Cenchrus biflorus

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Cenchrus biflorus
Cenchrus biflorus.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Cenchrus
Species: C. biflorus
Binomial name
Cenchrus biflorus

Cenchrus catharticus

Cenchrus biflorus is a species of annual grass in the Poaceae family. Common names include Indian sandbur, Bhurat or Bhurut in India, Haskaneet in Sudan, K 'arangiya in the Hausa language of Nigeria, and Ngibbi in the Kanuri language of Nigeria.[1] In the francophone countries of the Sahel, it is usually referred to as "cram-cram".

It is common in the Sahel savannas of Africa, south of the Sahara.[2] According to a botanical criteria of geographer Robert Capot-Rey, the northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus defines the southern boundary of the Sahara.[3][4]

It is also found in India, where the seeds are used in Rajasthan and its Marwar region to make bread, either alone or mixed with bajra (millet).[1]


A traditional food plant in Africa, this little-known grain has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.[5]


  1. ^ a b "Famine foods: Poaceae or Gramineae" Purdue University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture [1]. Accessed December 29, 2007.
  2. ^ "Sahelian Acacia savanna". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved December 29, 2007. 
  3. ^ Grove, A.T., nicole (1958,2007). "The Ancient Erg of Hausaland, and Similar Formations on the South Side of the Sahara". The Geographical Journal (Blackwell Publishing) 124 (4): 528–533. doi:10.2307/1790942. JSTOR 1790942.  Check date values in: |date= (help);
  4. ^ Bisson, J. (2003). Mythes et réalités d'un désert convoité: le Sahara. L'Harmattan. (French)
  5. ^ National Research Council (1996-02-14). "Wild Grains". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume I: Grains. Lost Crops of Africa 1. National Academies Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-309-04990-0. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 

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