Central Bikol language

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Coastal Bikol
bicolano central
Native to Philippines
Region Bicol
Native speakers
unknown (2.5 million cited 1990 census)[1]
7th most spoken native language in the Philippines[2]
Latin (Bikol alphabet)
Bikol Braille
Historically Baybayin
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated by Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-3 bcl
Glottolog cent2087[3]

Central Bikol or commonly called as Coastal Bikol is the most-spoken language in the Bicol region of southern Luzon, Philippines. It is spoken in the northern and western part of Camarines Sur, second congressional district of Camarines Norte, eastern part of Albay, northeastern part of Sorsogon, San Pascual town in Masbate, and southwestern part of Catanduanes. The standard Sprachraum form is based on the Canaman dialect.

Coastal Bikol dialects[edit]

Bikol-Naga, a dialect of Coastal Bikol based in Canaman, Camarines Sur and the foundation of Standard Bikol, along with Bikol-Legazpi, based in Legazpi City, are plainly understood by most Bikol speakers. It is spoken in the first and second districts of Camarines Sur (except in Del Gallego, where residents are mostly Tagalog speakers) and in San Pascual, Masbate.

Bikol-Legazpi is spoken in the eastern coast of Albay and northern Sorsogon.

Other common dialects include Bikol-Daet, spoken in Daet and adjacent towns in Camarines Norte, and Bikol-Partido, spoken in the 4th District of Camarines Sur and in Virac, San Andres and southern part of Caramoran in Catanduanes.

Dialectal comparison with other Bikol languages[edit]

Central Bikol (Standard dialect of Coastal Bikol based in Canaman) Bikol-Naga dialect Bikol-Partido dialect Bikol-Legazpi dialect Bikol-Virac dialect Bikol-Daet dialect Rinconada Bikol language or Riŋkonāda
(Inland Bikol)
Sorsoganon language
Tâdaw ta dae luminayog an bayong ni Pedro dawà na dae nin kandado si hawla? Tanô daw ta dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro dawà na mayò nin kandado si hawla? Hadaw ta `e naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski `e nin kandado su hawla? Natà ta dai naglayog an bayong ni Pedro maski daing kandado su hawla? Ngata ta dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski dai nin kandado an hawla? Bakin dai naglayog an gamgam ni Pedro maski mayong kandado si hawla? Ta'onō / Ta ŋātâ ta dirî naglayog adtoŋ bayoŋ ni Pedro dāwâ ədâ kandādo su laə̄man? Nakay daw kay dire naglayog an tamsi ni Pedro maski wara kandado an hawla?

Like other Philippine languages, Bikol has a number of loanwords, largely Spanish as a result of 333 years of Spanish rule in the Philippines. This includes suerte (luck), karne (carne, meat), imbestigador (investigador, investigator), litro (liter), pero (but), and krimen (crimen, crime). Another source of loanwords is Sanskrit, with words like hade (king) and karma.



  Absolutive Ergative Oblique
1st person singular ako ko sakuya, sako, kanako, saako
2nd person singular ika, ka mo saimo, si-mo, kanimo
3rd person singular siya, iya niya saiya, kaniya
1st person plural inclusive kita nyato, ta satuya, sato, kanato, saato
1st person plural exclusive kami nyamo, mi samuya, samo, kanamo, saamo
2nd person plural kamo nindo saindo, kaninyo, saiyo
3rd person plural sinda ninda sainda, kanira


Like many other Philippine languages, Bikol has a rich set of discourse particles.

  • bagá – expresses doubt or hesitation
  • bayâ – giving a chance to someone; polite insisting
  • daa – (Tagalog: daw) quoting information from a secondary source
  • daw – (Tagalog: ba/kaya) interrogative particle
  • garo – (Tagalog: mukhang, parang) likeness or similitude. English: "It looks like, it's as if."
  • gáyo – "exactly"
  • daing gáyo – "not exactly, not really"
  • gayód / nanggayod – (Tagalog: bakâ) "maybe, could be"
  • giráray / liwát – (Tagalog: [m]uli) "again"
  • kutá-na / kutâ – "I hope (something did / did not happen" ; "If only ..." (conditionality of past events)
  • lang / lámang / saná – (Tagalog: lang) "only, just"
  • lugód – hoping that something will happen, or expressing surrender
  • man – (Tagalog: din, rin) "also" or "ever" (such as ano man 'whatever' and siisay man 'whoever')
  • mú-na / ngó-na – (Tagalog: muna) "first" or "yet"
  • na – (Tagalog: na) "now" or "already"
  • naman – (Tagalog: naman) "again"
  • nanggad / mananggad – (Tagalog: talaga, nga) "really, truly, absolutely" (adds a sense of certainty)
  • nyako – "I said"
  • ngani – expresses fate ("This is helpless") or a plea for others not to insist
  • ngantig – reports something one has said to a third person
  • ngapit – "then," "in case," "during/while" (span of time)
  • ngaya – politeness in requesting information ("so," "let's see")
  • pa – (Tagalog: pa) "still"
  • palán – (Tagalog: pala) expresses surprise or sudden realization
  • po – (Tagalog: po) politeness marker; "tabí" in some Bikol dialects
  • túlos / túlos-túlos – (Tagalog: agad-agad) "immediately, right away"

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bikol at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Central Bicolano". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 


  • Lobel, Jason William, Wilmer Joseph S Tria, and Jose Maria Z Carpio. 2000. An satuyang tataramon / A study of the Bikol language. Naga City, Philippines: Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.: Holy Rosary Minor Seminary.

External links[edit]