Northern Uí Néill
The Northern Uí Néill is the name given to several dynasties in north-western medieval Ireland that claimed descent from a common ancestor, Niall of the Nine Hostages. Other dynasties in central and eastern Ireland who also claimed descent from Niall were termed the Southern Uí Néill (together they are known as the Uí Néill dynasty). The dynasties of the Northern Uí Néill were the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain, named after supposed sons of Niall: Conall and Eógain.
The Northern Uí Néill's over-kingdom in its earliest days was known as In Fochla and In Tuaiscert, both meaning "the North", and was ruled by the Cenél Conaill. After the Cenél nEógain's rise to dominance, it became known as Ailech.
From the 8th century onwards, likely sponsored by Áed Allán, a Cenél nEógain king of Tara, and Congus, the bishop of Armagh, early Irish historians carefully constructed propaganda to shore up and cement Uí Néill political supremacy along with the ecclesiastical supremacy of Armagh. This involved the ruthless re-writing and doctoring of genealogies, lists of kings, history, and early annals, tracing the current situation as having primacy all the way back into the undocumented 5th century. In tandem, about a dozen peoples became designated within what was called Uí Néill in Tuaiscirt, of which the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain were the most dominant.
By the 13th-century, the Cenél Conaill had come to dominance over the original territory of the Northern Uí Néill in Donegal, and sponsored their own history, which incorporated elements from earlier historical revisions. Known as the Eachtra Conaill Gulbain, "The otherworld adventures of Conall Gulban", it details how sons of Niall Noígiallach, the eponymous ancestor of the Uí Néill dynasties, came forth from Connacht, and invaded the north-western territory of the Ulaid, conquering it from the indigenous people, the Dál Fiatach. This territory roughly equated to present-day County Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. Here they founded their own over-kingdom and dynasties: the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain,
Detailed analysis of maternal ancestries, placenames, hagiography, archaeology, and saints’ genealogies, has brought the origins of the Cenél Conaill branch of the Northern Uí Néill into question, with it being claimed that they are most likely a branch of the Cruithin, linked to the Uí Echach Coba of Iveagh, and Conaille Muirtheimne. Adding to the confusion over the true origins of the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain, recent DNA analysis of descendants from both branches shows a common ancestor in the north-west of Ireland dating from around 1,730 years ago. Niall Noígiallach has been ruled out by historian Brian Lacey as being this ancestor, providing other possible candidates including: Cana mac Luigdech Lámfhata, Dál Fiatach leader of Sentuatha Ulaid; Echu Doimlén, father of the Three Collas; or perhaps an anonymous Cruithin prince.
The over-kingdom of the Northern Uí Néill's was divided into several sub-kingdoms, which on their own held dominance over smaller tuatha. Cenél Conaill named their territory Tír Conaill, meaning "Conall's land". The territory Tír Conaill (Anglicised as Tyrconnell) held by the late 16th century, would become the basis for County Donegal. The Cenél nEógain named their territory Inis Eógain, meaning "Eógain's island", the name of which survives today as the name of the Inishowen peninsula. The Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain are assumed to have established lordship over their neighbouring local tuatha.
Vying for dominance
Throughout the 6th and 7th centuries AD, the Cenél Conaill and Cenél nEógain are both claimed as vying for dominance of the Northern Uí Néill over-kingdom. Initially the Cenél Conaill held dominance until the collapsing of their power around the 780s, allowing the Cenél nEógain to advance against them. According to the Annals of Ulster, in 788 AD the Cenél nEógain as part of a southwards push burned the monastery of Derry, which had been built by the Cenél Conaill in the 6th century.
The following year, 789 AD, the battle of Cloítech occurred between the Cenél nEógain, led by Áed Oirdnide, and the Cenél Conaill, for complete control of the Northern Uí Néill. The Cenél nEógain emerged victorious excluding the Cenél Conaill from the over-kingship as well as from Mag nÍtha, the valuable plains south of Greenan Mountain in Inishowen. Following this battle, the Northern Uí Néill over-kingdom became known as "Ailech" instead of "In Fochla" and "In Tuaiscert". The Cenél Conaill where afterwards confined to the sub-kingdom of Tír Conaill.
Dominance over Ulster
The Northern Uí Néill were initially hesitant to test the might of the Ulster's more powerful kingdoms such as Airgialla, Ulaid, and even the minor Cianacht, however over the following centuries they would come to conquer and dominate the majority of Ulster. The rate of this expansion has been claimed as equating to a rate of not even 10 miles per century.
The main beneficiary of this was the Cenél nEógain, whose gains came largely at the expense of the over-kingdom of Airgialla in central Ulster. At first the Cenél nEógain established hegemony over them. Concurrently, facing pressure from the Cenél Conaill, branches of the Cenél nEógain started to expand into these Airgiallan lands as well as those of Ulaid. These lands became known as Tír Eógain, the "land of Eoghan", preserved in the name of present-day County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. These conquests included:
- The Mac Cathmaíl (McCaul) of the Cenél Feradaig who took Clogher, the capital of western Airgialla.
- The Mac Cana (McCann) of Cenél nÓengussa, who spread into northern County Armagh.
- The Ua Catháin (O'Kane) who conquered Cianacht, the territory of the Ciannachta.
- The Ua Neill (O'Neill) who came to prominence west of Lough Neagh in the lands of the Airgiallan Uí Tuirtre, basing themselves at the ancient site of Tullyhogue Fort.
- The sub-kingdom of Uí Fiachrach Arda Strath, which lay to the south of Mag nÍtha, was still ruled by the Airgiallan Ua Crícháin dynasty, however it became a subject of Ailech. By the 12th-century they had expanded southwards into Fir Luírg, in modern-day County Fermanagh.
Despite these gains, the Cenél nEógain suffered some loses. The Ua Dochartaig (O'Doherty) who had come to prominence in Tír Conaill eventually forced the Cenél nEógain out of Inishowen, with the Ua Domnaill (O'Donnell) sept expelling the Cenél nEógain family Ua Gairmledaig (O'Gormley) of Cenél Moen from Mag nÍtha. Eventually Fír Luirg and Tuatha Ratha came under dominance of the Mag Uidhir (Maguire) lordship of Fir Manach. Cairpre Dromma Cliab had also been lost, having been conquered by Tigernán Ua Ruairc of the kingdom of Bréifne.
Throughout the 9th century the coastline of Ailech and the rest of Ulster was subject to Viking raids. During the 850s, Viking disunity allowed the Ulster kings to fight back and inflict overwhleming defeats on the Vikings. This cumulated in 866, when the king of Ailech, Áed Finnliath, managed to clear the Vikings from their strongholds in "the North, both in Cenel Eogain and Dal nAraide", and won a battle in Lough Foyle on the east coast of Inishowen. This was an important victory as the Vikings largely left Ulster alone for many years afterwards, leaving little imprint on Ulster compared to the rest of Ireland. By the time the Normans arrived in Ulster in the latter 12th century, the Vikings' only settlement of note was "Ulfrek's ford" (modern-day Larne).
Grianán of Ailech
It has been proposed that the Cenél nEógain occupied the site of Grianán fort, which may have been within Cenél Conaill territory, and as new kings of the over-kingdom, and renamed it after their home territory, giving it its present-day name of the Grianán of Ailech. It is usually identified, whether correctly or not, as the capital of of the Cenél nEógain from the 6th century, until its destruction, according to the Annals of Ulster, in 1101.
Below is a chart listing the ancestry of the Cenél Conaill from Niall of the Nine Hostages, which contains figures from oral history until the 700s when the historical period in Ireland starts.
|Family of the Cenél Conaill|
! ! ! ! O'Freel ! ! ! |_______________________________ |______________ | | | | | | | | | | Ainmire, died 569 Colum Lugaid Mael Tuile Bresal, died 644 Ri of Ireland | | | | | | | Cenél Lugdach Dungal, Rí Cenél mBogaine, died 672 | | | | | |______________ | Ronan | | | | | | | | Sechnasach Dub Diberg, died 703 | Garb | | | | ? | | | | Flaithgus, died 732 | | Forbasach | | | Rí Cenél mBogaine ? | Cen Faelad died 722 | | | Rogaillnech, died 815 | _______________________| | | | | | | | Mael Duin Fiaman | | | | ? ? | | | | Airnelach Maenguile | | | | | | | | | | | | | Cen Faelad Dochartach | | (Clann Ua Dochartaig) | | | |____________________________________________ | | | | | | | Dalach, 'Dux' Cenél Conaill, died 870. Bradagain | | | | | | | Eicnecan, Rí Cenél Conaill, died 906 Baigill | | (Clann Ua Baighill) | | | |_______________________________________________________________________ | | ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! two sons Flann Adlann Domnall Mor Conchobar | died 956 & 962. Abbot of Derry (Clann Ua Domnaill | died 950. Kings of Cenel Conaill after 1270 a.d.) | |_______________________ | | | | Áed, died 598 Ciaran | | | | | Fiachra, founder of Derry, died 620. | |__________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | Domnall, died 642 Conall Cu Mael Cobo, died 615 Cumuscach, died 597 High King died 704 High King of Ireland | of Ireland |____________ | | | | | | | Cellach Conall Cael | | both died 658/664 | | | (Clann Ua Gallchobair) | | |_____________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | ! | | | | | ! Oengus, died 650 Conall Colgu Ailill Flannesda Fergus Fanad | died 663 died 663 died 666 died 654 | ! ! ! ! ! | | | Congal Cenn Magair | died 710 | High King of Ireland | ! | _____________________|_______ | | | | | | | | | Donngal Flann Gohan Conaig | died 731 died 732 died 733 ! ! ! ! | O'Breslin-Fanat Loingsech, died 703 High King of Ireland | |_____________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | Flaithbertach, deposed 734. Fergus, died 707 three other sons, all killed 703 | |_______________________________________________________________________ | | | | | | Aed Muinderg, Ri in Tuisceart, died 747. Loingsech Murchad | Rí Cenél Conaill Rí Cenél Conaill |_______________ died 754 died 767 | | | | | | Domnall Donnchad Mael Bresail died 804 fl. 784 Rí Cenél Conaill | died 767 | | Flaithbertach | | Oengus | | Canannan | (Ua Canannain) Mael Doraid (Ua Maildoraid) Ri Cenel Conaill | _______|_______ | | | | Fogartach Mael Bresail Rí Cenél Conaill Rí Cenél Conaill died 904 died 901
Branches, clans, and septs
Prominent branches and clans of the Cenél Conaill include the O'Donnell dynasty, O'Doherty family and Gallagher clans. The most famous descendant of the Cenél Conaill is Saint Columba, who founded the monastery at Derry, and is claimed as being the grand-son of Conall Gulban.
Below is a chart listing the ancestry of the Cenél nEógain from Fergal mac Máele Dúin, the first of the lineage to be recorded in historical records.
|Family of the Cenél nEógain part 1|
|Family of the Cenél nEógain part 2|
Branches, clans, and septs
Prominent branches and clans of the Cenél nEógain include the O'Neill dynasty and MacLaughlin clans. However the MacLaughlins defeat at the hands of the O'Neills in 1241 led to the O'Neills dominance over the Cenél nEógain.
- Byrne, Martin, Moody (1984); "Northern Ui Neill: Cenel nEogain Kings of Ailech and High Kings 700–1083", page 128 in "A New History of Ireland", volume IX, ed.
- Brian Lacey (2003); "The Grianan of Ailech - a note on its identification". JRSAI 131.
- Desmond Keenan (2004). "The True Origins of Irish Society". Xlibris Corporation.
- Brian Lacey (2006); "Cenel Conaill and the Donegal Kingdoms, AD 500-800". Four Courts Press, Dublin. ISBN 978-1-85182-978-1
- Art Cosgrove (2008); "A New History of Ireland, Volume II: Medieval Ireland 1169-1534". Oxford University Press.
- Jonathan Bardon (2005); A History of Ulster. The Blackstaff Press. ISBN 0-85640-764-X
- S. J. Connolly (2007); Oxford Companion to Irish History, pgs 584-5. Oxford University Press.
- Adomnan of Iona. "Life of St. Columba". Penguin UK. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Lacey (2003), pp. 145-9.
- Lacey (2006), p. 351.
- The A.G. van Hamel Foundation for Celtic Studies. "Eachtra Conaill Gulbain, ‘The otherworld adventures of Conall Gulban’". Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Bardon, page 14.
- Keenan, page 234.
- Cosgrove, page .
- Connolly, pages 584-5.
- Bardon, pages 26-7.