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Central Florida is a region of the U.S. state of Florida. Different sources give different definitions for the region, but as its name implies it is usually said to comprise the central part of the state, including the Orlando area. It is one of Florida's three best known "directional" regions, along with North Florida and South Florida.
Like all vernacular regions, Central Florida's boundaries are not official or consistent, and are defined differently by different sources. A 2007 study of Florida's regions by geographers Ary Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that Floridians surveyed identified Central Florida as comprising a large swath of peninsular Florida. This area encompassed the interior, including the Orlando metropolitan area, and coastal stretches from the Big Bend south to the Tampa Bay Area in the west and from Daytona Beach south to Martin County in the east. In addition, North Central Florida has emerged as a vernacular region representing the interior area in the northern part of the state.
Central Florida is one of Florida's three most common directional regions, the others being North Florida and South Florida. Lamme and Oldakowski note that the directional region is more commonly used in the interior areas rather than on the coast. In fact, while coastal areas often have their own regional vernacular identities such as the Space Coast and the Nature Coast, no vernacular regions were reported on the interior of the state other than Central Florida.
Enterprise Florida, the state's economic development agency, identifies "Central Florida" as one of eight economic regions used by the agency and other state and outside entities, including the Florida Department of Transportation. This definition covers much of the same area as in Lamme and Oldakowski's survey, with some exceptions. It excludes the Tampa Bay Area and North Central Florida, as well as the southern coastal counties (the Treasure Coast, which is included in "Southeast" or "South Florida"). The Central region includes the Orlando metropolitan area (Orange, Lake, Osceola, and Seminole Counties), Marion and Sumter Counties in the interior, and Volusia and Brevard Counties on the coast.
Culture and attributes
Lamme and Oldakowski's survey identifies several demographic, political, and cultural elements that characterize Central Florida and distinguish it from other areas of the state. While people from all parts of the state associated their area as part of the South, people in the southern part of Central Florida did not typically identify their area as part of "Dixie", while people in northern Central Florida did. People from Central Florida usually did not consider their region part of the Bible Belt.
Politically, while North Florida overwhelmingly was considered conservative and South Florida was considered more liberal, the majority of Central Florida residents (52%) considered their area moderate; 41% considered it conservative, and 7% liberal. Lamme and Oldakowski's survey tracks with Barney Warf and Cynthia Waddell's studies of Florida's political geography during the 2000 Presidential election. Central Florida's economy is very similar to that in South Florida. Compared to the more diversified North Florida economy, tourism is by far the most significant industry in Central and South Florida, along with a much smaller but significant agricultural industry.
Lamme and Oldakowski's survey also found some cultural indicators that characterize Central Florida. In general, Central Florida was similar to North Florida and differed from South Florida in these measures. In Central and North Florida, American cuisine was the most popular food, in contrast to South Florida where ethnic foods were equally popular. Additionally, while there was little geographical variation for most styles of music, there was regional variation for both country and Latin music. Country was popular in Central and North Florida, and less so in South Florida, while Latin was less popular in Central and North Florida, and more so in South Florida.
The central cities of both metropolitan areas (Orlando and Tampa) are in close proximity (85 miles (137 km)), and as a result, their two metropolitan areas blend together in the area of Lakeland to make up a larger contiguous population center often referred to as the I-4 corridor. This is a population concentration that stretches from Tampa Bay on the west coast to Daytona Beach and Cape Canaveral on the east coast of the state.
With the exception of hill terrain in southern Lake County, Central Florida is mostly flatland with significant amounts of open space and over 1,500 lakes and ponds. There is a mixture of wetlands, Cypress forests, pastures, and coastline.
Major rivers include the St. Johns River, the Ocklawaha River, the Halifax River, and the Econlockhatchee River. Major lakes include Lake Apopka, Lake Tohopekaliga, East Lake Tohopekaliga, Lake Louisa, Lake Monroe, Lake Jessup, and the Butler Chain of Lakes. There are over 100 miles (160 km) of coastline in Central Florida along the Atlantic Coast. Major beaches include Canaveral National Seashore, New Smyrna Beach, Daytona Beach, Cocoa Beach, and Indiatlantic Beach near Melbourne.
Winters are dry and temperate with the average winter high temperature in Orlando being 72 °F (22 °C). Summers are hot and humid with high temperatures averaging 92 °F (33 °C). Peak summer heat generally arrives in early June and continues to early October.
The combination of high temperatures, high humidity, and opposing sea breezes from both the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, results in significant thunderstorm activity from July to September for the interior counties. Central Florida records more lightning strikes per area than any other region in Florida, and Florida records more lightning strikes than any other state in the USA. As a result, Florida, and more specifically, Central Florida, is often referred to as the "Thunderstorm capital of the USA".
In 2009, the estimated total population of the Central Florida, including the populations of Orange, Seminole, Osceola, Brevard, Volusia, and Lake Counties region was 3.3 million people. If the populations of Polk, Flagler, and Sumter counties were included, the estimated population would be 3.969 million people. Explosive growth has fueled Central Florida for the past thirty years.
Tourism is a large contributor to Central Florida's economy. However, the area has economically diversified in the past decade. As a high-tech industrial hub, Metro Orlando has the seventh largest research park in the U.S., Central Florida Research Park, the engineering and business school of the University of Central Florida. It has defense companies such as Lockheed Martin and Siemens.
Medical research is conducted in Orlando's Lake Nona area with the University of Central Florida medical school, the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute biomedical research facility and a new Veterans Administration hospital. These facilities, along with several research support companies, have led this research cluster to be referred to as Medical City. In 2012, an estimated 400,000 veterans lived in the ten counties of Central Florida. A $665 million Veterans Administration hospital was being built in Lake Nona. Completion was scheduled for 2013.
Kennedy Space Center is a NASA facility. Patrick Air Force Base and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station are military installations located on the Atlantic coast. Central Florida has three major zoos, the Central Florida Zoo and Botanical Gardens, in Sanford, the Brevard Zoo and the Busch Gardens Tampa Bay animal park. There are also two theme parks in Orlando featuring animals: Disney's Animal Kingdom and SeaWorld Orlando.
Theme parks and waterparks
Other major attractions include Kennedy Space Center, Bok Tower Gardens, Daytona International Speedway, The Holy Land Experience, and Gatorland. Central Florida also has a wide variety of natural attractions including the Wekiwa Springs State Park, Blue Spring State Park, Rock Springs Run State Reserve, Canaveral National Seashore, and Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The region also boasts an extensive network of recreational trails (jogging, biking, equestrian, etc.). While many connections are already in place, construction continues and will link all of the trails and greenways. Major trails include the Cady Way, Cross Seminole and West Orange Trails.
Major malls and open-air centers in the area include:
- Altamonte Mall
- Downtown Disney
- The Florida Mall
- The Mall at Millenia
- Orlando Fashion Square
- Oviedo Mall
- Seminole Towne Center
- Universal CityWalk
- Volusia Mall
- Waterford Lakes Town Center
- West Oaks Mall
- Winter Garden Village at Fowler Groves
Major international airports include:
- Orlando International Airport
- Orlando Sanford International Airport
- Daytona Beach International Airport
- Melbourne International Airport
Port Canaveral, located in Cape Canaveral 45 minutes east of Orlando, is a cruise, cargo, and naval port. It is one of the busiest ports in Florida and is economically tied to Orlando. Locally perceived to be Orlando's seaport, Port Canaveral is the closest port for tourists and Orlando residents alike to cruise on Disney Cruise Lines and Carnival Cruises. Future plans for the port include a rail and natural gas line running directly to Orlando International Airport.
Freeways and highways
- Interstate 4 (SR 400)
- Interstate 75 (SR 93)
- Interstate 95 (SR 9)
- Florida's Turnpike (SR 91)
- State Road 528 - Beachline Expressway
- State Road 408 - Holland East/West Expressway
- State Road 417 - Central Florida Greenway
- State Road 429 - Western Expressway
- State Road 414 - Apopka Bypass
Major Surface Arterials:
- US Highway 441
- US Highway 17-92
- US Highway 27
- US Highway 192
- State Road 46
- State Road 415
- State Road 436
- State Road 50
- State Road 520
Central Florida is currently developing a regional commuter rail network. The first of these initiatives, SunRail, is a commuter rail line that will run from Deland south to Kissimmee. The first phase should be complete by 2013 with the full system in place by 2015. Amtrak also serves Central Florida running on CSX Transportation's A line and stops at the Orlando Amtrak station. The Auto Train stops in Sanford, Florida, north of downtown Orlando.
A High Speed Rail line was in the planning stages at one point during the years of 2009-2011, however, that plan was eventually canceled by the Governor of Florida, Rick Scott, after a cost analysis of the project. The train line had been planned to run from the Orlando International Airport to downtown Tampa; with future lines eventually connecting to downtown Orlando, Jacksonville, and Miami.
Florida's public primary and secondary schools are administered by the Florida Department of Education.
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