CentOS

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
CentOS
Centos full.svg
CentOS 7.0 GNOME.png
Default GNOME desktop in CentOS 7.0
Developer The CentOS Project
(Affiliated with Red Hat)
OS family Unix-like
Working state Current
Source model Open source
Initial release 14 May 2004; 10 years ago (2004-05-14)[1]
Latest release

7.0-1406 (7 July 2014; 5 months ago (2014-07-07)[2]) [±]
6.6 (28 October 2014; 56 days ago (2014-10-28)[3]) [±]

5.11 (30 September 2014; 2 months ago (2014-09-30)[4]) [±]
Marketing target Free computing (desktops, mainframes, servers, workstations)
Available in Multilingual
Update method Yum (PackageKit)
Package manager RPM Package Manager
Platforms x86-64, x86 with PAE support
Kernel type Monolithic (Linux)
Default user interface GNOME and KDE Plasma Desktop (user-selectable)
License Free software (GPL and other licenses)
Official website www.centos.org

CentOS (abbreviated from Community Enterprise Operating System) is a Linux distribution that attempts to provide a free, enterprise-class, community-supported computing platform which aims to be functionally compatible with its upstream source, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL).[5][6] In January 2014, CentOS announced the official joining with Red Hat while staying independent from RHEL,[7] under a new CentOS governing board.[8]

The first CentOS release in May 2004, numbered as CentOS version 2, was forked from RHEL version 2.1AS.[1] As of versions 5.10 and 6.5, CentOS officially supports x86-64 and x86 architectures (with Physical Address Extension (PAE) required for the latter), while a beta release is expected to be available for the PowerPC architecture.[9]

History[edit]

Before it adopted the "CentOS" name, CentOS Linux originated as a build artifact of cAos Linux.[10] Several of the cAos contributors at the time[when?] were merely interested in this build artifact for their own use, citing difficulties in collaborating with other noteworthy Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) clones of the time.[citation needed]

In June 2006, David Parsley, the primary developer of Tao Linux (another RHEL clone), announced the retirement of Tao Linux and its rolling into CentOS development. Tao's users migrated to the CentOS release via yum update.[11]

In July 2009, it was reported in an open letter on the CentOS project web site that CentOS's founder, Lance Davis, had disappeared in 2008. Davis had ceased contribution to the project, but continued to hold the registration for the CentOS domain and PayPal account. In August 2009, the CentOS team reportedly made contact with Davis and obtained the centos.info and centos.org domains.[12]

In July 2010, CentOS overtook Debian to become the most popular Linux distribution for web servers, with almost 30% of all Linux web servers using it.[13] (Debian retook the lead in January 2012.[14])

In January 2014, Red Hat announced that it would sponsor the CentOS project, "helping to establish a platform well-suited to the needs of open source developers that integrate technologies in and around the operating system".[15] As the result of these changes, ownership of CentOS trademarks was transferred to Red Hat,[16] which now employs most of the CentOS head developers; however, they work as part of the Red Hat's Open Source and Standards team, which operates separately from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux team.[7] A new CentOS governing board was also established.[8]

Design[edit]

RHEL is available only through a paid subscription service that provides access to software updates and varying levels of technical support. The product is largely composed of software packages distributed under free software licenses and the source code for these packages is made public by Red Hat.

CentOS developers use Red Hat's source code to create a final product very similar to RHEL. Red Hat's branding and logos are changed because Red Hat does not allow them to be redistributed.[17] CentOS is available free of charge. Technical support is primarily provided by the community via official mailing lists, web forums, and chat rooms.

The project is affiliated with Red Hat but aspires to be more public, open, and inclusive. While Red Hat employs most of the CentOS head developers, the CentOS project itself relies on donations from users and organizational sponsors.[7]

Versioning and releases[edit]

CentOS releases[edit]

Before version 7.0, CentOS version numbers have two parts, a major version and a minor version, which correspond to the major version and update set of Red Hat Enterprise Linux that was used to build that version of CentOS. For example, CentOS 6.5 is built from the source packages of RHEL 6 update 5 (also known as RHEL version 6.5), which is a so-called "point release" of RHEL 6.[18]

Starting with version 7.0, CentOS version numbers also include the third part that indicates monthstamp of the source code the release is based on. For example, version number 7.0-1406 still maps this CentOS release to the zeroth update set of RHEL 7, while "1406" indicates that the source code this release is based on dates from June 2014. Using the monthstamp allows installation images to be reissued for (as of July 2014) oncoming container and cloud releases, while maintaining a connection to the related base release version.[19]

Since mid-2006 and starting with RHEL version 4.4, which is formally known as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0 update 4, Red Hat has adopted a version naming convention identical to that used by CentOS (for example, RHEL 4.5, or RHEL 6.5).[20]

Add-ons releases[edit]

Software Collections (SCL) is a CentOS repository that provides a set of dynamic programming languages, database servers, and various related packages. Provided software versions are either more recent than their equivalent versions included in the base CentOS distribution, or are made available as official CentOS packages for the first time.[83] (See also the list of CentOS repositories below.)

Packages available from the SCL do not replace the default system tools provided with CentOS. Instead, a parallel set of tools is installed in the /opt directory, and can be optionally enabled per application by using supplied scl utility. For example, the default versions of Perl or MySQL remain those provided by the base CentOS installation.[83]

End-of-support schedule[edit]

In accordance with the Red Hat Enterprise Linux life cycle,[88] CentOS 5, 6 and 7 will also be supported for ten years.[89] Previously, CentOS 4 had been supported for seven years.[90]

CentOS version Release date Full updates[91][92] Maintenance updates[91][92]
Old version, no longer supported: 3 19 March 2004 20 July 2006 31 October 2010
Old version, no longer supported: 4 9 March 2005 31 March 2009 29 February 2012
Older version, yet still supported: 5 12 April 2007 Q1 2014 31 March 2017
Older version, yet still supported: 6 10 July 2011 Q2 2017 30 November 2020
Current stable version: 7 7 July 2014 Q4 2020 30 June 2024
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still supported
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

Releases without upstream equivalents[edit]

Some of the ISO images released by the CentOS project have no direct upstream equivalents. They are created for specific purposes, such as for providing a live bootable image, or for providing a reduced-size installation media.

LiveCD and LiveDVD images contain a bootable compressed file system, created by a set of custom scripts[93] using a kickstart configuration file.[94] These live images can be also installed to hard disk, thus obtaining a fully functional CentOS installation. The set of packages installed that way on a hard disk can not be adjusted during the installation, as that is a simple transfer of the image existing on CD/DVD, to a hard disk. After booting from hard disk, yum can be used for adding or removing packages.[95]

MinimalCD images contain a minimum of packages required for a functional installation, with no compromises in security or network usability. These minimal images use the standard CentOS installer with all of its regular features minus the selection of packages. Yum can be used after the installation is completed to add or remove packages.[96][97]

Architectures[edit]

As of version 7, CentOS supports only the x86-64 architecture,[9] while the following architectures are not supported:

A Live CD version of CentOS is available at mirror.centos.org. A Live USB of CentOS can be created manually or with UNetbootin.

CentOS images are also available on Amazon's EC2 cloud, in form of prebuilt and already published AMI images.[111][112]

Repositories[edit]

There are two primary CentOS repositories (also known as channels), containing software packages that make up the main CentOS distribution:[113]

  • base – contains packages that form CentOS point releases, and gets updated when the actual point release is formally made available in form of ISO images.
  • updates – contains packages that serve as security, bugfix or enhancement updates, issued between the regular update sets for point releases. Bugfix and enhancement updates released this way are only those unsuitable to be released through the CentOS-Fasttrack repository described below.[114][115]
  • addons – provides packages required for building the packages that make up the main CentOS distribution, but are not provided by the upstream.

The CentOS project provides several additional repositories that contain software packages not provided by the default base and updates repositories. Those repositories include the following:[116]

  • CentOS Extras – contains packages that provide additional functionality to CentOS without breaking its upstream compatibility or updating the base components.
  • CentOSPlus – contains packages that actually upgrade certain base CentOS components, changing CentOS so that it is not exactly like the upstream provider's content.
  • CentOS-Testing – serves as a proving ground for packages on their way to CentOSPlus and CentOS Extras. Offered packages may or may not replace core CentOS packages, and are not guaranteed to work properly.
  • CentOS-Fasttrack – contains bugfix and enhancement updates issued from time to time, between the regular update sets for point releases. The packagaes released this way serve as close candidates for the inclusion into the next point release. This repository does not provide security updates, and does not contain packages unsuitable for uncertain inclusion into point releases.[114][115][117]
  • CR (Continuous Release) – makes generally available packages that will appear in the next point release of CentOS. The packages are made available on a testing and hotfix basis, until the actual point release is formally released in form of ISO images.[118]
  • debuginfo – contains packages with debugging symbols generated when the primary packages were built
  • contrib – contains packages contributed by CentOS users that do not overlap with any of the core distribution packages
  • Software Collections – provides versions of software newer than those provided by the base distribution, see above for more details

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ As of July 2014, there is an ongoing effort to provide installation images for i386, ARM and PowerPC as well.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c John Newbigin (2004-05-14). "CentOS-2 Final finally released". centos.org. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  2. ^ "CentOS 7.0 Release announcement". 7 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "CentOS 6.6 Release announcement". 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "CentOS 5.11 Release announcement". 30 September 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014. 
  5. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about CentOS in general: 1. What is CentOS Linux?". centos.org. 2014-10-12. Retrieved 2014-11-02. 
  6. ^ "Red hat + CentOS". Red Hat. Retrieved 2014-04-15. 
  7. ^ a b c Karanbir Singh (2014-01-07). "CentOS Project joins forces with Red Hat". centos.org. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  8. ^ a b "CentOS Governance". centos.org. 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  9. ^ a b "About/Product - CentOS Wiki". CentOS Wiki. Retrieved 18 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Jeffrey B. Layton (2009-02-05). "Caos NSA and Perceus: All-in-one Cluster Software Stack". Linux Magazine. Retrieved 2014-08-07. 
  11. ^ "Retirement of TaoLinux". centos.org. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  12. ^ Perlow, Jason. (2 August 2009). CentOS: Getting Their S#!t Together is a Top Priority. ZDNet
  13. ^ "The most popular Linux for Web servers is ..." (blog). computerworld.com. 
  14. ^ "Debian is now the most popular Linux distribution on web servers". w3techs.com. 
  15. ^ "Red Hat and the CentOS Project Join Forces to Speed Open Source Innovation". Red Hat. 2014-01-07. Retrieved 2014-01-08. Red Hat is once again extending its leadership in open source innovation by helping to establish a platform well-suited to the needs of open source developers that integrate technologies in and around the operating system. 
  16. ^ "Red Hat + CentOS - CentOS Trademark". Red Hat. Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "Red Hat License Agreements". Red Hat. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  18. ^ "What is the versioning/release scheme of CentOS and how does it compare to the upstream vendor?". centos.org. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f Karanbir Singh (2014-07-07). "[CentOS-announce] Release for CentOS-7 on x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2014-07-07. 
  20. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux > AS/ES/WS Basics". Red Hat. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  21. ^ a b "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Errata Support Policy". Red Hat. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  22. ^ Lance Davis (2004-03-19). "CentOS 3.1 has now been released". centos.org. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  23. ^ Lance Davis (2005-06-10). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 3.5 i386 is released". centos.org. 
  24. ^ Lance Davis (2005-11-01). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 3.6 is released.". centos.org. 
  25. ^ Lance Davis (2006-04-10). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 3.7 is released". centos.org. 
  26. ^ Johnny Hughes (2006-08-25). "[CentOS-announce] Subject: CentOS 3.8 is released for i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 
  27. ^ "CentOS 3.9 is released for i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  28. ^ "Distribution Release: CentOS 4". DistroWatch.com. 2005-03-09. 
  29. ^ "Distribution Release: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4". DistroWatch.com. 2005-02-14. 
  30. ^ Johnny Hughes (2005-06-12). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 4 i386 - CentOS 4.1 i386 is available". centos.org. 
  31. ^ Johnny Hughes (2005-10-13). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS-4.2 is Released for i386, x86_64, IA-64, s390, s390x and alpha architectures". centos.org. 
  32. ^ Johnny Hughes (2006-03-21). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 4.3 is Released for i386, x86_64, and IA-64". centos.org. 
  33. ^ Johnny Hughes (2006-08-30). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 4.4 is released for i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 
  34. ^ Johnny Hughes (2007-05-17). "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 4.5 is released for i386, x86_64, and IA-64". centos.org. 
  35. ^ "Distribution Release: CentOS 4.6". DistroWatch.com. 2007-12-16. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  36. ^ "Distribution Release: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.6". DistroWatch.com. 2007-11-16. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  37. ^ Johnny Hughes (2008-09-13). "CentOS 4.7 is released for i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  38. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.7 GA Announcement". Red Hat. 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  39. ^ Johnny Hughes (2009-08-21). "CentOS 4 i386 and x86_64 release of CentOS-4.8". centos.org. 
  40. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.8 GA Announcement". Red Hat. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  41. ^ Johnny Hughes (2011-03-02). "CentOS 4 i386 and x86_64 release of CentOS-4.9". centos.org. 
  42. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.9 GA Announcement". Red Hat. 2011-02-16. 
  43. ^ Karanbir Singh (2007-04-12). "Release for CentOS-5 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  44. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Now Available". Red Hat. 2007-03-15. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  45. ^ Karanbir Singh (2007-12-02). "Release for CentOS-5.1 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  46. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1 General Availability Announcement". Red Hat. 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  47. ^ Karanbir Singh (2008-06-24). "Release for CentOS-5.2 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  48. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2 General Availability Announcement". Red Hat. 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  49. ^ Karanbir Singh (2009-04-01). "Release for CentOS-5.3 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  50. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.3 General Availability Announcement". Red Hat. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 
  51. ^ Singh, Karanbir (21 Oct 2009). "[CentOS-announce] Release for CentOS-5.4 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  52. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.4 GA Announcement". Red Hat. 2009-09-02. Retrieved 2009-09-22. 
  53. ^ a b Singh, Karanbir (14 May 2010). "[CentOS-announce] Release for CentOS-5.5 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  54. ^ Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 (Tikanga) announcement mailing-list (2010-03-31). "[rhelv5-announce] Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5 GA Announcement". Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  55. ^ a b "Release for CentOS-5.6 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  56. ^ ""Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5: 5.6 Release Notes"". Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  57. ^ "Release for CentOS-5.7 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  58. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.7 Release Notes". 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 
  59. ^ "Release for CentOS-5.8 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  60. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.8 Release Notes". 2012-02-21. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
  61. ^ "Release for CentOS-5.9 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2013-01-17. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  62. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.9 Release Notes". 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2013-01-07. 
  63. ^ "Release for CentOS-5.10 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 
  64. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.10 Release Notes". 2013-09-30. Retrieved 2013-10-01. 
  65. ^ "Release for CentOS-5.11 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2014-09-30. Retrieved 2014-09-30. 
  66. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.11 Release Notes". 2014-09-16. Retrieved 2014-09-16. 
  67. ^ "Release for CentOS-6.0 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2011-07-10. 
  68. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Now Available". Red Hat. 2010-11-10. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  69. ^ "Release for CentOS-6.1 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2011-12-09. Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  70. ^ "Red Hat Delivers Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.1". Red Hat. 2011-05-19. Retrieved 2014-05-21. 
  71. ^ a b "Release for CentOS-6.2 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2011-12-20. 
  72. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.2 Release Notes". Red Hat. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2011-12-06. 
  73. ^ a b "Release for CentOS-6.3 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2012-07-09. 
  74. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 Release Notes". Red Hat. 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  75. ^ a b "Release for CentOS-6.4 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  76. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.4 Release Notes". Red Hat. 2013-02-21. Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  77. ^ a b c d "Release for CentOS-6.5 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2013-12-01. Retrieved 2013-12-01. 
  78. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.5 Release Notes". Red Hat. 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2013-11-21. 
  79. ^ "Release for CentOS-6.6 i386 and x86_64". centos.org. 2014-10-28. Retrieved 2014-10-28. 
  80. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 Release Notes". Red Hat. 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  81. ^ "Are 32-bit applications supported in RHEL 7? - Red Hat Customer Portal". Red Hat. 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  82. ^ "Red Hat Enterprisse Linux 7 Release Note". Red Hat. 2014-06-10. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  83. ^ a b "Software Collections 1.0: Release Notes". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  84. ^ a b "Red Hat Extends Red Hat Enterprise Linux Platform with Latest Versions of Popular Programming Languages and Databases". Red Hat. 2013-09-12. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  85. ^ a b "[CentOS-announce] Software Collections for CentOS-6 (x86_64 only)". lists.centos.org. 2014-02-19. Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  86. ^ a b "Red Hat Releases Red Hat Developer Toolset 2.0 with Update to GCC". Red Hat. 2013-09-12. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  87. ^ "[CentOS] RH developer toolset". lists.centos.org. 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  88. ^ "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Life Cycle". Red Hat. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  89. ^ CentOS team (2012-09-22). "CentOS Wiki Frontpage". Retrieved 2012-09-22. 
  90. ^ CentOS team. "CentOS-4 i386 and x86_64 End of Life (EOL)". 
  91. ^ a b "CentOS Product Specifications: End of Lifetime (EOL) Dates". centos.org. Retrieved 2014-07-15. 
  92. ^ a b "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Life Cycle: Life Cycle Dates". Red Hat. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  93. ^ "FedoraLiveCD". fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  94. ^ "CentOS LiveCD Project". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  95. ^ "CentOS LiveDVD 6.4 Release Notes". centos.org. 2013-05-17. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  96. ^ "CentOS MinimalCD 6.0 Release Notes". centos.org. 2011-10-05. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  97. ^ a b Karanbir Singh (2011-07-28). "Release for CentOS-6.0 Minimal i386 and x86_64". Retrieved 2011-07-29. 
  98. ^ Karanbir Singh (2008-10-17). "CentOS 4.7 Server CD — i386 Released". Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  99. ^ Patrice Guay (2008-02-18). "CentOS 5 i386 - The CentOS-5.1 i386 Live CD is released". Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  100. ^ Patrice Guay (2008-07-17). "CentOS 5 i386 - The CentOS-5.2 i386 Live CD is released". Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  101. ^ Singh, Karanbir. "[CentOS-announce] CentOS 5 i386 - The CentOS-5.3 i386 Live CD is released". centos.org. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  102. ^ Karanbir Singh (2011-07-25). "Release for CentOS-6.0 LiveCD i386 and x86_64". Retrieved 2011-07-25. 
  103. ^ Karanbir Singh (2011-07-27). "Release for CentOS-6.0 LiveDVD i386 and x86_64". Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  104. ^ Karanbir Singh (2011-12-09). "Release for CentOS-6.1 LiveCD i386 and x86_64". Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  105. ^ Karanbir Singh (2011-12-09). "Release for CentOS-6.1 LiveDVD i386 and x86_64". Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  106. ^ Karanbir Singh (2011-12-09). "Release for CentOS-6.1 Minimal i386 and x86_64". Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  107. ^ a b "CentOS 6.2 Release Notes". 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2011-12-20. 
  108. ^ a b "[CentOS-announce] Release for CentOS-6.4 LiveCD and LiveDVD for i386 and x86_64". 2013-05-22. Retrieved 2013-06-02. 
  109. ^ "List of images in /centos/7/isos/x86_64 directory". centos.org. 2014-07-07. Retrieved 2014-07-08. 
  110. ^ Singh, Karanbir (2014-03-26). "The ARM plan for CentOS". Retrieved 2014-11-27. 
  111. ^ "Cloud/AWS (CentOS documentation)". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  112. ^ "[CentOS-announce] Updated AMI's for Amazon EC2 are now available". centos.org. 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  113. ^ "Software Management Concepts: About Repositories (CentOS 5 manual)". centos.org. 2005-11-24. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  114. ^ a b Johnny Hughes (2006-04-06). "[CentOS] CentOS FastTrack repository". lists.centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  115. ^ a b Jay Turner (2006-04-03). "Re: Fastrack channels?". redhat.com. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  116. ^ "Available Repositories for CentOS". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  117. ^ "Red Hat Network (RHN) FasTrack". Red Hat. Retrieved 2014-12-16. 
  118. ^ "The Continuous Release (CR) Repository". centos.org. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]