City (along with Lapu-Lapu City), is independent from Cebu province. Its electorate do not vote for provincial officials. There were proposals during the time of Governor Emilio Mario Osmeña to establish an "administrative district" that would be independent from Cebu City. This would literally mean carving out Cebu City's Barangay Capitol where the provincial capitol and other provincial offices are located.[clarification needed] The plan, however, did not go through and was even followed by other proposals like the transfer of the capital to Balamban.

Cebu City is governed by a Mayor, Vice Mayor and sixteen councilors (eight representing the northern and eight representing the southern region). Each official is popularly elected to serve for a three-year term. The chief of the Association of Barangay Captains and the President of the Sangguniang Kabataan Federation also managed in the city council. The day-to-day administration of the city is handled by a city administrator.

Mike Rama is currently the Mayor of the city. Rama, formerly the City Vice Mayor from 2001 to 2010, was elected during the 2010 Philippine elections, while Edgardo "Edgar" C. Labella is the current vice mayor.[20][21]

Current city officials (2013-2016)[edit]


Panoramic view of Cebu Park District

The city is readily accessible by air via the Mactan-Cebu International Airport located in Lapu-Lapu City which has direct international flights to Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Japan, China, Papua New Guinea and South Korea, Seasonal and Charter flights to Taiwan, Charter flights to Russia and domestic destinations.[22][23] Many international and cargo airlines fly to Cebu. There are also direct transfer flights via the capital's Ninoy Aquino International Airport that readily connect the city to other destinations in the world. The city mostly gets its power from an interconnection grid with the Leyte Geothermal Power Plant, which also powers the majority of the Visayas Islands. There are also coal-fired power plants, though these have been controversial due to their environmental impact. Another coal-fired power plant is nearing completion and is envisioned to make the city independent from the interconnection grid once completed.

The city is served by a domestic and international port which are handled by the Cebu Port Authority. Much of the city's waterfront is actually occupied by the port with around 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) of berthing space. The city is home to more than 80% of the country's island vessels traveling on domestic routes mostly in the Visayas and Mindanao.

The Cebu South Road Properties (SRP)

The South Road Properties (SRP) is a 300-hectare (740-acre) prime property development project on a reclaimed land located a few metres off the coast of Cebu's central business district. It is a mixed-use development that will feature entertainment, leisure, residential and business-processing industries.[19] It is registered with the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) and is funded by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation(JBIC).[24] Traversing the property is a 12-kilometre (7.5 mi), four-lane highway known as the Cebu Coastal Road that provides the motorists with a good view of Cebu's south coast and the nearby island of Bohol.

Telecommunication facilities, broadband and wireless internet connections are available and are provided by some of the country's largest telecommunication companies.

In the 1990s the Inayawan Sanitary Landfill was constructed to ease garbage disposal within the city. It is however nearing its lifespan although the Provincial Government is planning to build two sanitary landfills to serve both the northern and southern parts of Metro Cebu including Cebu City. In June 2005, the city fully implemented the segregation of wastes as mandated by law.

Mass transportation throughout the city and the metropolitan itself is provided by jeepneys, buses and taxis. The Cebu City Government conducted a feasibility study on implementing its Bus Rapid Transit System that will ease the transportation of the residents in the city and its neighboring cities like Mandaue, Lapu-Lapu, and Talisay. It has the same concept with the Metro Manila's Light Railway Transit System but it is more cost effective. This kind of mass transportation is popular in the Latin America and now it is implemented in the United States, Australia, and Indonesia. The project's first phase is expected to be operational in 2013. The remaining and additional phases is expected to be operational in 2015. The network will be passing to the Cebu Business Park, North Reclamation Area, South Road Properties, and Mactan-Cebu International Airport.


Cebu City currently has ten large universities each with a number of college branches throughout the city and more than a dozen other schools specializing in various courses. Among these schools is the University of San Carlos. It has four campuses around the metropolitan area. It is currently headed by the Society of the Divine Word.

The University of the Philippines Cebu, located at Barangay Camputhaw in the district of Lahug in Cebu City currently has eight courses and has plans of expansion and development. The U.P. Board of Regents elevated the status of U.P. Cebu as an autonomous unit of the University of the Philippines System on September 24, 2010.

Another Catholic university in Cebu City is the University of San Jose – Recoletos which was established in 1947.[25] It is currently headed by the Augustinian Recollects and has two different campuses within the city, excluding a new campus outside the city located in the Municipality of Balamban.

Cebu Normal University was established in 1902 as a provincial normal school, a branch of the Philippine Normal School. It became an independent institution in 1924, a chartered college in 1976, and a university in 1998.

The Cebu Doctors' University (formerly Cebu Doctors' College) was granted university status on November 2004. It is the only school in the Philippines designated a university without having a basic education (pre-school – high school) curriculum; it caters mainly to courses related to the health services field. It was relocated to a nine-story main building at the Cebu Boardwalk in neighboring Mandaue City, thus closing its old campus near the then Cebu Doctors' Hospital (now Cebu Doctors' University Hospital).[clarification needed]

The University of Cebu in Banilad opened in June 2002. The University of Cebu's main campus offers degree programs such as a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT), HRM, Computer Engineering, BSED and others. Also located in the city is the University of the Visayas. Established in 1919 and considered to be the first university in Cebu, University of the Visayas is home to many local and national political figures.[clarification needed] It was granted an autonomous status by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) in 2010 and currently offers basic education and a number of courses in the tertiary level including medical courses (Medicine, Nursing, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Midwifery, and Health Care Services) which are housed in its campus in Banilad area.

Other noteworthy institutions in the city include the Don Bosco Technology Center – Cebu, Cebu Institute of Technology – University, Southwestern University, St. Theresa's College, University of Southern Philippines Foundation in Lahug and Mabini, Cebu Technological University (formerly the Cebu State College of Science and Technology), Cebu Institute of Medicine (formerly Velez College), Cebu International School, Sacred Heart School - Ateneo de Cebu and the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion.

The upcoming Centro Escolar University – Cebu will be the fourth campus of the university after its Manila (Main), Malolos, and Makati campuses.[26]

Cebu City has 68 public elementary schools, 23 national high schools and 28 night high schools. These night high schools are operated by the city government.

The Cebu City Public Library and Information Center is the only public library in Cebu.


The Cebu City Chiefs are a rugby league team and participate in the Philippines National Rugby League. Cebu Queen City United F.C. are a football team currently play in Division 2 of the United Football League. Cebu Dragons are a rugby union team in the Philippine Rugby Football Union.


Waterfront Cebu City Hotel, site of the 1998 ASEAN Tourism Forum
Façade of the Cebu Taoist Temple

Tourism is a thriving industry in Cebu. It hosted the 1998 ASEAN Tourism Forum. The city also hosted the East Asian Tourism Forum on August 2002, in which the province of Cebu is a member and signatory.

There are significant number of Filipino-Spanish heritage buildings in Cebu City which includes the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño, Fort San Pedro, Casa Gorordo Museum and Magellan's Cross, among others.[27]

The Cebu Reggae Festival is a popular Filipino Reggae and Roots music festival, it now has become one of the Philippines' largest annual Reggae Festivals. On Cebuano musical heritage, the Jose R. Gullas Halad Museum in V. Gullas St. (former Manalili) corner D. Jakosalem St. in Cebu City, holds musical memorabilia of Cebuano composers in the early 20th century, the likes of Ben Zubiri (composer of Matud Nila), Inting Rubi (Kasadya Ning Taknaa) and Minggoy Lopez (Rosas Pandan). The Cebu City Sports Complex exhibits sporting and festival events.[28]

Within the city is the Cebu Taoist Temple, a Taoist temple located in Beverly Hills, one of the older but posh villages in Cebu. Views of Cebu City and its skyline can also be seen from villages and numerous gated communities located on its mountainsides.

Ayala Center Cebu is a shopping mall at the Cebu Business Park, and is currently undergoing a massive expansion. On average, more than 85,000 people visit this mall every day, with the figure increasing to 135,000 on weekends.[29]

Sister cities[edit]

Indonesia Bandung, Indonesia
South Korea Yeosu, South Korea
Israel Beersheba, Israel
South Korea Busan, South Korea
United States Chula Vista, California, United States
United States Seattle, Washington, United States[30]
Mexico Guadalajara, Mexico[31]
Netherlands Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands
China Xiamen, China
Taiwan Kaoshiung, Taiwan
AustraliaParramatta City, Australia
Belgium Kortrijk, Belgium
Portugal Sabrosa, Portugal[32][note 1]
Philippines Butuan, Agusan del Norte
Philippines Davao City, Davao del Sur
Philippines Manila, Metro Manila


See also[edit]


  1. ^ But not according Portuguese reference


  1. ^ "Province: CEBU". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City, and Municipality; Region VII - Central Visayas: 1990, 2000, and 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  3. ^ "History of Cebu". Cebu City Tour. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c Celestino C. Macachor (2011). "Searching for Kali in the Indigenous Chronicles of Jovito Abellana". Rapid Journal 10 (2). 
  5. ^ a b c Marivir Montebon, Retracing Our Roots – A Journey into Cebu’s Pre-Colonial Past, p.15
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c d e f Foreman, J., 1906, The Philippine Islands, A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
  8. ^ "Weather data for Cebu City". Weatherbase. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  9. ^ "Has ‘Ceboom’ returned?". Inquirer News. Retrieved February 20, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Cebu rises to 8th best site for BPOs". Sun Star Cebu. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Metro Manila, Cebu among top global BPO destinations". Yahoo! Philippines. Retrieved March 18, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Non-voice overtakes voice operation in Cebu". Sun Star Cebu. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Philippines Now the Fourth Largest Shipbuilding Country in the World". Sun Star Cebu. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Cebu Pacific Air - History". Seat Maestro. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  15. ^ Philippines Budget Carrier Cebu Pacific Is World No. 1 In Growth
  16. ^ Cebu Pacific Reaches 50 Million Passengers Mark
  17. ^ "Cebu Pacific to launch budget long-haul flights in Q3 2013". Cebu Pacific Air. Retrieved July 5, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Real estate sector fastest growing industry in Cebu". Sun Star Cebu. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  19. ^ a b "About South Road Properties". City Government of Cebu. Retrieved February 20, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Davide is acting Cebu City mayor Osmeña in US, Rama off to Korea". Retrieved 10 October 2008. 
  21. ^ "Osmeñas leave for US amid prayer". Retrieved 8 October 2008. 
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ "The Official Cebu City Government Forum". Republic of the Philippines: Cebu City Government. Retrieved 12 January 2010. [dead link]
  25. ^ "History". University of San Jose-Recoletos. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  26. ^ "Centro Escolar University to set up Cebu campus". Inquirer News. Retrieved April 27, 2013. 
  27. ^ Department of Tourism Philippines official website page on Cebu. Accessed 28 September 2009.
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  29. ^ Philippine Daily Inquirer - Cebuanos develop shopping, leisure habits
  30. ^ "Seattle International Sister City: Cebu, Philippines". City of Seattle. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Cebu, Portugal municipality formalize sister-city deal". Manila Bulletin. October 30, 2014. Retrieved December 26, 2014. 

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