Central Council of Ukraine
|Ukrainian Central Rada|
|Head of the Rada||M. Hrushevsky|
|Seats||822 (July 1917)|
|Ukrainian Club Building, Kiev|
The Tsentralna Rada or Central Rada (Ukrainian: Центральна Рада, Tsentral’na rada) at first was the All-Ukrainian council that united political, public, cultural, professional organizations. Later after the All-Ukrainian National Congress (19–21 April 1917), that council became the revolutionary parliament of Ukraine.
From its beginning the council directed the Ukrainian national movement and with its four Universals led the country from autonomy to full sovereignty. During its brief existence from 1917 to 1918, the Central Rada, which was headed by the Ukrainian historian and ethnologist Mykhailo Hrushevsky, evolved into the fundamental governing institution of the Ukrainian People's Republic and set precedents in parliamentary democracy and national independence that were never completely forgotten during Soviet times and are still remembered today.
The Central Council was founded in Kiev on March 17 (old style 4), 1917 by the initiative of the Society of Ukrainian Progressionists with participation of various Ukrainian political parties, Ukrainian military activists, workers, religious activists, students, entrepreneurs, public and cultural organizations such as the Ukrainian Science Society, the Ukrainian Pedagogic Society, the Society of Ukrainian Technicians and Agriculturists, etc.
M. Hrushevsky was elected as the Head of the Rada while Volodymyr Naumenko, Dmytro Doroshenko, and Dmytro Antonovych were appointed as his deputies. On March 22, 1917 the Rada published its first declaration To the Ukrainian people for the support of the Russian Provisional Government. When M. Hrushevsky assumed his duties on March 27, 1917, the Rada became an acting center of the Ukrainian national movement. But straight after the convocation of the All-Ukrainian National Congress, the Rada transformed into a sort of parliament that consisted of 150 people elected from the Ukrainian political parties, professional and cultural organizations and delegates from guberniya's. During the national congress Hrushevsky was reelected as the chairman of the Rada, while the leaders of the most popular political parties Serhiy Yefremov and Volodymyr Vynnychenko were appointed as his deputies.
During its lifetime there were nine plenary sessions of the Central Rada: eight in 1917, one in 1918, and one extended session of the Mala Rada. Already prior to the First Ukrainian Universal the Central Rada was increased by 130 representatives that were delegated by II Military Congress (June 23, 1917) and 133 members of the Peasants' Deputies Council that were elected at the I All-Ukrainian Peasant's Congress (June 15, 1917).
Mala Rada, or the Small Council, was the Central Executive Committee of the Central Rada. It was created in June 1917 and consisted of 30 members the members of the council's presidium, secretaries of the Rada, and two representatives from each political block. The Chairman of that council was elected Mykhailo Hrushevsky who also held the position of the Chairman of the Central Rada. His deputies became Volodymyr Vynnychenko and Serhiy Yefremov. All important matters were addressed at meetings of the Mala Rada in the first place and later the designed projects were ratified at the plenum of the Central Rada.
First and Second Universals
After the declaration of autonomy (First Ukrainian Universal, 10 June 1917) the Central Rada elected the General Secretariat, autonomous government of Ukraine consisting of eight secretariats. The Soviet Encyclopedia clearly points to the fact that the autonomy was declared in spite of the Provisional Government and then the Central Rada changed its mind and went on a compromise and postponement the declaration until the Constituent Assembly convention. The Soviet Encyclopedia did not disclose the details and the factors that took place at that particular time and accused the Rada in deception. While in fact the Russian Provisional Government and Alexander Kerensky, in particular, issued Instruktsiya on July 16, 1917 in which it was recognizing the regional autonomy and the General Secretariat although made substantial changes to the Rada's proposition and decided: "appoint as the supreme body of government of regional affairs in Ukraine a separate body, the General Secretariat, the composition of which will be determined in agreement with the Central Rada". According to the instruction the Secretariat was to be the representative body of the Provisional Government. Such respond really disappointed Volodymyr Vynnychenko who protested it and dissolved his cabinet. After the acknowledgment by the Central Rada of the Provisional Government Instruktsiya, the Rada issued its Second Universal confirming the agreement between both governments. The composition of the Rada also was increased by 100 representatives elected at the I All-Ukrainian Workers' Congress (July 24–27, 1917) and other representatives of minorities.
- Texts of the Tsentralna Rada Universals
- Soviet Encyclopedia outlook
The Soviet Encyclopedia also claims that the Rada took an aggressive opposition against the October Revolution as well as the Kiev Bolshevik Uprising. Then the Rada by pulling towards Kiev the nationalistic military units overtook the government and on November 13, occupied the city. Later in a week it declared itself the supreme government of the UNR (the Soviet Encyclopedia here used the words so called) and established the strict terrorist regime. December 25, 1917 the All-Ukrainian Congress of the Soviet Ukraine declared the Rada out of law while its participants organized the opposition government to the Rada.
The Soviet Encyclopedia failed to add the fact that the Kiev Uprising took place in the collaboration of the Bolsheviks and other parties that all were part of the Rada as well as what really happened on November 13 and then November 16.
By the end of July 1917 the Central Rada had formally 822 deputies (according to Pavlo Khrystiuk). The members of it belonged to the following parties:
- All-Ukrainian Peasants' Deputies Council - 212
- All-Ukrainian Military Deputies Council - 158
- All-Ukrainian Workers' Deputies Council - 100
- Representatives of non-Ukrainian Workers' and Military Deputies Councils - 50
- Ukrainian Socialist Party - 20
- Russian Socialist Party - 40
- Jewish Socialist Parties Fareynikte, Bundists, Poalei Zionists - 35
- Polish Socialist Party - 15
- Representatives of cities and gubernias - 84
- Representatives of professional, educational, economical, public organizations, and other national minorities - 108
Out of these 822 people the Mala Rada was elected with 58 member including 18 members of various national minorities. From the initiative of the Central Rada in Kiev took place the congress of Russian nationalities 21–28 September 1917.
Fate of the Central Council members
All members of the council were proclaimed outlaws by the Soviet government of Ukraine in December 1917 as part of a national-bourgeois government. On January 29, 1918 Bolshevist troops entered Kiev and declared a Soviet Coup d'etat. The Kiev garrison joined with the Soviets and deposed the Rada. Odoevsky attempted to form a new government but was arrested. The Bolsheviks established Kharkov as the capital of the Soviets of the Ukraine.
- Volodymyr Vynnychenko, died in France
- Khrystofor Baranovsky, died in Brazil
- Borys Martos, died in the United States
- Moishe Zilberfarb, died in Poland
- Mieczysław Mickiewicz, died in Poland
- Oleksander Lototsky, died in Poland
- Oleksander Shulhyn, died in France
- Ivan Mirny, died in Czechoslovakia
- Mykola Porsh, died in Germany
- Mykola Kovalevsky, died in Austria
- Mykyta Shapoval, died in Czechoslovakia
- Dmytro Antonovych, died in Czechoslovakia
- Nykyfor Hryhoriiv-Nash, died in the United States
- Mykhailo Yeremiiv, died in Switzerland
- Pavlo Zaitsev, died in Germany
- Volodymyr Kedrovsky, died in the United States
- Andri Livytsky, died in Germany
- Dmytro Chyzhevsky, died in Germany
- Yevhen Onatsky, died in Argentina
- Oleksander Slyvynsky, died in Canada
- Levko Chykalenko, died in the United States
- Andri Yakovliv, died in the United States
- Solomon Goldelman, died in Israel
- Kornel (Korni) Nishchemenko, died in the United States
- Viktor Prykhodko, died in the United States
- Kost Turkalo, died in the United States
- Panas Fedenko, died in Germany
- Dmytro Isayevych, died in Poland
- Metropolitan Ilarion (Ivan Ohienko), died in Canada
- Vyacheslav Prokopovych, died in France
- Fedir Shvets, died in Czechoslovakia
- Valeria O'Connor-Vilinska, died in Czechoslovakia
- Sofia Rusova (Lindfors), died in Czechoslovakia
- Fedir Shtaingel (Theodor Steingel), died in Germany
- Yuri Tyshchenko, died in the United States
- Oleksander Salikovsky, died in Poland
- Zinaida Mirna (Khylchevska), died in Czechoslovakia
- Oleksander Vilinsky, died in Czechoslovakia
- Dmytro Doroshenko, died in Germany
- Mykhailo Korchynsky, died in Poland
- Pavlo Khrystiuk, died in Sevvostlag
- Serhiy Yefremov, died in Vladimir city prison
- Valentyn Sadovsky, died in Lukyanivska Prison
- Vsevolod Holubovych, died in Yaroslavl city prison
- Vasyl Mazurenko, died near Almaty
- Illya Shrag, died in Chernihiv (under house arrest)
- Kuzma Korzh, died in Kiev - shot by Cheka
- Kostyantyn Vasylenko, died in Vinnytsia - shot by Cheka
- Hryhori Holoskevych, died in Tomsk - suicide
- Anatoli Pisotsky, died in Mykolaiv Oblast
- Mykola (Hryhorovych) Levytsky, died in Krasnoyarsky Krai
- Mykola Chechel, died in Suzdal
- Arkadi Stepanenko, died in Kiev
- Mykola Tkachenko, died in Moscow
- Yuri Tyutyunyk, died in Moscow
- Fedir Kryzhanivsky, died in Kiev
- Mykhailo Poloz, died at Solovki
- Oleksander Shumsky, died at Solovki
- Mykola Vorony, executed in Odessa
- Yuri Shapoval, died at Solovki
- Ivan Feshchenko-Chopivsky, died in Kozhvinski Raion (Komi Republic)
- Mykola Galagan, died in Lukyanivska Prison
- Maksym Slavinsky, died in Kiev Oblast NKVD prison #1
- Mykola Lyubynsky, died at Solovki
- Lyudmyla Starytska-Chernyakhivska, died in transit to Kazakhstan
- Mykola Simashkevych, died in Kiev
- Yevtykhi (Yavtukh) Harmash, died in Poltava
- Antin Drahomyretsky, died in Kharkiv
- Assassinated (or killed in action)
- Symon Petliura, killed in Paris (1926)
- Ivan Steshenko, killed in Poltava (1918)
- Oleksander-Bohdan Zarudny, killed in Kiev (1918)
- Loenard Bochkovsky, killed in Kiev (1918)
- Ivan Lutsenko, killed near Starokostyantyniv (1919)
- Mykola Mikhnovsky, killed at home (1924)
- Isaak Puhach, killed in Kiev (1918)
- Fate unknown
- Mykola Stasiuk, worked as an editor of a local newspaper in Mariupol during World War II
- Moisei Rafes, died in 1942
- Aleksandr Zarubin
- Mykhailo Savchenko-Bilsky
- Aleksandr Zolotarev
- Zinovi Vysotsky
- Prokip Ponyatenko
- Oleksander Zhukovsky
- Yosyp Mayevsky
- Viktor Poplavko
- Volodymyr Naumenko, died in Ukraine (Kiev?) - shot by Cheka
- Petro Artemenko
- Mykola Herasymenko
- Andriy Nikovsky, was looking for a job in Leningrad before World War II
- Oleksander Stepanenko, died in Siberia in 1924
- Serhi Vikul
- Yevhen Kasianenko
- Oleksander Yanko
- Oleksander Zhukivsky
- Andri Likhnyakevych, emigration
- Tymish Olesiyuk, emigration
- Antin Postolovsky, emigration
- Pavlo Pohorilko, the archbishop of All Ukraine was arrested in Kharkiv in 1929 - his farther fate is unknown
- Natural causes
- Myhaylo Tuhan-Baranovsky, 1919 (heart-attack)
- Petro Stebnytsky, 1923 (hunger)
- Mykola Vasylenko, 1935
- Viktor Pavlenko, 1932 (hunger)
- Stepan Erastov, 1933 (hunger)
- Mykhailo Hrushevsky, 1934 (medical mistreatment)
- Mykola Bilyashivsky, 1926 (hunger)
- Oleksander Voloshyn, 1933 (hunger)
- Volodymyr Shemet, 1933 (hunger)
- Mykola (Vasylyovych) Levytsky, 1936 (hunger)
- Mykola Shrag, 1970
- Serhi Kolos, 1969
- Lyubov Yanovska (Shcherbachova), 1933
- Fedir Matushevsky, 1919
- Lev Han, 1919 (typhus)
- Andri Viazlov, 1919 (typhus)
- Other vicitms and related people
- wife of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Maria-Ivanna Sylvestrivna Hrushevska (Voyakovska), died soon after was brutally robbed in 1948
- daughter of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Kateryna Mykhailivna Hrushevska, died in Temlag in 1943 being in a custody since 1938
- brother of Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Oleksandr Serhiyovych Hrushevsky, was arrested soon after the death of Mykhailo - his farther fate is unknown.
- Arystarkh Ternychenko, was a member of government (not mentioned as the member of Central Rada)- fate unknown
- Serhi Ostapenko, was a member of government (not mentioned as the member of Central Rada)- fate unknown
- Ovksenti Korchak-Chepurivsky, was a member of government (not mentioned as the member of Central Rada) - died from natural causes in 1947
- Volodymyr Oskilko, a member of opposition to Martos government (not mentioned as the member of Central Rada) - assassinated by Cheka in 1926
- Isaak Mazepa, was a member of government (not mentioned as the member of Central Rada)- died in Germany
- Verkhovna Rada
- Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
- Regional Committee in Protection of Revolution in Ukraine
- Central Executive Committee of Ukraine
- (Russian)The Central Rada in a scope of the Soviet perspective
- The Times, Bolshevists Against The Church, 7 February 1918.
- (Ukrainian)Fate of the Central Council members (Ukrainian Pravda)
- Hrushevsky, Mykhailo (1918). "На порозі нової України" (The first step towards the new Ukraine). Kiev.
- Shulhin, O. (1918). "Політика" (Politics). Kiev.
- Vynnychenko, Volodymyr (1920). "Відродження нації" (Revival of the nation). Vol I-II. Vienna.
- Khrystiuk, Pavlo (1921). "Записки і матеріали до історії української революції 1917—1920 pp." (Notes and materials to the history of the Ukrainian Revolution 1917-20). Vol I-II. Vienna.
- Zolotariov, A. (1922). "Із історії Української Центральної Ради" (From history of the Ukrainian Central Rada). Kharkiv.
- Skrypnyk, M. (1923). "Начерк історії пролетарської революції на Україні" (Outline of history of the proletarian revolution in Ukraine). Chervonyi Shliakh (Red Pathway). Kharkiv.
- Richytskyi, A (1928). "Центральна Рада від лютого до жовтня" (The Central Rada from February to October). Kharkiv.
- Doroshenko Dmytro (1932). "Історія України 1917—1923" (History of Ukraine 1917-23). Vol I "Доба Центральної Ради" (The times of the Central Rada). Uzhhorod.
- Reshetar, J. (1952). "The Ukrainian Revolution 1917—1920". Princeton.
- Pidhainy, О. (1966). "The Formation of the Ukrainian Republic". Toronto — New-York.
- Makhun, Serhiy (2005). "1917—1918 годы: Потерянное время Центральной Рады, или «Между двумя креслами»". Zerkalo nedeli. #32(560) August 20–26. Kiev. The copy of the article. (Russian)
- Bilokin, Serhiy (2000). "Доля членів Центральної Ради в СССР" (The fate of the Ukrainian Central Rada members in USSR). Vyzvolnyi Shliakh (Liberating Pathway). Vol I. 14-26 pp. The copy of the article. (Ukrainian)