2011 census of India

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The 15th Indian census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration. House listing phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of information about all buildings. Information for National Population Register was also collected in the first phase, which will be used to issue a 12-digit unique identification number to all registered Indians by Unique Identification Authority of India. The second population enumeration phase was conducted between 9 to 28 February 2011. Census has been conducted in India since 1872 and 2011 marks the first time biometric information was collected. According to the provisional reports released on 31 March 2011, the Indian population increased to 1.21 billion with a decadal growth of 17.64%. Adult literacy rate increased to 74.04% with a decadal growth of 9.21%. The motto of census 2011 was 'Our Census, Our future'.

Spread across 28 states and 7 union territories, the census covered 640 districts, 5,767 tehsils, 7,933 towns and more than 600,000 villages. A total of 2.7 million officials visited households in 7,933 towns and 600,000 villages, classifying the population according to gender, religion, education and occupation.[1] The cost of the exercise was approximately INR2200 crore (US$370 million) – this comes to less than $0.5 per person, well below the estimated world average of $4.6 per person.[1] Conducted every 10 years, this census faced big challenges considering India's vast area and diversity of cultures and opposition from the manpower involved.

Information on castes was included in the census following demands from several ruling coalition leaders including Lalu Prasad Yadav, Sharad Yadav and Mulayam Singh Yadav supported by opposition parties Bharatiya Janata Party, Akali Dal, Shiv Sena and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.[2] Information on caste was last collected during the British Raj in 1931. During the early census, people often exaggerated their caste status to garner social status and it is expected that people downgrade it now in the expectation of gaining government benefits.[3] Earlier, there was speculation of conduction caste-based census in 2011, first time after 80 years since 1931,to find the exact population of Other Backward Class(OBCs) in India, but later the proposal was dropped.[4][5][6][7] Mandal Commission report of 1980 quoted OBC population at 52%, though National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) survey of 2006 quoted OBC population at 41%[8]

There is only one instance of a caste-count in post-independence India. It was conducted in Kerala in 1968 by the Communist government under E. M. S. Namboodiripad to assess the social and economic backwardness of various lower castes. The census was termed Socio-Economic Survey of 1968 and the results were published in the Gazetteer of Kerala, 1971.[9]

Census[edit]

C. Chandramauli is the Registrar General and commissioner of 2011 Indian census. Census data was collected in 16 languages and training manual was prepared in 18 languages.The census was conducted in two phases. The first houselisting phase began on 1 April 2010 and involved collection of data about all the buildings and census houses.[10] Information for National population register was also collected in the first phase. The second population enumeration phase was conducted from 9–28 February 2011 all over the country. The eradication of epidemics (2) availability of more effective medicines for the treatment of various types of diseases and the improvement in the standard of living these are the main reason for the high growth of population in India.

Houselistings[edit]

The Houselisting schedule contained 35 questions.[11]

Building number
Census house number
Predominant material of floor, wall and roof of the census house
Ascertain use of actual house
Condition of the census house
Household number
Total number of persons in the household
Name of the head of the household
Sex of the head
Caste status (SC or ST or others)
Ownership status of the house
Number of dwelling rooms
Number of married couple the household
Main source of drinking water
Availability of drinking water source
Main source of lighting
Latrine within the premises
Type of latrine facility
Waste water outlet connection
Bathing facility within the premises
Availability of kitchen
Fuel used for cooking
Radio/Transistor
Television
Computer/Laptop
Telephone/Mobile phone
Bicycle
Scooter/Motor cycle/Moped
Car/Jeep/Van
Availing Banking services.

Population enumeration[edit]

The Population enumeration schedule contained 30 questions.[12][13]

Name of the person
Relationship to head
Sex
Date of birth and age
Current marital status
Age at marriage
Religion
Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe
Disability
Mother tongue
Other languages known
Literacy status
Status of attendance (Education)
Highest educational level attained
Working any time during last year
Category of economic activity
Occupation Nature of industry
Trade or service
Class of worker
Non economic activity
Seeking or available for work
Travel to place of work
Birthplace
Place of last residence
Reason for migration
Duration of stay in the place of migration
Children surviving
Children ever born
Number of children born alive during last one year

National Population Register[edit]

The National Population Register household schedule contained 9 questions.[14]

Name of the person and resident status
Name of the person as should appear in the population register
Relationship to head
gender
Date of birth
Marital status
Educational qualification
Occupation/Activity
Names of father, mother and spouse

Once the information will be collected and digitalised, fingerprints and photos will be collected. Unique Identification Authority of India will issue a 12-digit identification number to all individuals and the first ID was to be issued in 2011.[15][16][17]

Census report[edit]

Decadal growth of Indian population (1901–2011).

Provisional data from the census was released on 31 March 2011 (and was updated on 20 May 2013).[18]

Population Total 1,210,569,573
Males 623,121,843
Females 587,447,730
Literacy Total 72.99%
Males 80.89%
Females 64.64%
Density of population per km2 382
Sex ratio per 1000 males 943 females
Child sex ratio (0–6 age group) per 1000 males 919 females

Population[edit]

The population of India on 1 March 2011 was 1,210,193,422. India added 181.5 million to its population since 2001, slightly lower than the population of Brazil. India with 2.4% of the world's surface area accounts for 17.5% of its population. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state with roughly 200 million people. A little over 5 out of 10 Indians live in the six states of Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.[19]

India is the homeland of major belief systems such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Sikhism and Jainism, while also being home to several indigenous faiths and tribal religions which have survived the influence of major religions for centuries.

Ever since its inception, the Census of India has been collecting and publishing information about the religious affiliations as expressed by the people of India. In fact, population census has the rare distinction of being the only instrument that collects this diverse and important characteristic of the Indian population.

Population distribution in India by states
Rank State /
Union Territory
Type Population % [20] Males Females Sex Ratio
[21]
Literacy Rural[22]
Population
Urban[22]
Population
Area[23]
(km²)
Density
(/km²)
1 Uttar Pradesh State 199,812,341 16.5 104,480,510 95,331,831 912 67.68 131,658,339 34,539,582 240,928 828
2 Maharashtra State 112,374,333 9.28 58,243,056 54,131,277 929 82.34 55,777,647 41,100,980 307,713 365
3 Bihar State 104,099,452 8.6 54,278,157 49,821,295 918 61.80 74,316,709 8,681,800 94,163 1,102
4 West Bengal State 91,276,115 7.54 46,809,027 44,467,088 950 76.26 57,748,946 22,427,251 88,752 1,030
5 Andhra Pradesh State 84,580,777 6.99 42,442,146 42,138,631 993 67.02 55,401,067 20,808,940 275,045 308
6 Madhya Pradesh State 72,626,809 6.00 37,612,306 35,014,503 931 69.32 44,380,878 15,967,145 308,245 236
7 Tamil Nadu State 72,147,030 5.96 36,137,975 36,009,055 996 80.09 34,921,681 27,483,998 130,058 555
8 Rajasthan State 68,548,437 5.66 35,550,997 32,997,440 928 66.11 43,292,813 13,214,375 342,239 201
9 Karnataka State 61,095,297 5.05 30,966,657 30,128,640 973 75.36 34,889,033 17,961,529 191,791 319
10 Gujarat State 60,439,692 4.99 31,491,260 28,948,432 919 78.03 31,740,767 18,930,250 196,024 308
11 Orissa State 41,974,218 3.47 21,212,136 20,762,082 979 72.87 31,287,422 5,517,238 155,707 269
12 Kerala State 33,406,061 2.76 16,027,412 17,378,649 1084 94.00 23,574,449 8,266,925 38,863 859
13 Jharkhand State 32,988,134 2.72 16,930,315 16,057,819 948 66.41 20,952,088 5,993,741 79,714 414
14 Assam State 31,205,576 2.58 15,939,443 15,266,133 958 72.19 23,216,288 3,439,240 78,438 397
15 Punjab State 27,743,338 2.29 14,639,465 13,103,873 895 75.84 16,096,488 8,262,511 50,362 550
16 Chhattisgarh State 25,545,198 2.11 12,832,895 12,712,303 991 70.28 16,648,056 4,185,747 135,191 189
17 Haryana State 25,351,462 2.09 13,494,734 11,856,728 879 75.55 15,029,260 6,115,304 44,212 573
18 Delhi UT 16,787,941 1.39 8,987,326 7,800,615 868 86.21 944,727 12,905,780 1,484 11,297
19 Jammu and Kashmir State 12,541,302 1.04 6,640,662 5,900,640 889 67.16 7,627,062 2,516,638 222,236 56
20 Uttarakhand State 10,086,292 0.83 5,137,773 4,948,519 963 78.82 6,310,275 2,179,074 53,483 189
21 Himachal Pradesh State 6,864,602 0.57 3,481,873 3,382,729 972 82.80 5,482,319 595,581 55,673 123
22 Tripura State 3,673,917 0.30 1,874,376 1,799,541 960 87.22 2,653,453 545,750 10,486 350
23 Meghalaya State 2,966,889 0.25 1,491,832 1,475,057 989 74.43 1,864,711 454,111 22,429 132
24 Manipur State 2,570,390 0.21 1,290,171 1,280,219 992 79.21 1,590,820 575,968 22,327 122
25 Nagaland State 1,978,502 0.16 1,024,649 953,853 931 79.55 1,647,249 342,787 16,579 119
26 Goa State 1,458,545 0.12 739,140 719,405 973 88.70 677,091 670,577 3,702 394
27 Arunachal Pradesh State 1,383,727 0.11 713,912 669,815 938 65.38 870,087 227,881 83,743 17
28 Pondicherry UT 1,247,953 0.10 612,511 635,442 1037 85.85 325,726 648,619 479 2,598
29 Mizoram State 1,097,206 0.09 555,339 541,867 976 91.33 447,567 441,006 21,081 52
30 Chandigarh UT 1,055,450 0.09 580,663 474,787 818 86.05 92,120 808,515 114 9,252
31 Sikkim State 610,577 0.05 323,070 287,507 890 81.42 480,981 59,870 7,096 86
32 Andaman and Nicobar Islands UT 380,581 0.03 202,871 177,710 876 86.63 239,954 116,198 8,249 46
33 Dadra and Nagar Haveli UT 343,709 0.03 193,760 149,949 774 76.24 170,027 50,463 491 698
34 Daman and Diu UT 243,247 0.02 150,301 92,946 618 87.10 100,856 57,348 112 2,169
35 Lakshadweep UT 64,473 0.01 33,123 31,350 946 91.85 33,683 26,967 32 2,013
TOTAL India 28 + 7 1,210,193,422 100 623,724,248 586,469,174 940 74.04 833,087,662 377,105,760 3,287,240 382

Literacy[edit]

Any one above age 7 who can read and write in any language with an ability to understand was considered a literate. In censuses before 1991, children below the age 5 were treated as illiterates. The literacy rate taking the entire population into account is termed as "crude literacy rate", and taking the population from age 7 and above into account is termed as "effective literacy rate". Effective literacy rate increased to a total of 74.04% with 82.14% of the males and 65.46% of the females being literate.[24]

S.No. Census Year Total (%) Male (%) Female (%)
1 1901 5.35 9.83 0.60
2 1911 5.92 10.56 1.05
3 1921 7.16 12.21 1.81
4 1931 9.50 15.59 2.93
5 1941 16.10 24.90 7.30
6 1951 16.67 24.95 9.45
7 1961 24.02 34.44 12.95
8 1971 29.45 39.45 18.69
9 1981 36.23 46.89 24.82
10 1991 42.84 52.74 32.17
11 2001 64.83 75.26 53.67
12 2011 74.04 82.14 65.46
  • The table lists the "crude literacy rate" in India from 1901 to 2011.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b C Chandramouli (23 August 2011). "Census of India 2011 – A Story of Innovations". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 
  2. ^ Demand for caste census rocks Lok Sabha
  3. ^ India to conduct first record of nation’s caste system since days of the Raj
  4. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/news/obc-data-not-in-2011-census-says-moily/555760/
  5. ^ "No data since 1931, will 2011 Census be all-caste inclusive? - The Times of India". The Times Of India. 11 March 2010. 
  6. ^ "Caste in Census 2011: Is it necessary?". The Times Of India. 28 May 2010. 
  7. ^ "OBCs form 41% of population: Survey - The Times of India". The Times Of India. 1 September 2007. 
  8. ^ "OBc count: 52 or 41%? - The Times of India". The Times Of India. 1 November 2006. 
  9. ^ G.O.K 1971: Appendix XVIII
  10. ^ Kumar, Vinay (4 April 2010). "House listing operations for Census 2011 progressing well". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 16 April 2011. 
  11. ^ "Census of India 2011; Houselisting and Housing Census Schedule". Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  12. ^ "Census of India 2011; Household Schedule-Side A". Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  13. ^ "Census of India 2011; Household Schedule-Side B". Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  14. ^ "National population register; Household Schedule". Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  15. ^ Biggest "Census operation in history kicks off". The Hindu. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  16. ^ "India launches new biometric census". Yahoo news. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. [dead link]
  17. ^ "India launches biometric census". BBC. 1 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  18. ^ "India at Glance - Population Census 2011". Census Organization of India. 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Indian States Census 2011". Census Organization of India. 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Ranking of States and Union territories by population size: 1991 and 2001". Government of India (2001). Census of India. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 12 December 2008. 
  21. ^ "Population". Government of India (2011). Census of India. 
  22. ^ a b "Population". Government of India (2001). Census of India. Retrieved 26 October 2008. 
  23. ^ "Area of India/state/district". Government of India (2001). Census of India. Retrieved 27 October 2008. 
  24. ^ "Census Provional Population Totals". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 

External links[edit]