Central Asia–China gas pipeline
|Central Asia–China gas pipeline|
|Country||Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, China|
|From||Right bank of Amu Darya, Saman-Depe, Turkmenistan|
|Passes through||Olot, Shymkent, Alataw Pass|
|To||Horgos, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China
(connected to West–East Gas Pipeline)
|Runs alongside||Bukhara–Tashkent–Bishkek–Almaty pipeline, Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline|
|Partners||China National Petroleum Corporation
|Length||1,833 km (1,139 mi)|
|Maximum discharge||55 billion cubic metres per annum (1.9×1012 cu ft/a)|
|Diameter||1,067 mm (42 in)|
The initial proposal for Central Asia–China gas pipeline was presented as the Kazakhstan–China gas pipeline, which was to follow along the Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline. In June 2003, during China's President Hu Jintao's visit to Kazakhstan, agreements to expedite the appraisal of the project were signed. Following these agreements, KazMunayGas and PetroChina started a feasibility study of the pipeline project. At the same time China continued negotiations with other Central Asian countries.
On 3 April 2006, China and Turkmenistan signed a framework agreement on the pipeline construction and long-term gas supply. In June 2007, during his visit to China, Turkmeni President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow signed an accord to speed up implementation of the Turkmeni-Chinese gas pipeline project. On 30 April 2007, Uzbekistan and China signed an agreement on the construction and exploitation of the pipeline's Uzbekistan section. In July 2007, it was formally announced that Turkmenistan will join original Kazakhstan-China pipeline project. On 8 November 2007, Kazakhstan's oil company KazMunayGas signed an agreement with the China National Petroleum Corporation on principles of future work on the pipeline.
On 30 August 2007, the construction of the 188 kilometres (117 mi) long Turkmen section of the pipeline began. This section was built by Stroytransgaz, a subsidiary of Gazprom. Main contractors were China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau, China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation, and Zeromax. Construction of the Uzbek section started on 30 June 2008. It was built by Asia Trans Gas, a joint venture of Uzbekneftegas and CNPC. Construction works of the Kazakh section started on 9 July 2008 and the first stage was finished in July 2009. It was built by Asian Gas Pipeline company, a joint venture of CNPC and KazMunayGas. The main contractors of this section were KazStroyService and China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation. The first of the two initial parallel line were completed early November 2009.
The Kazakh section of the pipeline was inaugurated on 12 December 2009 during China's president Hu Jintao's visit to Kazakhstan. The whole pipeline was inaugurated on 14 December 2009 in a ceremony in Saman-Depe during Hu Jintao's visit to Turkmenistan with the leaders of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. On 13 June 2010 China and Kazakhstan signed an agreement on a branch line from Western Kazakhstan.
The second line was completed by the end of 2010. Construction of the third line began in 2012. It became operational on 15 June 2014, and is expected to reach the designed throughput of 25 billion cubic metres per annum (880×109 cu ft/a) in December 2015. The construction of a fourth line of the pipeline is expected to be launched at the end of 2014.
According to CNPC, the inflow of Turkmen gas helps China in meeting its energy demands and stabilizes the country's overall consumption structure. It was expected that the pipeline's deliveries boost the natural gas proportion of energy consumption of China by an estimated 2%, which reduces the overall smoke, dust and carbon dioxide emissions. For Turkmenistan, the project helps the country diversify its energy exports by delivering gas eastward as opposed to its previous deliveries to Russia and Iran. Until the inauguration of the pipeline, nearly 70% of Turkmenistan's gas exports transited through Russian pipelines. Central Asia–China gas pipeline is the first pipeline to bring Central Asian natural gas to China and highlights China's quest for Central Asian energy exports. While Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan are also considering selling their gas to China, Chinese government already made new moves to penetrate deeper into Central Asian energy sector by lending $3 billion to Turkmenistan to develop the South Iolotan field in 2009 and $10 billion to Kazakhstan to pay for future oil supplies.
The whole pipeline is about 1,833 kilometres (1,139 mi) long, of which 188 kilometres (117 mi) in Turkmenistan and 530 kilometres (330 mi) in Uzbekistan. The diameter of the pipeline is 1,067 millimetres (42.0 in). It consists of three parallel lines with combined total capacity of 55 billion cubic metres per annum (1.9×1012 cu ft/a) which would be reached by 2015. Construction of the first line cost US$7.3 billion. The pipeline project also includes the purification plant at Samand-Depe to remove high sulfur content of natural gas.
The pipeline starts in Saman-Depe carrying natural gas from the Bagtyyarlyk gas fields on the right bank of Amu Darya in Turkmenistan. It is mainly supplied from Iolotan and Sag Kenar fields. The pipeline enters Uzbekistan in Olot and runs across Uzbekistan to southern Kazakhstan parallel to the existing Bukhara–Tashkent–Bishkek–Almaty pipeline. The pipeline crosses the Kazakhstan–China border at Khorgos, where it is connected to the second West–East Gas Pipeline.
In Shymkent, the pipeline will be linked with the 1,400-kilometre (870 mi) branch line from Beyneu in western Kazakhstan. It will supply natural gas from the Karachaganak, Tengiz and Kashagan gas fields. The branch line will have a capacity of 15 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. It will be commissioned in 2014.
- Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline
- Central Asia – Center gas pipeline system
- Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline
- Energy policy of China
- Energy security of China
- "China, Kazakhstan Discuss Cross-border Gas Pipeline". China Daily. 2004-08-25. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- Daniel Kimmage (2006-04-10). "Central Asia: Turkmenistan-China Pipeline Project Has Far-Reaching Implications". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- "Analysis: Turkmen Gas Deal Extends Chinese Influence". BBC Monitoring Central Asia (Downstream Today). 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- "Uzbekistan and China to build gas pipeline". Caucaz.com. 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- "Turkmenistan to join China, Kazakhstan pipeline project – KazMunaiGas EP CEO". Forbes. AFX News. 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- Maria Golovnina (2007-11-08). "Kazakhstan, China agree to press ahead with pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "Turkmen break ground on China pipe". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2007-08-30. (subscription required). Retrieved 2007-09-09.
- Marat Gurt (2008-02-19). "Russian company wins Turkmen China pipeline tender". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "Kazakhstan: Workers Complete Section of Turkmenistan-China Pipeline". Eurasianet. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline To Start Service Next Year". Asiaport Daily News (Downstream Today). 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline, Turkmenistan to China". hydrocarbons-technology.com (hydrocarbons-technology.com). 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
- "Kazakhstan gets cracking on China pipe". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2008-07-09. (subscription required). Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- "Beijing digs in with Kazakh pipes". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). 2008-04-09. (subscription required). Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- "Construction cost of Kazakhstan to China gas pipeline increases". Steel Guru. 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
- "CNPC To Build Phase II Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline". Downstream Today. Xinhua. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
- Nurshayeva, Raushan; Zhumatov, Shamil (2009-12-12). "China's Hu boosts energy ties with Central Asia". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
- Gurt, Marat (2009-12-14). "China extends influence into C.Asia with pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- Wan Zhihong (2010-06-14). "China, Kazakhstan sign new gas pipeline deal". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "Construction on third line begins for Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline". Pipelines International. March 2012. Retrieved 2013-16-14.
- "China, Central Asian countries open 3rd gas line". Business Recorder. June 16, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-20.
- "Central Asia Pipeline to Secure Gas for China". ChinaStakes. 2008-07-02. Retrieved 2009-02-24.
- Philip H. de Leon (2009-12-22). "China secures gas from Turkmenistan: Who's the real winner?". Resource Investor. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
- Gorst, Isabel; Dyer, Geoff (2009-12-14). "Pipeline brings Asian gas to China". Financial Times. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- "China National Petroleum subsidiaries to pay billions for Central Asia gas pipeline". The China Post. 2007-12-30. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
- "Turkmenistan's Producers – The Gas Sector". APS Review Gas Market Trends. 2008-09-22. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
- Ögütçü, Mehmet (2006-10-02). "Kazakhstan's expanding cross-border gas links. Implications for Europe, Russia, China and other CIS countries" (PDF). Windsor Energy Group's Regional Pipelines Roundtable. Almaty: The Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy at the University of Dundee. Retrieved 2007-07-27.
- "2nd West-East gas pipeline project in construction". People's Daily. 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- Sharip, Farkhad (2007-12-21). "China secures new access to Kazakh oil". Eurasia Daily Monitor (The Jamestown Foundation). Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- Watkins, Eric (2010-06-18). "China, Kazakhstan sign accords for gas, uranium". Oil % Gas Journal (PennWell Corporation). Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- "CNPC, JV Partner to Build 2nd Phase of China-Kazakh Pipeline". Asia Pulse (Downstream Today). 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Franz, Paris (2010-06-13). "China, Kazakhstan agree deals on gas, nuclear energy". DigitalJournal.com. Retrieved 2010-06-20.
- Chow, Edward, "Central Asia’s Pipelines: Field of Dreams and Reality," in Pipeline Politics in Asia: The Intersection of Demand, Energy Markets, and Supply Routes (National Bureau of Asian Research, 2010)
- Kazakhstan's Gas: Export Markets and Export Routes, by Shamil Yenikeyeff, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, November 2008
- Noriko Yodogawa & Alexander M. Peterson, "An Opportunity for Progress: China, Central Asia, and the Energy Charter Treaty", 8 Texas Journal of Oil, Gas, and Energy Law 111 (2013).