Cello (web browser)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Cello WWW Browser
Cello icon.gif
Cello main page.png
Original author(s) Thomas R. Bruce
Developer(s) Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School
Initial release 8 June 1993[1]
Final release 1.01a / 16 April 1994; 20 years ago (1994-04-16)
Development status Discontinued
Written in C++,[2] makes "heavy use of Borland Object Windows libraries"[3]
Operating system Windows 3.1 / 3.11, OS/2,[4] Windows NT 3.5[5][6]
Size 325 kb
Available in English
Type Web browser
License Shareware/Proprietary
Website http://www.law.cornell.edu/cello/ (Internet Archive)

Cello was an early graphical web browser for Windows 3.1, developed by Thomas R. Bruce of the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School, and released as shareware in 1993.[7][8] While other browsers ran on various Unix machines, Cello was the first web browser for Microsoft Windows, using the winsock system to access the Internet.[9][10][11][12][13][14] In addition to the basic Windows, Cello worked on Windows NT 3.5[5][6] and with small modifications on OS/2.[15][16]

Cello was created because of a demand for Web access by lawyers, who were more likely to use Microsoft Windows than the Unix operating systems supporting earlier Web browsers, including the first release of Mosaic. The lack of a Windows browser meant many legal experts were unable to access legal information made available in hypertext on the World Wide Web.[9][17] Cello was popular during 1993/1994, but fell out of favor following the release of Mosaic for Windows and Netscape, after which Cello development was abandoned.[18][19][20][21][22][23][A 1][24]

Cello was first publicly released on 8 June 1993.[1] A version 2.0 was announced, but development was abandoned. Version 1.01a, 16 April 1994, was the last public release.[25][26] Since then, the Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School has licensed the Cello 2.0 source code, which has been used to develop commercial software.[26][27][28]

The browser is no longer available from its original homepage.[A 2] However, it can still be downloaded from mirror sites.[A 3]

Development and history[edit]

The icon prior to version 1

The development of Cello started in 1992, with beta versions planned for June 1993 and a release for July 1993.[29][30][31] It was publicly announced on 12 April 1993.[32]

The Legal Information Institute at Cornell Law School created the first law site on the Internet in 1992 and the first legal website in 1993. However, at the time, there were no web browsers for the Microsoft Windows operating system, which was used by most lawyers. Thus, to allow lawyers to use their website, the Legal Information Institute developed the first Windows-based Web browser.[33][34][35] This was made possible by a grant from the National Center for Automated Information Research.[A 4]

Although other browsers at the time were based on CERN's WWW libraries called libwww, PCs of the time were not powerful enough to run the UNIX-oriented code.[31] As a result, Thomas Bruce had to rewrite most of the WWW libraries to work on Microsoft Windows.[31] It should also be noted that unlike most commercial browsers at that time, Cello didn't utilize any of Mosaic's source code and thus had a different look and feel.[36][37]

Steven Sinofsky, president of the Windows division at Microsoft wrote in a June 1994 email: We do not currently plan on any other client software [in the upcoming release of Windows 95], especially something like Mosaic or Cello.[38][39][40][41] Nonetheless, on 11 January 1995, Microsoft announced that it had licensed the Mosaic technology from Spyglass, which it would use to create Internet Explorer.[41] On 15 August 1995, Microsoft debuted its own web browser Internet Explorer 1 for Windows 95. While it did not ship with the original release of Windows 95, it shipped with Microsoft Plus! for Windows 95.

Usage[edit]

When released in 1993, Cello was the only browser for the Microsoft Windows platform. Shortly after launch, Cello was being downloaded at a rate of 500 copies per day.[42] As such, it achieved a fair amount of use and recognition within the legal community, including a number of PC users with between 150,000 to 200,000 users.[31] In 1994, most websites were visited using either the Cello browser or the Mosaic browser.[43] Despite having fewer features than Mosaic, Cello continued to be used due to its simpler interface and lower system requirements.[44] Cello was praised for being easily to install, because it isn't needed to install Win32s or a TCP/IP stack for Windows 3.1.[45] Following the release of Windows 95, which offered a much better TCP/IP interface, Cello fell into disuse and was abandoned.[43][46]

By 1995, Cello, like the Mosaic browser, was overshadowed by two newer browsers: Netscape and Internet Explorer and fell into disuse.[47][48] By 1999, Cello was considered to be a "historical" browser.[49][50]

Cello is considered to be one of the early casualties of the Browser wars.[51]

Features[edit]

Cello had the following features:[52]

  • inline graphics support: GIF, XBM, PCX, and BMP.[53][54]
  • PostScript viewing and sound playing
  • File saving and printing.[53]
  • Editing support for local files via an external editor. Integration with the HTMLAssistant Windows-based HTML helper/editor.[53]
  • File caching ad infinitum using a file-based cache with user-specified "low water mark".[53]
  • DDE and OLE drag-and-drop support. Cello can be invoked and controlled through the use of DDE macros in other programs. URL arguments on the command line are also supported.[53]
  • "Peek mode", permitting partial retrieval of files of large or unknown size.[53]
  • Local file mode for HTML delivery on standalone machines or machines with LAN connections only.[53]
  • Support for HTML "mailto:" scheme[53] with integrated email sending client.[55]
  • Support for the full HTML+ ISO-LATIN character set, including specialized legal symbols, foreign characters, etc.[53]
  • User-selectable sound players, viewers, editor, and Telnet and TN3270 clients.[53]
  • Comprehensive online documentation in Windows Help format.[53]
  • Simple user interface.[53]
  • Fully extensible support for viewing downloaded files in an unlimited number of PC-binary file formats using the standard Windows Associate... scheme.[53]
  • Bookmarks[16]
  • Local browsing[56]
  • Simpler interface (compared to Mosaic)[57]

Unlike Mosaic, Cello did not have toolbar buttons, and instead commands were accessed through pull-down menus.[36]

Supported Protocols

Cello supported the following protocols: HTTP 1.0, Gopher (not Gopher+), read-only FTP,[58] SMTP mailing, Telnet,[59] Usenet,[60] CSO/ph/qi directly[61] and WAIS, HyTelnet, TechInfo, Archie, X.500, TN3270 and a number of others through public gateways.[8][42][54][59][62][63]

Supported FTP servers

Cello supported the following FTP servers: most Unix servers(including SunOS, System V, and Linux),IBM VM, IBM VM, VMS systems, Windows NT, QVTNet, NCSA/CUTCP/Rutgers PC servers,FTP Software PC server, HellSoft NLM for Novell.[53][58]

Internet Connection

Cello works best with a direct Ethernet connection, but it also supports SLIP and PPP dialup connections through the use of asynchronous sockets.[8] Cello has an integrated TCP/IP runtime stack.[45]

Release history[edit]

Cello's splash screen. Note that the image is not that of a cello, but rather a viola da gamba, its aristocratic predecessor
A screenshot of Cello 2.0 in development.

The following versions were released:[1]

16-bit Cello Releases
Version Date Development cycle Size (in kb) Download Notes
0.1[64] 9 June 1993 Beta  ? evolt
0.2[64][65] 14 June 1993 Beta  ?  ? Changelog
0.3[64][66] 16 June 1993 Beta  ?  ? Changelog
0.4[64][67] 18 June 1993 Beta  ?  ? Changelog
0.5[64][68] 24 June 1993 Beta  ?  ? Changelog
0.6[64] 30 June 1993 Beta  ?  ? changelog
0.8[54] 5 November 1993 Beta N/A N/A Changelog (Distinct version discontinued)
0.9[A 5] 12 November 1993 Beta-pre  ? [2]
0.9[A 6] 16 November 1993 Beta  ? [3] Changelog
0.9[A 7] 22 November 1993 WINSOCK alpha r9.2  ? [4]
1.0[53] 17 February 1994 Release  ? evolt
1.01  ? Release  ?  ?
1.01a [69] 17 March 1994 release 521[60] [5], evolt Changelog
2.0 N/A Alpha N/A N/A development ceased

Although Cello 2.0 had been announced, development ceased before a public release.[26]

IBM released a fix for their TCP/IP V2.0 stack so that Cello would work with OS/2 WinOS/2 on 9 February 1994.[70]

Browser Comparison Table[edit]

The following table shows how Cello compared to browsers of its time.

Comparison of Web Browsers
Browser Cello NCSA X-Mosaic NCSA Mosaic Netscape Navigator Spyglass Mosaic AIR Mosaic Internetworks Win-Tapestry IBM WebExplorer
Operating System Win UNIX Win Win Win Win Win Win OS/2
Version 1 2.4 .20-alpha 3 1 1.02 3.06 Beta 4 1.67 0.91
proxy Yes Yes No Yes Partial Yes Yes Partial Partial
extended html No No No Yes No No No No No
Performance
multithreading No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No
dynamic linking No No No Yes No No Yes No No
deferred image No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
multi-pane No No No No No No Yes No No
multi-window No No No No No No No Yes No
Configurability
kiosk mode No No No No No Yes No No Yes
external players Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Integration
d&d to clipboard No No No No No Yes No Yes No
spawnable players No Partial Partial Yes Partial Yes Yes Partial Yes
search engine(Find) Yes No No Yes No No No No No
Navigation
hotlist No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes
bookmark Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No
folders Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No
categories (tags) No No No No No No No Yes No
menu/button bar No No Yes No No Yes No No No
import Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No
export Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
annotation No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No
auto time stamp No No No Yes No No No No No
Source: Berghel, Hal (1996). "The client's side of the World-Wide Web". Communications of the ACM 39 (1): 30–40. doi:10.1145/234173.234177. ISSN 0001-0782. 

Derivatives[edit]

  • The first edition of BURKS, a project to produce non-profit CD-ROMs of resources for students of Computer Science, was based on Cello.[71]
  • InterAp, by California Software Inc, was based on Cello and featured a web browser with Telnet, FTP, and a Visual Basic-compatible scripting language called NetScripts.[56]
  • A version of Lovelace came integrated with Cello.[72]

Technical[edit]

  • While originally Cello required the Distinct runtime stack, following the release of Cello Beta Version .8, Cello dropped support for Distinc, and became exclusively Winsock based.[54][73]
  • Originally, although Cello could run on OS/2, OS/2's implementation of WinSock had bugs that prevented Cello from accessing the Internet.[59] The bug, APAR #PN52335, was later fixed allowing Cello to properly work on OS/2.[59][70]

The user agent for Cello is: LII-Cello/<version> libwww/2.5 so the latest one is LII-Cello/1.0 libwww/2.5[74]

DDE support[edit]

Cello featured DDE support. OLE support and DDE client support were planned, but never released.[59]

An example of how to invoke Cello from a Microsoft Word macro.

Sub MAIN
ChanNum = DDEInitiate("Cello", "URL")
DDEExecute(ChanNum, "http://www.law.cornell.edu")
DDETerminate(ChanNum)
End Sub

System requirements[edit]

Cello has the following system requirements: [8][75][76]

Criticism[edit]

Cello was not very stable and its development halted early.[60]

Cello did not render graphics well and required that the user reload the webpage when resizing the window. Like most browsers at the time, Cello also did not support any web security protocols.[37] It was also said that Cello rendered html "crudely" and pages would appear jaggedly.[36][37][78]

Cello also had sub-par performance in accessing the Internet and processing hypermedia documents.[36][78]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ You can view yahoo browser statistics at http://web.archive.org/web/20021204042351/http://www.cen.uiuc.edu/~ejk/bryl/ which show Cello being used.
  2. ^ The original cello site at http://www.law.cornell.edu/cello/cellotop.html is no longer up. The original ftp site at ftp://ftp.law.cornell.edu/pub/LII/Cello is no longer up. The original gopher server at gopher.law.cornell.edu:70/11/listservs/cellol/ is no longer up.
  3. ^ Cello can still be downloaded at http://browsers.evolt.org/?cello/ .
  4. ^ This can be seen in the "About Cello" dialog in Cello. It is also stated in the "Notices, Acknowledgments, Disclaimers" section of the included .hlp file in Cello.
  5. ^ Given in the "about Cello" - windows in Cello
  6. ^ Given in the "README.1ST" of Cello .9
  7. ^ Given in the "DEFAULT.HTML" of Cello .9

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Brennan, Elaine (13 June 1993). "World Wibe Web Browser: Ms-Windows (Beta) (1/149)". Humanist Archives Vol. 7. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  2. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (12 April 1993). "Plans for cello MS-Windows client". Cornell Law School. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  3. ^ "Internals". World Wide Web Consortium. 1993. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  4. ^ Scott Zimmerman; Tim Evans (1996). "Chapter 1: Understanding Web Technologies". Building an Intranet with Windows Nt 4. Sams.net. ISBN 978-1-57521-205-0. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c "NT and NTAS INTERNET SLIP/PPP CONNECTIVITY FAQ". University Duisburg-Essen. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c Christopher, Klaus (8/4/97, reposted at 28 December 2003). "Newbie Security Questions". Antionline Forums. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  7. ^ Sendall, Mike (29 March 1995). "World Wide Web Clients". W3C. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "The Cello Internet Browser". Cornell Law School. 9 April 1994. Archived from the original on 4 February 2005. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Lilly, Paul (08/19/09). "Surfing Since 1991: The Evolution of Web Browsers". MaximumPC. p. 2. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  10. ^ Kelly, Brian. "3 World-Wide Web Browsers". Running a WWW service. Computing Service, University of Leeds. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  11. ^ "The Legal Information Institute - A Quick Overview". Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  12. ^ Ron, Gustavson (August 1996). "Browsing at large". CD-ROM Professional 9 (8): p38, 3p. ISSN 1049-0833. 
  13. ^ Notess, Greg R. (Mar/Apr95). "COMPARING WEB BROWSERS: MOSAIC, CELLO, NETSCAPE, WINWEB AND INTERNETWORKS LITE". Online (Academic Search Premier) 19 (2): p36, 4p. ISSN 0146-5422. 
  14. ^ Garmon, Jay (15 April 2008). "Geek Trivia: Clear browser history". Geekend. TechRepublic. p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  15. ^ a b "Norloffs OS/2BBS.com". Norloff Computer Corp. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Neil Randall (1994). Teach yourself the Internet: around the world in 21 days. Sams. pp. 211–212. ISBN 978-0-672-30519-1. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  17. ^ "Web Browser History". Living Internet. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  18. ^ Tobias, Daniel R. (23 December 2009). ""Brand-X" Browsers -- Alphabetical List: A-G". Dan's Web Tips. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  19. ^ "A Future of Browsers". 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  20. ^ Laurence A. Canter; Martha S. Siegel (27 October 1994). How to make a fortune on the information superhighway: everyone's guerrilla guide to marketing on the Internet and other on-line services. HarperCollins Publishers. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-06-270131-2. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  21. ^ Symoens, Jeffrey (June 1995). "Windows Web browsers". PC World (13): 125. ISSN 0737-8939. 
  22. ^ Davis, Phili (1 June 1996). "Mosaic Quick Tour for Mac". Reviews. Reviews.com. Retrieved 31 March 2010. (subscription required)
  23. ^ Gay, Martin (1 June 2000). Recent advances and issues in computers. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 123. ISBN 978-1-57356-227-0. Retrieved 21 July 2010. 
  24. ^ Hastings, Bryan; Amy Helen Johnson (August 1996). "Best web browser". PC World (MasterFILE Premier) 14 (8): p136, 7p. ISSN 0737-8939. 
  25. ^ a b c "Communicating with the LII". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  26. ^ Thomas R. Bruce; Peter W. Martin (May 1996). "The Legal Information Institute - 1995-96 Activities and Future Plans". Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  27. ^ "Did you know?". LII Announce. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  28. ^ "May World-Wide Web News". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  29. ^ Steve Sheppard (April 2007). The history of legal education in the United States: commentaries and primary sources. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 1186. ISBN 978-1-58477-690-1. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  30. ^ a b c d "WEB HISTORY DAY: PIONEERING SOFTWARE AND SITES". The World Wide Web History Project. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  31. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (12 April 1993). "Plans for cello MS-Windows client". Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  32. ^ Robert J. Ambrogi (1 June 2004). "Chapter 3: The Best (and Worst) Legal Sites on the Web". The essential guide to the best (and worst) legal sites on the Web. ALM Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-58852-117-0. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  33. ^ J. R. Okin (30 September 2005). The information revolution: the not-for-dummies guide to the history, technology, and use of the World Wide Web. Ironbound Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-9763857-3-8. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  34. ^ Edwin D. Reilly (2003). Milestones in computer science and information technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 33. ISBN 978-1-57356-521-9. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  35. ^ a b c d e Shang-Chul Pak, Sean (17 May 1996). "Scheme for Identifying and Describing Behavioral Innovation Embodied in Computer Programs". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. pp. 146–147. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  36. ^ a b c Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J. (September 1995). Inside the World Wide Web. New Riders Pub. pp. 186–€“187. ISBN 978-1-56205-412-0. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  37. ^ "U.S. v. Microsoft: Proposed Findings of Fact". Civil Action No. 98-1232 (TPJ). US DOJ. Retrieved 10 April 2010. 
  38. ^ Goodin, Dan (20 November 1997). "Justice counters MS claims". CNET News. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  39. ^ Steve Lohr (5 November 1998). "Browser Memos Pose Challenge To Microsoft". Business (The New York Times). Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  40. ^ a b Scoblionkov, Deborah (08.07.1998). "Justice: MS Floating 'Old Ideas'". Wired. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  41. ^ a b James Gillies; R. Cailliau (1 September 2000). How the Web was born: the story of the World Wide Web. Oxford University Press. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-19-286207-5. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  42. ^ a b Kasser, Barbara (2000). Practical Internet. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-7897-2226-3. 
  43. ^ Winsock Client Software Reviews. Web.archive.org. Retrieved on 2014-03-17.
  44. ^ a b Wheeler, David A. (5 October 1996). "Information on How to Download Lovelace". Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  45. ^ IV, Louis (1999). Microsoft Windows Dna Exposed. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-672-31561-9. 
  46. ^ [1][dead link]
  47. ^ Berghel, Hal (1998). "Who won the Mosaic War?". Communications of the ACM 41 (10): 13. doi:10.1145/286238.286240. 
  48. ^ Berghel, Hal (1999). "Digital village: the cost of having analog executives in a digital world". Communications of the ACM 42 (11): 11. doi:10.1145/319382.319384. 
  49. ^ Álvaro Castells (1 November 2002). Internet dictionary: a comprehensive guide to the language of the Web. Kogan Page Publishers. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7494-3667-4. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  50. ^ Allen Kent (29 June 1999). Encyclopedia of library and information science. CRC Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8247-2064-3. Retrieved 2 April 2010. 
  51. ^ Berghel, Hal (1996). "The client's side of the World-Wide Web". Communications of the ACM 39: 30. doi:10.1145/234173.234177. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bruce, Thomas R. (17 February 1994). "Cello v1 released". University of California. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  53. ^ a b c d Bruce, Thomas R. (5 November 1993). "Cello Beta v.8 Released (longish)". WWW-Talk Han-March 1994. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  54. ^ December, John; Randall, Neil (1994). The World Wide Web unleashed. Sams Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 1-57521-040-1. 
  55. ^ a b Inc, I.D.G. Network World (27 June 1994). Network World. IDG Network World Inc. pp. 19, 22, 24. ISSN 0887-7661. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  56. ^ Emslie, Mike (1994). Setting up a World Wide Web Server 8 (3). ISSN 1358-5363. 
  57. ^ a b Bruce, Thomas R. "FAQ for Cello". Part 1. Cornell Law School. Archived from the original on 7 December 2003. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  58. ^ a b c d e "FAQ For Cello (Part 2)". Cornell Law School. Archived from the original on 11 February 2005. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  59. ^ a b c Klaassen, Gerd (2001). "Das World Wide Web Museum - Programme" (in German). Fachhochschule Emden/Leer. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  60. ^ "Internet Browser Resources for enjoying Golden Age Radio History". Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  61. ^ "Histnews: The Electronic History Newsletter". Vol.1, No.6. 12 October 1993. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  62. ^ Kressin, Mark (15 January 1997). The Internet and the World Wide Web: a time-saving guide for new users. Prentice Hall PTR. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-13-493743-4. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  63. ^ a b c d e f Allen, Nicholas (9 June 2008). "First Web Browser on Windows". Microsoft Developer Network. Microsoft. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  64. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (14 June 1993 12:43:08 -0400). "Beta version .2 of Cello...". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  65. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (16 June 1993 12:06:14 -0400). "Cello Beta 0.3 loose.". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  66. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (18 June 1993 10:23:25 -0400). "Cello beta 0.4 released". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  67. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (24 June 1993 13:38:30 -0400). "Cello Beta 0.5 out.". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  68. ^ Bruce, Thomas R. (17 March 1994 13:49:29 --100). "Cello v1.01a released". Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  69. ^ a b "OS/2 Shareware BBS Website - Other Fixes and patches from IBM". Norloff Computer Corporation. 2 September 1994. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  70. ^ English, John (1999). "Building self-contained websites on CD-ROM". ACM SIGCSE Bulletin (New York, NY, USA: ACM) 31 (3): 159–162. doi:10.1145/384267.305906. ISSN 0097-8418. 
  71. ^ a b Wheeler, David A. (5 October 1996). "Information on How to Download Lovelace#On Installing a Web Browser". Ada Home. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  72. ^ Auug, Inc (December 1993). AUUGN. AUUG, Inc. p. 95. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  73. ^ "HTTP Request fields". Protocols. W3C. 3 May 1994. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  74. ^ Kottke, Jason (26 July 2005). "Cello is a graphical WWW browser like Mosaic". Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  75. ^ "PC WWW BROWSERS". PC Browsers. University of Toronto. 1 December 1995. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 
  76. ^ "Useful Accessibility Resource Web Sites". Web Advisory Group (WAG). US Department of Commerce Office of the CIO. 29 March 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010. 
  77. ^ a b Reichard, Kevin (20 December 1995). "Reviews - Cello". CNET. Archived from the original on 12 February 1997. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Glyn Moody (1996). The Internet with Windows. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 378–381. ISBN 978-0-7506-9704-0. 
  • V.k.rao. Education Technology. APH Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-81-7648-493-0. 
  • John December; Neil Randall (1995). The World Wide Web unleashed. Sams.net Pub. ISBN 978-1-57521-040-7. 
  • Craigmile, B.1 (Spring 1995). "What a tangled web it is... Three WWW browsers reviewed". Library Software Review (USA) 14 (1): 5–8. ISSN 0742-5759. 
  • Gilster, Paul (1995). The Slip/Ppp Connection. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0-471-11712-9. 
  • Harrison, Peter John (1994). The Internet Direct Connect Kit. Wiley Publishing. ISBN 1-56884-135-3. 
  • Ayre, Rick (1994-04-26). "Cello and Mosaic: Two free tickets around the Internet". PC Magazine (Academic Search Premier) 13 (8): 48. 
  • Kevin, Richard (10/11/1994). "Mosaic and Cello: Freeware gold. (Cover Story)". PC Magazine 13 (17). ISSN 0888-8507. 
  • Ayre, R.; Mulder, P. (March 1995). "Web browsers: the web untangled". PC Magazine 3 (2): 75. ISSN 1021-5441. 
  • Lewis, Peter H. (June 1995). "Best Web browsers". PC World 13 (6). ISSN 0737-8939. 

External links[edit]