Ceftazidime

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Ceftazidime
Ceftazidime.svg
Ceftazidime ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(6R,7R,Z)-7-(2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-
2-(2-carboxypropan-2-yloxyimino)acetamido)-8-oxo-
3-(pyridinium-1-ylmethyl)-5-thia-1-aza-bicyclo[4.2.0]
oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate
Clinical data
Trade names Fortaz, Tazicef
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a686007
Pregnancy cat.
Legal status
Routes Intravenous, intramuscular, inhalation (off-label only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 91% (IM)
Metabolism negligible
Half-life 1.6–2 hours
Excretion 90–96% renal
Identifiers
CAS number 72558-82-8 YesY
ATC code J01DD02
PubChem CID 5481173
DrugBank DB00438
ChemSpider 4587145 YesY
UNII DZR1ENT301 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:3508 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL201 N
Chemical data
Formula C22H22N6O7S2 
Mol. mass 546.58 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Ceftazidime /sɛfˈtæzɨdm/ (brand names: Fortaz, Tazicef[1]) is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is a third-generation cephalosporin. As with all antibiotics, ceftazidime is not used to treat viral infections.

As a class, cephalosporins have activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The balance of activity tips toward Gram-positive organisms for earlier generations; later generations of cephalosporins have more Gram-negative coverage. Ceftazidime is one of the few in this class with activity against Pseudomonas. It is not active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Third-generation cephalosporins differ from earlier generations in the presence of a C=N-OCH3 group in their chemical structure. This group provides improved stability against certain beta-lactamase enzymes produced by Gram-negative bacteria. These bacterial enzymes rapidly destroy earlier-generation cephalosporins by breaking open the drug's beta-lactam chemical ring, leading to antibiotic resistance. Though initially active against these bacteria, with widespread use of third-generation cephalosporins, some Gram-negative bacteria known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are even able to inactivate the third-generation cephalosporins. Infections caused by ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria are of particular concern in hospitals and other healthcare facilities.[2]

It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[3]

Medical uses[edit]

Ceftazidime is used to treat lower respiratory tract, skin, urinary tract, blood-stream, joint, and abdominal infections, and meningitis. [4] The drug is given intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) every 8–12 hours (two or three times a day), with dose and frequencing varying by the type of infection, severity, and/or renal function of the patient. Ceftazidime is also commonly prescribed off-label for nebulization in Cystic Fibrosis patients for the suppression of Pseudomonas in the lungs as well as the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations. Those with kidney disease are dosed less frequently.[4]

Ceftazidime is the first-line treatment for the tropical infection, melioidosis, an important cause of sepsis in Asia and Australia.[5] [6]

Labeled indications include the treatment of patients with:

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections
  • other Gram-negative, aerobic infections
  • neutropenic fever[1]

Spectrum of activity[edit]

Clinically relevant organisms against which ceftazidime has activity include:

  • Gram-negative aerobes, such as Enterobacter, E. coli, H. influenzae, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and N. meningitidis
  • Gram-positive aerobes, such as Staphylococcus aureus, group B streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Anaerobes, such as Bacteroides[4]

The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few clinically significant pathogens:

  • Escherichia coli - 0.015 µg/mL - 512 µg/mL
  • Staphylococcus aureus - ≤0.12 µg/mL - 512 µg/mL
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa - ≤0.03 µg/mL - 1024 µg/mL [7]

Side effects[edit]

Ceftazidime is generally well-tolerated. When side effects do occur, they are most commonly local effects from the intravenous line site, allergic reactions, and gastrointestinal symptoms. According to one manufacturer, in clinical trials, allergic reactions including itching, rash, and fever, happened in fewer than 2% of patients. Rare but more serious allergic reactions, such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme, have been reported with this class of antibiotics, including ceftazidime. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, were reported in fewer than 2% of patients.[4]

Another source reported, in addition, blood tests of patients may show increased eosinophils (8%), increased lactate dehydrogenase (6%), increased gamma-glutamyl transferase (5%), positive direct Coombs test (4%), increased platelets (thrombocythemia) (2%), increased ALT (7%), increased AST (6%), or increased alkaline phosphatase (4%).[1]

Contraindications[edit]

Ceftazidime is contraindicated in patients with a known allergy to ceftazidime or to any other cephalosporin antibiotic.[4]

Precautions[edit]

Ceftazidime is mainly eliminated by the kidneys into the urine. As such, drug levels in the blood may build up in persons with kidney injury or kidney disease. This includes those on dialysis. In these cases of renal impairment, the drug is dosed less frequently.[1] No dose adjustment is needed for those with liver disease.

Pregnancy[edit]

Ceftazidime falls under the pregnancy category B.[1] According to the manufacturer, research studies in mice and rats showed no evidence of harm to the fetus, even at up to 40 times the human dose of ceftazidime. Importantly, though, no high-quality research studies of the effects of the drug in pregnant women were conducted.[4]

Chemistry[edit]

In addition to the syn-configuration of the imino side chain, compared to other third-generation cephalosporins, the more complex moiety (containing two methyl and a carboxylic acid group) confers extra stability to β-lactamase enzymes produced by many Gram-negative bacteria. The extra stability to β-lactamases increases the activity of ceftazidime against otherwise resistant Gram-negative organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The charged pyridinium moiety increases water-solubility. Ceftazidime shares the same variable R-group side chain with aztreonam, a monobactam antibiotic; the two drugs share a similar spectrum of activity, including activity against Pseudomonas.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Lexicomp Online, Lexi-Drugs, Hudson, Ohio: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; 2014; April 20, 2014. http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/doc/retrieve/docid/patch_f/6560
  2. ^ Sharma M, Pathak S, Srivastava P (October 2013). "Prevalence and antibiogram of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative bacilli and further molecular characterization of ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp". J Clin Diagn Res 7 (10): 2173–7. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/6460.3462. PMC 3843424. PMID 24298468. 
  3. ^ "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines". World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Ceftazidime for Injection(R) [package insert]. Schaumburg, IL: Sagent; 2012. PDF of insert
  5. ^ White NJ (2003). "Melioidosis". Lancet 361 (9370): 1715–722. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13374-0. PMID 12767750. 
  6. ^ White NJ (1989). "Halving of mortality of severe melioidosis by ceftazidime". Lancet Sep 23;2(8665), 697-701. PMID:2570956 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2570956
  7. ^ http://www.toku-e.com/Assets/MIC/Ceftazidime%20pentahydrate.pdf