Central Columbia School District

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Central Columbia School District
Map of Columbia County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Map of Columbia County, Pennsylvania School Districts, with Central Columbia School District in blue in the center of the county.
Address
4777 Old Berwick Road
Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania, Columbia County, 17815-3515
United States
Information
School board 9 locally elected members
Superintendent Harry Mathias salary $120,408 (2012)[1]
School number (570)784-2850
Administrator Ms Annette M Lowery, Business Manager

Fish, Christina, Special Education Supervisor $85,032
Mathias, Bridget Supervisor $69,521
Dwayne Prosceno, Director of Buildings and Grounds
Tracy Krum, Curriculum Coordinator
Kimberly MacDonald, Food Services Director
John Monick, Technology Director

Principal Groshek, Jeffrey HS, salary $105,215 (2012)
Principal Heintzelman, Chad MS, salary $93,112
Principal Sharrow, Thomas ES, salary $92,984
Vice principal Carla Sauer, Elementary/Middle School Assistant Principal
Vice principal Christopher Snyder, High School Assistant Principal
Staff 126 non teaching staff members
Faculty 138 teachers (2011)
Grades K-12
Pupils 1,841 pupils (2012),[2] 1,931 pupils (2011), 1,964 pupils (2010), 1,989 pupils (2009), 2,132 pupils (2005)[3]
Kindergarten 139 (2012)[4]
Grade 1 130
Grade 2 138
Grade 3 136
Grade 4 147
Grade 5 150
Grade 6 160
Grade 7 142
Grade 8 141
Grade 9 126
Grade 10 135
Grade 11 149
Grade 12 147
Color(s) Blue and Silver
Mascot Fighting Bluejay
Budget $24,813,401 (2011-12)[5]
Per pupil spending $9,991 (2008)
Per pupil spending $11,529.80 (2010)
Website

The Central Columbia School District is a small, rural, public school district that serves the Borough of Orangeville and Mifflin Township, Mount Pleasant Township, North Centre Township, Orange Township, Scott Township and South Centre Township in Columbia County, Pennsylvania. The District is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania. The Central Columbia School District encompasses approximately 77 square miles (200 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, the District served a resident population of 14,107. By 2010, the District's population increased to 14,833 people.[6] In 2009, the District residents' per capita income was $20,989, while the median family income was $47,805.[7] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 [8] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[9] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[10]

According to Central Columbia School District officials, in school year 2007–08, reported the District provided basic educational services to 2,128 pupils. The District employed: 154 teachers, 112 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 13 administrators. Central Columbia School District received over $9.6 million in state funding during the school year 2007–08. In school year 2009-10, the Central Columbia School District provided basic educational services to 1,993 pupils. The District employed: 156 teachers, 112 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 13 administrators. Central Columbia School District received more than $9.5 million in state funding in school year 2009-10.

Central Columbia School District operates three schools: Central Columbia High School (9th–12th), Central Columbia Middle School (5th–8th) and Central Columbia Elementary School (K–4th). In May 2013, Superintendent Mathias completed a staffing/enrollment report and made revised staffing recommendations. The report was based on a comparison of current enrollment figures and enrollment figures from 2007. The comparison showed an overall decline of 3% in the elementary school, decline of 16.5% in the middle school enrollment and a decline of 17.5% in the high school's enrollment. Mr. Mathias then pointed out an increase in staff of 5.9% in the elementary school (full-day kindergarten), a reduction in staff of 14.4% in the middle school (not replacing teachers who retired), and 5.7% reduction in the high school.[11]

Central Columbia High School students may choose to attend Columbia-Montour Area Vocational-Technical School which provides training in the trades. The Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit IU16 provides the District with a wide variety of services like specialized education for disabled students and hearing, speech and visual disability services and professional development for staff and faculty.

Overview[edit]

According to the 2003 data collected by Standard & Poor's, 18.4% of students are economically disadvantaged, 13.1% receive special education services and 71.1% of students pass the state-mandated testing. The district spent about $6,999 per student.[12] The middle school was renovated in 2006 to 2007.

Governance[edit]

The school district is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serving four-year terms), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[13] The federal government controls programs it funds like Title I funding for low-income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandates the district focus resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills. The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regarding renewal of the employment contract.

The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives Sunshine Review gave the school board and district administration a "D–" for transparency based on a review of "What information can people find on their school district's website". It examined the school district's website for information regarding; taxes, the current budget, meetings, school board members names and terms, contracts, audits, public records information, and more.[14]

Academic achievement[edit]

In 2014, Central Columbia School District ranked 121st out of 496 Pennsylvania public school districts, by the Pittsburgh Business Times. The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[15] Three school districts were excluded because they do not operate high schools (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades.

  • 2013 - 179th[16]
  • 2012 - 196th[17]
  • 2011 - 168th[18]
  • 2010 – 162nd[19]
  • 2009 – 189th
  • 2008 – 192nd
  • 2007 – 146th of 501 school districts for student academic achievement.[20]
Overachiever statewide ranking

In 2013, the Pittsburgh Business Times reported an Overachievers Ranking for 498 Pennsylvania school districts. Central Columbia School District ranked 371st. The paper describes the ranking as: "the ranking answers the question—which school districts do better than expectations based upon economics? This rank takes the Honor Roll rank and adds the percentage of students in the district eligible for free and reduced-price lunch into the formula. A district finishing high on this rank is smashing expectations, and any district above the median point is exceeding expectations."[21]

  • 2011 - 431st
  • 2010 - 383rd
  • 2009 - 427th

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2011 and 2012, Central Columbia School District achieved AYP status.[22] In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[23] School District achieved AYP status each year from 2004 to 2010, while in 2003 the Central Columbia School District was in Warning status due to lagging student achievement.[24]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2013, Central Columbia High School graduation rate was 86%.[25] In 2012, Central Columbia High School graduation rate was 87% and in 2011 the graduation rate was 86%[26] Central Columbia High School's rate was 80% for 2010.[27]

Former AYP graduation rate:

  • 2010 – 96%[28]
  • 2009 – 96%
  • 2008 – 95%[29]
  • 2007 – 95%[30]

High school[edit]

Central Columbia High School is located at 4777 Old Berwick Road, Bloomsburg. In 2013, the School's enrollment declined to 558 pupils in grades 9th through 12th, with 20% eligible for a federal free or reduced price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. According to the administration, 12.9% of pupils received special education services. Additionally, 4.4% of pupils were identified as gifted. According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1% of teachers who were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[31]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2010, Central Columbia High School reported an enrollment of 613 pupils in grades 9th through 12th, with 83 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. The school is a federally Title I school. The school employed 46.5 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 13:1.[32] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 20 classes were taught by teachers who were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[33]

Central Columbia High School was ranked 76th out of 609 Pennsylvania high schools for combined 2006 PSSA scores for 11th graders.[34] In 2010 and 2011 the school achieved AYP status.[35]

2013 School Performance Profile

Central Columbia High School achieved 84.3 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 86% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 79% showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology, 79% showed on grade level science understanding.[36] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. Pennsylvania 11th grade students no longer take the PSSAs. Instead, they now take the Keystone Exams at the end of the associated course.[37]

PSSA results

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade year.[38]

11th grade Reading
  • 2012 - 78% on grade level, (10% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[39]
  • 2011 - 78% (9% below basic). State - 69.1%[40] Of the 18 CSIU16 region high schools, Central Columbia High School ranked 3rd for reading achievement.[41]
  • 2010 - 78%, State - 67%. Of the 18 CSIU16 region high schools, Central Columbia High School ranked 5th for reading achievement.[42]
  • 2009 - 83%, State - 65%. Of the CSIU16 region high schools, Central Columbia High School ranked 3rd for reading achievement.[43]
  • 2008 - 78%, State - 65%
  • 2007 - 76%, State - 65%[44]
11th grade math
  • 2012 - 67% on grade level (18% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[45]
  • 2011 - 69.4% (13% below basic). State - 60.3%. Of the 18 high schools in Central Susquehanna IU16, Central Columbia High School ranked 5th for math achievement of 11th graders.[46]
  • 2010 - 65%, State - 59%. Of the 18 high schools in Central Susquehanna IU16, Central Columbia High School ranked 8th for math achievement of 11th graders.[47]
  • 2009 - 74%, State - 56%. Of the Central Susquehanna IU16 high schools, Central Columbia High School ranked 2nd for math achievement of 11th graders.[48]
  • 2008 - 60%, State - 56%
  • 2007 - 67%, State - 53%
11th grade science
  • 2012 - 64% on grade level (5% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[49]
  • 2011 - 50% (5% below basic). State - 40%. Of the Central Susquehanna IU16 high schools, Central Columbia High School ranked 7th for Science achievement of 11th graders.
  • 2010 - 51%, State - 39% of 11th graders were on grade level.[50]
  • 2009 - 61%, State - 40%
  • 2008 - 54%, State - 35.5%[51]
  • 2007 - tested scores withheld from public.

Science in Motion Central Columbia High School and Middle School took advantage of a state program called Science in Motion which brought college professors and sophisticated science equipment to the school to raise science awareness and to provide inquiry-based experiences for the students. The Science in Motion program was funded by a state appropriation and cost the school nothing to participate.[52] Susquehanna University provided the science enrichment experiences to schools in the region.

College remediation[edit]

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 14% of Central Columbia High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges.[53] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[54] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading, or English.

Graduation requirements[edit]

Among Pennsylvania's 500 public school districts, graduation requirements widely vary. The Central Columbia School Board has determined that a pupil must earn 24 credits to graduate, including: a required classes in: math, English, social studies, science, Physical Education and electives.

By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students were required to complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[55] Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania State Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[56]

By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2017, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the Keystone Exams.[57][58][59] For the class of 2019, a composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[60] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 38% on grade level, Biology 35% on grade level and English Lit - 49% on grade level.[61] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2013, Central Columbia School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 499. The Math average score was 506. The Writing average score was 490. The College Board reported that statewide scores were: 494 in reading, 504 in math and 482 in writing. The nation-wide SAT results were the same as in 2012.[62]

In 2012, 125 Central Columbia School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 505. The Math average score was 510. The Writing average score was 478. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 114 Central Columbia School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 492. The Math average score was 498. The Writing average score was 475.[63] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479.[64] In the United States, 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[65]

Advanced Placement[edit]

Advanced Placement (AP) courses are offered in English, mathematics, history, and science. In 2005 70 students took courses and 140 tests were taken.

  • English – 74.2% earned a 3 or better (state – 67.2%)
  • Mathematics – 78% earned a 3 or better (state – 72.3%)
  • History – 68.4% earned a 3 or better (state – 66.9%)
  • Science – 73.3% earned a 3 or better (state – 64.8%)[66]

In 2013, the High School offered 5 AP courses at a higher cost than the other high school classes. Students have the option of taking College Board approved courses and then taking the College Board's examination in the Spring. Students, who achieve a 3 or better on the exam, may be awarded college credits at US universities and colleges. Each higher education institution sets its own standards about what level of credits are awarded to a student based on their AP exam score. Most higher education give credits for scores of 4 or 5. Some schools also give credits for scores of 3. High schools give credits towards graduation to students who take the school's AP class. At Central Columbia High School 53% of students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam.[67]

Dual enrollment[edit]

Central Columbia High School offers a dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school. The courses do not count towards high school graduation requirements, but only towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate to a pre-determined number of students. The state offers a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books.[68] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[69] The Pennsylvania College Credit Transfer System reported in 2009, that students saved nearly $35.4 million by having their transferred credits count towards a degree under the new system.[70] For the 2009–10 funding year, Central Columbia School District received a state grant of $4,908 for the program. In 2010, Governor Edward Rendell eliminated the grants to students, from the Commonwealth, due to a state budget crisis. Under state rules, other students that reside in the district, who attend a private school, a charter school or are homeschooled are eligible to participate in this program.[71]

ACE[edit]

Central Columbia School District students have access to Bloomsburg University's Summer College and Advanced College Experience (ACE) during the summer of their sophomore, junior and senior years (after high school graduation). Tuition is deeply discounted to 75% of the regular student rate.[72] Successful students earn college credits that can be transferred to other Pennsylvania public colleges and universities through the Pennsylvania TRAC system.[73]

Middle school[edit]

Central Columbia Middle School is located at 4777 Old Berwick Road, Bloomsburg. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011, the school reported an enrollment of 597 pupils in grades 5th through 8th, with 138 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced-price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 43.5 teachers, yielding a student–teacher ratio of 13:1. The school is a federally designated Title I school.[74] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 1 teacher was rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[75]

In 2012, Central Columbia Middle School achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP).[76] In 2011, the School declined to "Warning AYP Status" due to declining student achievement. In 2010, the School achieved AYP status. The attendance rate was 96% in 2011 and was 95% in 2010.[77]

PSSA Results
8th grade Science
  • 2012 - 66% on grade level (18% below basic). State - 59%
  • 2011 – 63% (20% below basic). State – 58.3%
  • 2010 – 62%, State - 57%
  • 2009 – 69%. State - 55%
  • 2008 – 72%, State - 52%

Elementary school[edit]

Central Columbia Elementary School is located at. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, the school reported an enrollment of 743 pupils in grades kindergarten through 5th, with 33% of its pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price lunch due to family poverty. The school is a federally designated Title I school. The school employed 48 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 15:1.[92] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Non‐Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[93] The school provides full day kindergarten to all its pupils.[94]

2013 School Performance Profile

Central Columbia Elementary School achieved a score of 90.2 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012-13, only 77.7% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd and 4th. In 3rd grade, 78.8% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 88% of the pupils in 3rd and 4th grades were on grade level. In 4th grade science, just 89.7% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding.[95]

In 2012, Central Columbia Elementary School remained in School Improvement I AYP status missing all metrics in reading.[96] In 2011, Central Columbia Elementary School declined to School Improvement I AYP status due to significantly declining student achievement. The school administration was required, by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to prepare and submit for approval a School Improvement Plan. In 2010, the school was in Warning status due to low student achievement.[97] The attendance rate was 96% in both 2010 and 2011.

4th grade Science
  • 2012 - 92%, 57% advanced. State - 82%
  • 2011 – 90%, 50% advanced. State – 82.9%
  • 2010 – 93.1%, State – 81%
  • 2009 – 86.9%, State – 83%
  • 2008 – 86.6%, State – 81%

Special education[edit]

In December 2011, the Central Columbia School District administration reported that 295 pupils or 14.4% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 48.8% of the identified students having a specific learning disability.[103] In December 2009, the District administration reported that 278 pupils or 13% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 48.6% of the identified students having a specific learning disability. Special education services in the Commonwealth are provided to students from ages three years to 21 years old. In the 2010-11 school year, the total student enrollment was more than 1.78 million students with approximately 275,000 students eligible for special education services. Among these students 18,959 were identified with mental retardation and 21,245 students with autism.[104] The largest group of students are identified as Specific Learning Disabilities 126,026 students (46.9 percent) and Speech or Language Impairments with 43,542 students (16.2 percent).

In order to comply with state and federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act rules and regulations, the school district engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress .[105] To identify students who may be eligible for special education services, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Special Education administration. If screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the Central Columbia School District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the district's Special Education Department.[106][107] The IDEA 2004 requires each school entity to publish a notice to parents, in newspapers or other media, including the student handbook and website regarding the availability of screening and intervention services and how to access them.

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[108] The Special Education funding structure is through the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds and state appropriations. IDEA funds are appropriated to the state on an annual basis and distributed through intermediate units (IUs) to school districts, while state funds are distributed directly to the districts. Total funds that are received by school districts are calculated through a formula. The Pennsylvania Department of Education oversees four appropriations used to fund students with special needs: Special Education; Approved Private Schools; Pennsylvania Chartered Schools for the Deaf and Blind; and Early Intervention. The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[109] Over identification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[110] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[111] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive that schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[112]

The Central Columbia School District received a $1,112,337 supplement for special education services in 2010.[113] For the 2011-12, 2012–13 and 2013-14 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010-11. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[114][115] Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The District must apply for this added funding.

Gifted education[edit]

The District Administration reported that 69 or 3.47% of its students were gifted in 2009. The highest percentage of gifted students reported among all 500 public school districts and 100 public charter schools in Pennsylvania was North Allegheny School District with 15.5% of its students identified as gifted.[116] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[117][118]

Wellness policy[edit]

Central Columbia School Board established a district wellness policy in 2006 called Policy 246.[119] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age-appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108–265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq.) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006". However, the only observable change that has come out of this "plan" is that students are now denied the privilege of bringing food into class for any reason, be it holiday, birthday, etc. However, the school's lunch menu continues to include unhealthy items such as pizza, hamburgers, French fries, and cake.

The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education, physical activity, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low-nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[120] The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Central Columbia School District offers a free school breakfast and free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the school can eat breakfast and lunch. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level are provided a breakfast and lunch at no cost to the family. Children from families with incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the federal poverty level can be charged no more than 30 cents per breakfast. A foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of the State or who is placed by a court with a caretaker household is eligible for both a free breakfast and a free lunch. Runaway, homeless and Migrant Youth are also automatically eligible for free meals.[121] The meals are partially funded with federal dollars through the United States Department of Agriculture.[122]

In 2013, the USDA issued new restrictions to foods in public schools. The rules apply to foods and beverages sold on all public school district campuses during the day. They limit vending machine snacks to a maximum of 200 calories per item. Additionally, all snack foods sold at school must meet competitive nutrient standards, meaning they must have fruits, vegetables, dairy or protein in them or contain at least 10 percent of the daily value of fiber, calcium, potassium, and Vitamin D.[123] In order to comply with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 all US public school districts are required to raise the price of their school lunches to $2.60 regardless of the actual cost of providing the lunch.[124]

Central Columbia School District provides health services as mandated by the Commonwealth and the federal government. Nurses are available in each building to conduct annual health screenings (data reported to the PDE and state Department of Health) and to dispense prescribed medications to students during the school day. Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health’s extensive immunization mandates. School nurses monitor each pupil for this compliance.[125] Nurses also monitor each child's weight.

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[126]

In 2012, the average teacher salary in Central Columbia School District was $57,014.68 a year, while the cost of the benefits teachers received was $15,494 per employee, for a total annual average teacher compensation of $72,509.[127] The District employed 150 teachers with an average salary of $58,107 and a top salary of $120,408.[128]

In 2009, Central Columbia School District reported employing 160 teachers and administrators with a median salary of $56,049 and a top salary of $110,000.[129] The teacher’s work day is 7.5 hours with 180 student days (185 total days) in the contract year. Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance (teachers pay 13% of the costs of their health insurance), vision insurance, dental insurance, professional development reimbursement, 2 paid personal days, at least 10 paid sick days, paid death leave, a paid emergency day and other benefits. Department heads and grade group leaders receive additional compensation.[130]

In 2007, Central Columbia School District employed 138 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $51,143 for 180 days worked. The district's average teacher salary was the second highest of all the Columbia County school districts in 2007.[131]

Per pupil spending Central Columbia School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 were $612.80 per pupil. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[132] In 2005, the school board awarded a five-year contract to Harry C Mathias, Jr., with an initial salary of $95,500; and an annual raise of $3,000–$5,000. Additionally, Mathais receives an extensive benefits package. Mathais pays 5% of the cost of his health insurance.[133] On July 20, 2009, the school board voted to extend Mathias' contract beginning July 1, 2010, and ending June 30, 2015.[134]

In 2008, the Central Columbia School District administration reported that per pupil spending was $9,991 which ranked 478th among Pennsylvania's then 501 public school districts. In 2010, the District’s per pupil spending had increased to $11,529.80.[135] In 2011, Pennsylvania’s per pupil spending was $13,467, ranking 6th in the United States.[136] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[137]

The U.S. Census Bureau reported that Pennsylvania spent $8,191 per pupil in school year 2000-01.[138] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[139] Among the fifty states, Pennsylvania’s total per pupil revenue (including all sources) ranked 11th at $15,023 per student, in 2008-09.[140] Pennsylvania’s total revenue per pupil rose to $16,186 ranking 9th in the nation in 2011.[141]

Reserves In 2008, the Central Columbia School District reported an unreserved designated fund balance of $703,500.00 and an unreserved undesignated fund balance of $5,215,089.00.[142] In 2010, Central Columbia School District Administration reported $3,602,538 in the unreserved-undesignated fund balance. The District also reported $5,138,500 in its unreserved-designated fund in 2010. IN 2012, Central Columbia School District reported $10,915,161 in reserves.[143] Pennsylvania public school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[144] By 2013, reserves held by Pennsylvania public school districts, as a whole, had increased to over $3.8 billion.[145]

Audit In January 2012, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the District. The findings were reported to the School Board and the District’s administration.[146]

Tuition Students who live in the District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Central Columbia School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the District's schools. The 2012 tuition rates are Elementary School - $7,756.21, High School - $8,718.57.[147]

The Central Columbia School District is funded by a combination of: a local income tax 1.05%, a property tax, per capita taxes, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. In Pennsylvania, pension income and social security income is exempt from both state income tax and local earned income taxes regardless of income level.[148]

State basic education funding[edit]

For the 2013-14 school year, the Central Columbia School District received a 1.7% increase or $6,128,263 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $104,776 more than its 2012-13 state BEF to the District. Additionally, Central Columbia School District received $96,858 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Columbia County, Southern Columbia Area School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 2.1%. The District has the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[149] The state funded the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[150]

For the 2012-13 school year, the Central Columbia School District received $6,023,487.[151] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Central Columbia School District received $96,858 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[152] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In 2011–12, the Central Columbia School District received $6,023,487 in state Basic Education Funding.[153][154] Additionally, the district will receive $96,858 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget includes $5,354,629,000 for the 2011–2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount is a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010–2011. The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011–12.[155] Districts experienced a reduction in funding due to the loss of federal stimulus funding which ended in 2011.

For the 2010–11 school year, Central Columbia School District received a 4.90% increase in state basic education funding for a total of $6,610,621. One hundred fifty Pennsylvania school districts received the base 2% increase. The highest increase in Columbia County was awarded to Southern Columbia Area School District at 7.38%. Among Pennsylvania school districts, the highest increase in 2010–11 went to Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County which received a 23.65% increase in state funding.[156] The amount of increase each school district received was determined by then Governor Edward Rendell and the Secretary of Education, Gerald Zahorchak, through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year.[157] In 2010, the Central Columbia School District reported that 446 pupils received a free or reduced-price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.

In the 2009–2010 budget year the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 4.62% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $6,301,630. The state Basic Education Funding to the district in 2008–09 was $6,023,486.79. Among Columbia County school districts, the largest increase a 6.11%, went to Berwick Area School District. In Pennsylvania, fifteen school districts received basic education funding increases over 10% in 2009. The largest increase went to Muhlenberg School District of Berks County which received 22.31% increase in 2009–10.[158] The amount of increase each school district receives is set by the Governor and the Secretary of Education as a part of the state budget proposal given each February.[159]

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 446 students received free or reduced-price lunches due to low family income in the 2007–2008 school year.[160]

Accountability Block Grant[edit]

The state provides additional education funding to schools in the form of Accountability Block Grants. The use of these funds is strictly focused on specific state approved uses designed to improve student academic achievement. Central Columbia School District uses its $262,897 to fund extending the school day/year, literacy and math instruction coaching for teachers, and tutoring before and after school and on weekends. These annual funds are in addition to the state's basic education funding and all federal funding.[161] School Districts apply each year for Accountability Block Grants.[162] In 2009–10, the state provided $271.4 million in Accountability Block grants $199.5 million went to providing all-day kindergartens.[163]

Classrooms for the Future Grant[edit]

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Mathematics) and paid for mandatory teacher training to optimize the computers' use in the classroom for improving instruction. The program was funded from 2006–2009. Central Columbia School District administration did not apply for the grant in 2006–07. In 2007–08, the district received $203,921 in funding. For the 2008–09, school year the district received a final $45,413 for a total funding of $249,334. Of the 501 public school districts in Pennsylvania, 447 of them received Classrooms for the Future grant awards.[164]

Education Assistance grant[edit]

The state's EAP funding provides for the continuing support of tutoring services and other programs to address the academic needs of eligible students. Funds are available to eligible school districts and full-time career and technology centers (CTC) in which one or more schools have failed to meet at least one academic performance target, as provided for in Section 1512-C of the Pennsylvania Public School Code. In 2010–11 the Central Columbia School District did not apply for funding.[165]

Federal stimulus funding[edit]

The Central Columbia School District received an extra $1,228,778 in ARRA—Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[166] The funding is for the 2009–2011 school years.

Race to the Top Grant[edit]

School district officials did not apply for the Race to the Top federal grant. When approved for the grant, the district would have received hundreds of thousands of additional federal dollars for improving student academic achievement.[167] Several Lackawanna County school districts applied for funding. Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success.[168] In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[169] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. According to former Governor Ed Rendell, failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[170]

Common Cents state initiative[edit]

The Central Columbia School District School Board chose to not participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program. The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars.[171] After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes.

Real estate taxes[edit]

The Central Columbia School Board set the property taxes rate at 37.5231 mills for the 2011–12 school year.[172] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate—i.e., land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions, and government property. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. Additionally, service related, disabled U.S. military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes.

Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources:

  • Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75–85%) of local revenues
  • Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[173]

Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the Commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.

  • 2010–11: 35.5790 mills[174]
  • 2009-10 - 34.3100 mills.[175]
  • 2008-09 - 34.3100 mills.[176]
  • 2007-08 - 32.3200 mills.[177]

Act 1 adjusted index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not allowed to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2010–2011 school year is 2.9 percent, but it can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increasing rising health care costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[178]

The School District Adjusted Index for the Central Columbia School District 2006–2007 through 2012–2013.[179]

For the 2014-15 budget year, the Central Columbia School Board applied for an exception to exceed their Act 1 Index limit due to special education costs. For the school budget 2014-15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[185]

For the 2013-14 budget year, the Central Columbia School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit: for special education costs and for the escalating costs of the teacher pension. For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[186]

For the 2012-13 budget year, the Central Columbia School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index: special education costs and the rapid growth in teacher pension costs. For 2012-2013 budget year, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; while 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[187]

For the 2011–12 school year, the Central Columbia School Board applied for two exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index: teacher pension costs and special education costs. Each year the Central Columbia School Board has the option of adopting either:

  • A resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index
  • A preliminary budget in February

A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index. A specific timeline for these decisions is publisher each year by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[188]

According to a state report, for the 2011–2012 school year budgets, 247 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; 250 school districts adopted a preliminary budget. Of the 250 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget, 231 adopted real estate tax rates that exceeded their index. Tax rate increases in the other 19 school districts that adopted a preliminary budget did not exceed the school district’s index. Of the districts who sought exceptions 221 used the pension costs exemption and 171 sought a Special Education costs exemption. Only one school district sought an exemption for Nonacademic School Construction Project, while another sought an exception for Electoral debt for school construction.[189]

In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index; approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.[190]

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2010, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Central Columbia School District was $90 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 4,026 property owners applied for the tax relief. In Columbia County, Benton Area School District received the highest relief at $225 for 2010. In 2009, Central Columbia School District was allotted $91 for 3,951 homesteads/farmsteads. The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. In Columbia County 71% of eligible property owners applied for tax relief in 2009.[191] Pennsylvania awarded the highest property tax relief to residents of the Chester-Upland School District in Delaware County at $632 per homestead and farmstead in 2010.[192] This was the second year they were the top recipient.

Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently individuals who make substantially more than $35,000 may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate.

Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the United States in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[193]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Central Columbia High School offers many extracurricular activities to its students. It has many clubs, including foreign language clubs, band, chorus, and community service clubs. Students may participate in a variety of athletic teams throughout the school year. The district is a member of the Pennsylvania Heartland Athletic Conference for all athletics and participates under the rules and guidelines of the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association. Central Columbia School Board has published eligibility rules for participation in extracurriculars and sports.[194][195]

The school's mascot is a Blue Jay. The official colors for the school are red, white, and blue; however red has been substituted across the board by silver/grey, such as the football team's helmets, which are a silver.

The District employs an athletic director, assistant director and a trainer.[196] Academic Eligibility is reviewed on a weekly basis.[197] According to Pennsylvania’s Safety in Youth Sports Act, all sports coaches, paid and volunteer, are required to annually complete the Concussion Management Certification Training and present the certification before coaching.[198]

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students in the Central Columbia School District, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school, and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs, including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[199]

Sports[edit]

The district funds an extensive interscholastic athletics program.[200][201]

Varsity
Middle School Sports

According to PIAA directory July 2013 [202]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PDE, ED Names and Addresses, 2012
  2. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Central Columbia School District Fast Facts 2013". 
  3. ^ PDE, Enrollment and Projections by LEA, 2009
  4. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Enrollment and Projections by LEA and School, 2012
  5. ^ Central Columbia School District Administration, Central Columbia School District Budget Report, 2012
  6. ^ US Census Bureau, 2010 Census Poverty Data by Local Educational Agency, 2011
  7. ^ American Fact Finder, US Census Bureau, 2010
  8. ^ US Census Bureau (2010). "American Fact Finder, State and County quick facts". 
  9. ^ US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010". 
  10. ^ Michael Sauter and Alexander E.M. Hess, (August 31, 2013). "America's most popular six-figure jobs". USA Today. 
  11. ^ Central Columbia School Board Secretary, Central Columbia School Board Meeting, March 18, 2013
  12. ^ Central Columbia School District report, School Matters, Standard & Poors 2003, 2005.
  13. ^ Pennsylvania Public School Code Governance 2010
  14. ^ The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives. "The Pennsylvania Project". Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  15. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 11, 2014). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide School District Ranking 2014". 
  16. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times (April 5, 2013). "Guide to Pennsylvania Schools Statewide ranking 2013". 
  17. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll Information, April 6, 2012
  18. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll Information, April 6, 2011
  19. ^ Pittsburgh Business Times, Statewide Honor Roll, May 6, 2010
  20. ^ Blacklidge, Karen, Valley schools all over the Chart, The Daily Item, June 6, 2007. http://www.dailyitem.com/archivesearch/local_story_163000144.html
  21. ^ Overachiever statewide ranking, Pittsburgh Business Times. May 6, 2010
  22. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Columbia School District AYP Overview 2012". 
  23. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania Public School District AYP History, 2011
  24. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Pennsylvania District AYP History 2003-2010, 2011
  25. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Central Columbia High School - School Profile". 
  26. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "Central Columbia School District AYP Data Table". 
  27. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 15, 2011). "New 4-year Cohort Graduation Rate Calculation Now Being Implemented". 
  28. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Columbia School District Academic Achievement Report Card Data table 2010, October 20, 2010
  29. ^ The Times-Tribune (June 25, 2009). "County School Districts Graduation Rates 2008". 
  30. ^ Pennsylvania Partnerships for Children (2008). "High School Graduation rate 2007". 
  31. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Central Columbia High School 2013, October 4, 2013
  32. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Care Data - Central Columbia High School, 2010
  33. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Central Columbia High School 2012, September 21, 2012
  34. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "PSSA results data". 
  35. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "CENTRAL COLUMBIA SHS - School AYP Overview". 
  36. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Central Columbia High School Academic Performance Data 2013". 
  37. ^ Eleanor Chute and Mary Niederberger (December 11, 2013). "New assessment shows fuller picture of Pa. schools". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  38. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Edcuation (2014). "State Assessment System". 
  39. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2012). "2011-2012 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  40. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 29, 2011). "2010-2011 PSSA and AYP Results". 
  41. ^ "11th grade Reading 2011 CSIU Region Ranking". September 29, 2011. 
  42. ^ Central Pennsylvania Public High School Reading Ranking 2010 for CSIU16 region
  43. ^ Central Pennsylvania Public High School Reading Ranking 2009 for CSIU16 region
  44. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education PSSA Math and Reading results 2007 by School and Grade
  45. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  46. ^ "11th Grade Math CSIU16 Region Schools 2011 rank". September 2011. 
  47. ^ "Central Pennsylvania Public High School Math Ranking 2010". 2010. 
  48. ^ "Central Pennsylvania Public High School Math Ranking 2009". 2009. 
  49. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Columbia High School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012". 
  50. ^ "11th Grade Science PSSA 2010 in Central Susquehanna IU16 Region". 2010. 
  51. ^ 11th Grade Science PSSA 2009 Central Susquehanna Valley IU16 Region ranking http://www.scribd.com/doc/22353678/11th-Grade-Science-PSSA-2009-Central-Susquehanna-Valley-IU16-Region-ranking
  52. ^ The Pennsylvania Basic Education/Higher Education Science and Technology Partnership, Science in Motion annual report, 2012
  53. ^ Pennsylvania College Remediation Report http://www.scribd.com/doc/23970364/Pennsylvania-College-Remediation-Report
  54. ^ National Center for Education Statistics - IPEDS 2009
  55. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education. "Pennsylvania Code §4.24 (a) High school graduation requirements". 
  56. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education, Proposed changes to Chapter 4, May 10, 2012
  57. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Keystone Exam Overview". 
  58. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "Pennsylvania Keystone Exams Overview". 
  59. ^ Pennsylvania State Board of Education (2010). "Rules and Regulation Title 22 PA School Code CH. 4". 
  60. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, State Board of Education Finalizes Adoption of Pennsylvania Common Core State Academic Standards and High School Graduation Requirements, March 14, 2013
  61. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Keystone Exams". 
  62. ^ College Board (2013). "The 2013 SAT Report on College & Career Readiness". 
  63. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Public School SAT Scores 2011". 
  64. ^ College Board (September 2011). "SAT Scores State By State - Pennsylvania". 
  65. ^ "While U.S. SAT scores dip across the board, N.J. test-takers hold steady". NJ.com. September 2011. 
  66. ^ School Matters, Standard & Poors evaluation of Central Columbia School District College Prep., 2005
  67. ^ PDE, School Performance Profile - Academic Performance Data - Central Columbia High School, December 2013
  68. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/24901214/Pennsylvania-Department-of-Education-Dual-Enrollment-Guidelines-2010-2011 Pennsylvania Department of Education - Dual Enrollment Guidelines.
  69. ^ Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement. Site accessed March 2010. http://www.patrac.org/
  70. ^ Report: PA College Credit Transfer System Makes Higher Education More Affordable, Accessible, Pennsylvania Department of Education. April 29, 2010
  71. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Dual Enrollment Guidelines". 
  72. ^ Bloomsburg University Administration (2013). "High School Students (ACE)". 
  73. ^ Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (March 2010). "Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement". 
  74. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Care Data – Central Columbia Middle School, 2011
  75. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Central Columbia Middle School, September 21, 2012
  76. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "CENTRAL COLUMBIA Middle School AYP Data Table 2012". 
  77. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, CENTRAL COLUMBIA Middle School AYP Data Table 2011, September 29, 2011
  78. ^ Pittsburgh Post Gazette (October 15, 2012). "How is your school doing?". 
  79. ^ "8th Grade Reading PSSA 2011 CSIU16 Region". October 2011. 
  80. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Columbia Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2011, September 29, 2011
  81. ^ "8th Grade PSSA Reading 2010 Central Pennsylvania Region IU16". 2010. 
  82. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Columbia Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2010, October 20, 2010
  83. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Reading, Math, Science and Writing PSSA Results 2009, August 2009
  84. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Columbia Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2008, 2008
  85. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Central Columbia Middle School Academic Achievement Report Card 2007, 2007
  86. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012". 
  87. ^ "8th Grade Math PSSA CSIU16 region 2011". October 2011. 
  88. ^ "8th Grade Mathematics PSSA 2010 Central Susquehanna Valley IU16 Region ranking". 2010. 
  89. ^ "8th Grade Mathematics PSSA 2009 Central Susquehanna Valley IU16 Region ranking". 2009. 
  90. ^ "6th Grade Reading PSSA CSIU16 region 2011". October 2011. 
  91. ^ "6th Grade Math PSSA CSIU16 region 2011". October 2011. 
  92. ^ National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core Data – Central Columbia Elementary School, 2011
  93. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Professional Qualifications of Teachers Elementary School, September 21, 2012
  94. ^ Pennsylvania Partnership for Children, Full-Day Kindergarten Enrollment, 2010
  95. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 4, 2013). "Central Columbia Elementary School Academic Performance Data 2013,". 
  96. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Columbia Elementary School AYP Overview 2012". 
  97. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 2011). "CENTRAL COLUMBIA Elementary School AYP Overview". 
  98. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (September 21, 2012). "Central Columbia Elementary School Academic Achievement Report Card 2012". 
  99. ^ "4th Grade Reading 2012 CSIU Region". September 25, 2012. 
  100. ^ "4th Grade Math 2012 CSIU Region". September 25, 2012. 
  101. ^ "3rd grade Reading PSSA 2012 CSIU16". September 25, 2012. 
  102. ^ "3rd grade Reading PSSA 2011 CSIU16". October 2011. 
  103. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education Services (2010–2011). "Central Columbia School District Special Education Data Report LEA Performance on State Performance Plan (SPP) Targets". 
  104. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Testimony Hearing on Special Education Senate Republican Policy Committee, January 2013
  105. ^ Pennsylvania Bureau of Special Education (2008). "Pennsylvania Parent Guide to Special Education Services". 
  106. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education - School District Administration (January 6, 2011). "Procedural Safeguards Notice". 
  107. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Special Education (September 2005). "Gaskin Settlement Agreement Overview Facts Sheet". 
  108. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Pennsylvania Special Education Funding". 
  109. ^ Browne, Patrick., Senate Education Committee Hearing on Special Education Funding & Accountability testimony, November 1, 2011
  110. ^ Kintisch, Baruch., Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Education Law Center, November 11, 2011
  111. ^ Amy Morton, Executive Deputy Secretary, Public Hearing: Special Education Funding & Accountability Testimony, Pennsylvania Department of Education, November 11, 2011
  112. ^ US Department of Education, U.S. Department of Education Clarifies Schools' Obligation to Provide Equal Opportunity to Students with Disabilities to Participate in Extracurricular Athletics, January 25, 2013
  113. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (July 2010). "Special Education Funding from Pennsylvania State_2010-2011". 
  114. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  115. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2012). "Investing in PA kids,". 
  116. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (Revised December 1, 2009 Child Count (Collected July 2010)). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School". 
  117. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  118. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (March 26, 2010). "Special Education for Gifted Students Notice of Parental rights". 
  119. ^ Central Columbia School Board Policy Manual
  120. ^ Nutrition Standards for Competitive Foods in Pennsylvania Schools for the School Nutrition Incentive, Pennsylvania Department of Education — Division of Food and Nutrition. July 2008
  121. ^ USDA, Child Nutrition Programs - Eligibility Manual for School Meals, 2012
  122. ^ Pennsylvania Hunger Action Center, The Pennsylvania School Breakfast Report Card, 2009
  123. ^ USDA, Child Nutrition Programs, June 27, 2013
  124. ^ United States Department of Agriculture (2011). "Food and Nutrition Service Equity in School Lunch Pricing Fact Sheet". 
  125. ^ Pennsylvania State Department of Health (2010). "Pennsylvania Bulletin Doc. No. 10-984 School Immunizations; Communicable and Noncommunicable Diseases". 
  126. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly, Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, June 27, 2006
  127. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2012). "Investing in Pennsylvania Students". 
  128. ^ "Central Columbia School District Payroll report 2011". Open PA Gov.org. 2013. 
  129. ^ Asbury Park Press (2009). "PA. Public School Salaries". 
  130. ^ Central Columbia School Board. "Central Columbia School District Teacher Union Employment Contract 2010". 
  131. ^ Fenton, Jacob, Average classroom teacher salary in Columbia County, 2006-07. The Morning Call. Accessed March 2009.
  132. ^ Fenton, Jacob. Pennsylvania School District Data: Will School Consolidation Save Money?, The Morning Call, Feb 2009.
  133. ^ Benefits of Learning, The Altoona Mirror. August 2007. Accessed May 17, 2010.
  134. ^ Central Columbia School Board Meeting Minutes. July 20, 2009
  135. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2009-10 Selected Data - 2009-10 Total Expenditures per ADM". 
  136. ^ US Census Bureau, States Ranked According to Per Pupil Public Elementary-Secondary School System Finance Amounts: Fiscal Year 2011, May 2013
  137. ^ US Census Bureau (2009). "Total and current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary education, by function and state or jurisdiction: 2006-07". 
  138. ^ US Census Bureau (March 2003). "Public Education Finances 2000-01 Annual Survey of Local Government Finances". 
  139. ^ US Census Bureau (2009). "Total and current expenditures per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary education, by function and state or jurisdiction: 2006-07". 
  140. ^ United States Census Bureau (2009). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Elementary-Secondary Public School System Finance Amounts: 2008-09". 
  141. ^ US Census Bureau (May 2013). "States Ranked According to Per Pupil Public Elementary-Secondary School System Finance Amounts: Fiscal Year 2011". 
  142. ^ General Reserved Fund Balance by School District 1996-2008, Pennsylvania Department of Education Report 2008.
  143. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Investing in Pennsylvania Students - Central Columbia Report 2013, November 2013
  144. ^ Murphy, Jan., Pennsylvania's public schools boost reserves, CentreDaily Times, September 22, 2010
  145. ^ Melissa Daniels (June 1, 2013). "PA school districts look to cash stash to balance budgets". PA Independent. 
  146. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (January 2012). "Central Columbia School District Columbia County, Pennsylvania Performance Audit Report". 
  147. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2012). "Pennsylvania Public School District Tuition Rates". 
  148. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Revenue (2009). "Personal Income Tax". 
  149. ^ Democrat Appropriations Committee, Report on Education funding by LEA, July 2, 2013
  150. ^ Pennsylvania Office of the Budget, 2013-14 State Budget Highlights, 2013
  151. ^ Senator Jake Corman (June 28, 2012). "Pennsylvania Education funding by Local School District". 
  152. ^ Pennsylvania General Assembly Sen Jake Corman (June 29, 2012). "SB1466 of 2012 General Fund Appropriation". 
  153. ^ Pennsylvania Department ofEducation (July 2011). "Pennsylvania 2011-2012 Estimated Basic Education Funding". 
  154. ^ PA Senate Appropriations Committee (June 28, 2011). "School District 2011-12 funding Report". 
  155. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (June 30, 2011). "Basic Education Funding 2011-2012 Fiscal Year". 
  156. ^ Pennsylvania House Appropriations Committee Education Budget information (2010). "PA Basic Education Funding-Printout2 2010–2011". 
  157. ^ Office of the Budget (February 2010). "Pennsylvania Budget Proposal 2010". 
  158. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education - Basic Education Funding by School District, October 2009
  159. ^ The Pennsylvania Department of Education Budget Proposal 2009. Office of Budget, February 2009
  160. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Funding Report by LEA 2009.
  161. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "ACCOUNTABILITY BLOCK GRANT Awards". 
  162. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "PA-PACT Information". 
  163. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "2009–2010 Accountability block Grant Mid-year report". 
  164. ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (2008-12-22). "Special Performance Audit Classrooms For the Future grants". 
  165. ^ "Educational Assistance Program Funding 2010-2011 Fiscal Year". Pennsylvania Department of Education. Retrieved January 2011. 
  166. ^ http://www.recovery.pa.gov/ Columbia County ARRA FUNDING
  167. ^ Governor's Press Office. (January 20, 2010). "Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support,". 
  168. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Secretary Gerald Zahorchek (December 2009). "Pennsylvania Race to the Top Letter to Superintendents". 
  169. ^ Governor's Press Office. (January 20, 2010). "Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support,". 
  170. ^ U.S. Department of Education (March 29, 2010). "Race to the Top Fund". 
  171. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Common Cents program - Making Every Dollar Count". Retrieved February 1, 2011. 
  172. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Pennsylvania School District Real Estate Tax Rates 2011-2012". 
  173. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2004). "Act 511 Tax Report". 
  174. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2010). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  175. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2009). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  176. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2008). "Pennsylvania School District Real Estate Tax Rates 2008-09". 
  177. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2008). "Real Estate Tax Millage by School District,". 
  178. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education 2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines.
  179. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, (May 2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2010-2011,". .
  180. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2011-2012". 
  181. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2011-2012 School District Adjusted Index, September 2010
  182. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2012-2013 School District Adjusted Index, September 2011
  183. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2013-2014 School District Adjusted Index, September 2012
  184. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014-2015 School District Adjusted Index, September 2013
  185. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 30, 2014). "Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2014-2015". 
  186. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2013-2014, April 30, 2013
  187. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, Report on Referendum Exceptions For School Year 2012-2013, March 30, 2012
  188. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2011). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 the Taxpayer Relief Act information". 
  189. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2011). "Report on Exceptions". 
  190. ^ Scarcella, Frank and Pursell, Tricia, Local school tax assessments exceed state averages. The Daily Item, May 25, 2010
  191. ^ Special Report Pennsylvania Property Tax Relief, Office of the Auditor General, February 23, 2010.
  192. ^ Tax Relief per Homestead May 1, 2010. Report Pennsylvania Department of Education, May 2010
  193. ^ New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners, Tax Foundation, September 22, 2009.
  194. ^ Central Columbia School Board (August 16, 2004). "Interscholastic Athletics Policy 6860". 
  195. ^ Central Columbia School Board (August 16, 2004). "Extracurricular Activities Policy 6870". 
  196. ^ Kevin Morgan (2014). "Central Columbia High School Athletic Directory". 
  197. ^ Central Columbia School Board (2014). "Athletic Eligibility Rules". 
  198. ^ PA General Assembly, (July 1, 2012). "Senate Bill 200 of Session 2011 Safety in Youth Sports Act". 
  199. ^ Home-Schooled, Charter School Children Can Participate in School District Extracurricular Activities, Pennsylvania Office of the Governor Press Release, November 10, 2005
  200. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Disclosure of Interscholastic Athletic Opportunities". 
  201. ^ Central Columbia School Board, Central Columbia School District Budget 2013-14, 2013
  202. ^ Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletics Association (2013). "PIAA School Directory". 

External links[edit]