Dusun language

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Central Dusun
Bunduliwan
Native to Malaysia, Brunei
Region Sabah
Ethnicity Dusun people, Kadazan people
Native speakers
140,000 Central Dusun  (1991)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
dtp – Central Central Dusun
kzs – Sugut Dusun
kzt – Tambunan Dusun
tdu – Tempasuk Dusun
ktr – Kota Marudu Tinagas
mqq – Minokok
Glottolog dusu1277[2]

Central Dusun, AKA Bunduliwan (Dusun: Boros Dusun), is one of the more widespread languages spoken by the Dusun and Kadazan peoples of Sabah, Malaysia.

Official dialect[edit]

Under the efforts of the Kadazandusun Cultural Association Sabah, the standardized Kadazan-Dusun language is of the central Bundu-Liwan dialect spoken in Bundu and Liwan. Dusun Bundu-liwan's selection was based on it being the most mutually intelligible, when conversing with other Dusun or Kadazan dialects.[3]

Alphabet[edit]

The Dusun-Kadazan language is written using the Latin alphabets and it has 22 characters (the letters C, F, Q, and X are not used except in loanwords):

A B D E G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

These characters together are called Pimato

Vowels[edit]

The vowels are divided into:

Simple vowels: a e i o u

Diphthongs: aa ai ii oi uu

Some combination of vowels does not form diphthongs and each vowel retains its separate sound: ao ia iu ui ue. In some words aa is not a dipthtong. This is indicated by an apostrophe between the two vowels: a’a.

Structure[edit]

The Dusun phrase structure follow a different pattern since the normal English SUBJECT – VERB – OBJECT structure is non-existent in the Dusun construction. A typical Dusun sentence follows the VERB – SUBJECT – OBJECT structure.

Word
order
English
equivalent
Proportion
of languages
Example
languages
SOV "She him loves." 45% 45
 
Japanese, Latin, Turkish
SVO "She loves him." 42% 42
 
English, Mandarin, Russian
VSO "Loves she him." 9% 9
 
Hebrew, Irish, Zapotec
VOS "Loves him she." 3% 3
 
Malagasy, Baure
OVS "Him loves she." 1% 1
 
Apalaí?, Hixkaryana?
OSV "Him she loves." 0% Warao, Yoda

Frequency distribution of word order in languages
surveyed by Russell S. Tomlin in 1980s.[4][5]


Example

Dusun sentence: Moginum isio do waig.

Direct English translation: Drink him water.

English interpretation: He's drinking water.


Dusun sentence: Nunu maan nu do suab?

Direct English translation: What do you tomorrow?

English interpretation: What are you doing tomorrow?


Examples[edit]

Genesis 1:1-3[edit]

Ontok di timpuun ih, tuminimpuun o Kinorohingan do minomonsoi do libabou om pomogunan. Orolot iti pomogunan om inggaa suang, om pointuong nokulumutan di rahat topuhod. Mintulud sunduan do Kinorohingan do hiri id soibau di waig. Om pomoros nodi o Kinorohingan do, "Nawau no" ka. Om haro nodi o tanawau. Om asanangan tomod o Kinorohingan do nokokitoh diri. Potongkiado no do Kinoingan ih tanawau do mantad hiri id totuong. Om pungaranai nodi do Kinorohingan do "dangadau" it anawau, om iri otuong nopo nga pinungaranan dau do "dongotuong". Haro di sosodopon, sinusuhut minsusuab – iri no o tadau kumoiso.

Translation[edit]

In the beginning God created heaven and earth. The earth was formless and empty, and darkness covered the deep water. The spirit of God was hovering over the water. Then God said, "Let there be light!" So there was light. God saw the light was good. So God separated the light from the darkness. God named the light "day", and the darkness he named "night". There was evening, then morning, the first day.

Numbers
English Dusun
zero aiso
one iso
two duo
three tolu
four apat
five limo
six onom
seven turu
eight walu
nine siam
ten hopod
eleven hopod om iso
twenty duo no hopod
three thousand two hundred and eighty nine (3289) tolu noribu duo nahatus walu nohopod om siam

Months and days[edit]

English Dusun
January Milatok
February Mansak
March Gomot
April Ngiop
May Mikat
June Mahas
July Madas
August Magus
September Manom
October Gumas
November Milau
December Momuhau
English Dusun
Monday Tontolu
Tuesday Madsa
Wednesday Tadtaru
Thursday Kurudu
Friday Mirod
Saturday Kukuak
Sunday Tiwang

Five Ws and one H[edit]

English Dusun
What Nunu
Who Isai
Where Hombo
When Soira/Songira
Why Nokuro
How Poingkuro

References[edit]

  1. ^ Central Central Dusun at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Sugut Dusun at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Tambunan Dusun at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Tempasuk Dusun at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Kota Marudu Tinagas at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Minokok at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Central Dusun". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Kadazandusun Cultural Association. "Official dialect". 11 April 1995.
  4. ^ Introducing English Linguistics International Student Edition by Charles F. Meyer
  5. ^ Russell Tomlin, "Basic Word Order: Functional Principles", Croom Helm, London, 1986, page 22

External links[edit]