The first official census on the territory of Ukraine took place in 1818 when the Western Ukraine was part of the Austrian Empire. However the modern census did not take place until 1857. Since then the next censuses took place in the dual-power state of the Austria-Hungary in 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910. Those last five censuses also included the territory of the today Zakarpattia Oblast which was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The further censuses discontinued as the country fell apart. The rest of Ukraine which was part of another empire of Russia conducted its first census as part of the 1897 Russian Census. Remarkable is the fact that the next national census in Russia did not take place until after the World War I and the formation of the Soviet Union. In 1920 was conducted a census only in those areas that were not involved in the Russian Civil War.
The next census conducted on the most territory of the Western Ukraine (Eastern Galicia) was in 1921 as the Polish census of 1921, while the 1921 Czechoslovakia Census took place on the territory of the Zakarpattia Oblast. In 1930 another census took place in the both regions as part of their respective national censuses that were conducted in the same year. Also the area of today Chernivtsi Oblast saw its first national census in 1930 for the first time since the last one that was conducted in the Austria-Hungary in 1910, while the area of Budjak of today Odessa Oblast along with the rest of Bessarabia had the Russian demographic statistic data back from 1897. Already during the World War II one more census took place in 1941 in Hungary which previously sacked and occupied the territory of Carpatho-Ukraine (today Zakarpattia Oblast). As it was mentioned before, the first national Russian Census since 1897 took place only in 1926 as part of the First All-Union Census in the USSR. The next census in the Soviet Union took place in 1937, but it was recognized as unofficial and was never disclosed. The census was also recognized as a conspiracy against the Soviet regime. Just before the World War II in 1939 there was conducted another census in the Soviet Union, which was accepted as the official one.
After the World War II Ukraine was finally united in its today borders and within the Soviet Union. The first Soviet Census after the war took place in 1959, followed by three more in 1970, 1979 and 1989. The next census never took place as the Soviet Union has dissolved.