Central Park jogger case

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Central Park jogger case
Time 9 pm - 10 pm
Date April 19, 1989 (1989-04-19) (date of attacks)
Location Central Park, New York City, between 105th Street and 97th Street
Injuries assault, rape, and sodomy of Trisha Ellen Meili, and assault of others
Charges assault, robbery, riot, rape, sexual abuse, and attempted murder

The Central Park jogger case concerned the violent assault, rape, and sodomy of Trisha Meili, a female jogger, in New York City's Central Park, on April 19, 1989. The attack left her in a coma for 12 days. Meili was a 28-year-old investment banker at the time, weighing under 100 pounds. The attacks on her and on others in the park that night were, according to The New York Times, "one of the most widely publicized crimes of the 1980s."[1]

Five juvenile males—four black and one of Hispanic descent—were tried, variously, for assault, robbery, riot, rape, sexual abuse, and attempted murder. They were convicted of most charges by juries in two separate trials in 1990, and received sentences of 5–10 and 5–15 years. Four of the convictions were appealed and were affirmed on appeal, and the defendants spent between six and thirteen years in prison. Their convictions were vacated in 2002 after Matias Reyes, a Hispanic male who had been a juvenile at the time of the attack, and who was a convicted rapist and murderer serving a life sentence for other crimes at the time of his confession, confessed to committing the rape alone and DNA evidence confirmed his involvement in Meili's rape. Reyes wasn't prosecuted because the statute of limitations had passed.

The five who had been convicted sued New York City in 2003 for malicious prosecution, racial discrimination, and emotional distress. The city refused for a decade to settle the suits under then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg, because the city's lawyers felt they would win. However, the city settled the case for $41 million in 2014, after Bill de Blasio became Mayor and supported the settlement. As of December 2014, the five men were pursuing an additional $52 million in damages from New York State in the New York Court of Claims.

Victim[edit]

Trisha Meili in 2005

Trisha Ellen Meili (pronouced MY-lee; born June 24, 1960) was the victim. She was often described in the media as the Central Park Jogger.

Meili was born in Paramus, New Jersey, and raised in affluent Upper St. Clair, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh.[2] She is the daughter and youngest of three children of John, a Westinghouse senior manager, and Jean Meili, a school board member.[3][4][5][6][7] She attended Upper St. Clair High School, graduating in 1978.[4]

Meili was a Phi Beta Kappa economics major at Wellesley College, where she received a B.A. in 1982.[3][2] The Chairman of Wellesley's Economics Department said: "She was brilliant, probably one of the top four or five students of the decade."[1] In 1986, she earned an M.A. from Yale, and an M.B.A. in Finance from the Yale School of Management.[4]

She lived on East 83rd Street between York Avenue and East End Avenue on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. She worked from 1986 on through the time of the attack as an associate and then a vice president in the corporate finance department and energy group of the Wall Street investment bank Salomon Brothers.[3][8][9][10][11][4] At the time of the attack, she was 28 years old, and weighed less than 100 pounds.[5]

Meili was referred to in most media accounts of the incident at the time simply as the "Central Park Jogger". However, two local TV stations released her name in the days immediately following the attack, and two newspapers aimed at the African-American community, The City Sun and the Amsterdam News, and black-owned talk radio station WLIB continued to do so as the case progressed.[12][13][14] Attorney Alton Maddox, Jr. claimed during a WLIB show that the case was a racist hoax, and questioned whether the jogger had in fact been hurt.[15]

In April 2003, Meili confirmed her identity to the media, published a memoir entitled I Am the Central Park Jogger, and began a career as an inspirational speaker.[16][17] She also works with victims of sexual assault and brain injury in the Mount Sinai sexual assault and violence intervention program.[18] She continues to have a slight limp, wobbles at times, has lost her sense of smell, has an impaired sense of taste, speaks with some hesitation at times, and has occasional memory loss and double vision.[19][4][20][21]

Assault[edit]

Between 9 and 10 pm on the night of April 19, 1989, about 30 teenage perpetrators committed several attacks, assaults, and robberies in the northern-most part of New York City's Central Park.[22] The attacks on Meili and on others in the park that night were, according to The New York Times, "one of the most widely publicized crimes of the 1980s."[1]

Trisha Meili, a 28-year-old investment banker, went for a run in Central Park shortly before 9 pm.[23][24] While jogging in the park, she was knocked down, dragged or chased nearly 300 feet (91 m), and violently assaulted.[11] She was raped, sodomized, and beaten almost to death.[25] Investigators' best evidence suggested she was attacked between 9:10 and 9:15 pm, on a transverse through the park from East 104th Street toward West 102nd Street, between the park's East Drive and West Drive.[11][24]

She was found naked, gagged, and tied up, covered in mud and blood, about four hours later, at 1:30 am. Meili was found in a shallow ravine in a wooded area of the park about 300 feet (91 m) north of the 103rd Street Transverse.[24][26][11][25][27] She was comatose for 12 days.[28] She suffered from severe hypothermia, severe brain damage, Class 4 (the most severe) hemorrhagic shock, and loss of 75–80 per cent of her blood from multiple lacerations and internal bleeding.[27][21] [4][28] Her skull had been fractured so badly that her left eye was removed from the eye socket, which in turn was fractured in 21 places, and she suffered as well from facial fractures.[21][29][4] Doctors attributed her survival to the cold weather as well as the cold mud in which she lay in the hours before she was discovered, which reduced her internal swelling.[4]

The initial medical prognosis was that Meili would die.[4] She was given last rites.[21] At best, it was thought that she would remain in a permanent coma due to her injuries. She came out of her coma 12 days after her attack, and spent seven weeks in Metropolitan Hospital in East Harlem. When she came out of her coma, she was initially unable to talk, read, or walk.[21][25] A month after the attack, she had difficulty recognizing her mother, and was unable to recall what year it was.[30]

She was transferred in early June to Gaylord Hospital, a long-term acute care center in Wallingford, Connecticut, suffering from amnesia, double-vision, and dizziness, and spent six months there working on her rehabilitation.[4][18][28] She was first able to walk again in mid-July.[19] She returned to work eight months after the attack.[31] Remarkably, she largely recovered, with some lingering disabilities related to balance and loss of vision. As a result of the severe trauma, she had no memory of the attack or of any events up to an hour before the assault, nor of the six weeks following the attack.[19]

The crime was unique in the level of public outrage it provoked. New York Governor Mario Cuomo told the New York Post: "This is the ultimate shriek of alarm."[13]

Arrests, interrogations, and confessions[edit]

According to a police investigation, the main suspects were gangs of teenagers who would assault strangers as part of an activity that became known as "wilding". New York City detectives said the phrase was used by the suspects themselves to describe their actions to police.[32] This account has been disputed by some journalists, who say that it originated in a police detective's misunderstanding of the suspects' use of the phrase "doing the wild thing", lyrics from rapper Tone Lōc's hit song "Wild Thing".[33][34]

April 19 was a night when such a series of gang attacks occurred. A group of over 30 teenagers, including the suspects, who lived in East Harlem entered Central Park in Harlem around 110th Street at approximately 9 pm.[11]

The teenagers attacked and beat people as they moved south, on Central Park's East Drive, and on the park's 97th Street Tranverse, between 9 pm and 10 pm.[11] Between 105th and 102nd Streets they attacked several bicyclists, hurled rocks at a cab, and attacked a man who was walking whom they knocked to the ground, assaulted, robbed, and left unconscious.[11][24] A schoolteacher out for a run was severely beaten and kicked, between 9:40 and 9:50.[11] Then, at the 97th Street Transverse at the northwest end of the Central Park Reservoir running track, at about 10 pm they attacked another jogger, bludgeoning him in the back of the head with a pipe and stick.[35][11] They pummeled two men into unconsciousness, hitting them with a metal pipe, stones, and punches, and kicking them in the head.[29][24][24]

Responding police scooters and unmarked cars, dispatched at 9:30 pm, apprehended Raymond Santana and Kevin Richardson along with other teenagers at approximately 10:15 on Central Park West and 102nd Street.[11][35][24] Anton McCray, Yusef Salaam, and Kharey Wise were brought in for questioning later, after having been identified by other youths as participants in or present at some of the attacks.[35][24]

Contrary to normal police procedure, which stipulates that the names of suspects under the age of sixteen are to be withheld, the names of the arrested juveniles were released to the press before any of them had been formally arraigned or indicted, including one 14-year-old who was ultimately not charged.[13] The media's decision to print the names, photos, and addresses of the juvenile suspects while withholding Meili's identity was cited by the editors of the City Sun and the Amsterdam News to explain their own continued use of Meili's name in their coverage of the story.[36]

All five of the juveniles confessed to a number of the crimes which had been committed in the park that night, and implicated one or more of the others.[24] None admitted actually raping the jogger, but each confessed to being an accomplice to the rape.[24] Anton McCray said that a "Puerto Rican kid with a hoodie" had raped the jogger.[24] Yusef Salaam made verbal admissions, but refused to sign a confession or make one on videotape. Salaam was, however, implicated by all of the other four, and convicted.

Six others were charged with committing crimes in the park that night as well. They pleaded guilty, and received sentences of six months to four and a half years.[24]

Salaam's supporters and attorneys charged on appeal that he had been held by police without access to parents or guardians, but as the majority appellate court decision noted, that was because Salaam had initially lied to police in claiming to be 16, and had backed up his claim with a transit pass that indeed (falsely, as it turned out) indicated that he was 16. If a suspect has reached 16 years of age, his parents or guardians no longer have a right to accompany him during police questioning, or to refuse to permit him to answer any questions. When Salaam informed police of his true age, police permitted his mother to be present.[37]

Although the suspects (except Salaam) had confessed on videotape in the presence of a parent or guardian, they retracted their statements within weeks, claiming that they had been intimidated, lied to, and coerced into making false confessions.[38] The detectives had indeed used ruses to convince the suspects to confess, with Salaam confessing to having been present only after he was told that fingerprints were found on the victim's clothing.[39] While the confessions themselves were videotaped, the hours of interrogation that preceded the confessions were not.

Analysis indicated that the DNA collected at the crime scene did not match any of the suspects—and that it had come from a single, as yet unknown person.[38] Since no DNA evidence tied the suspects to the crime, the prosecution's case rested almost entirely on the confessions.[13]

One of the suspects' supporters, Reverend Calvin O. Butts of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, told The New York Times, "The first thing you do in the United States of America when a white woman is raped is round up a bunch of black youths, and I think that's what happened here."[13]

Trials and sentences[edit]

In a first trial in August 1990, defendants Yusef Salaam, Antron McCray, and Raymond Santana were acquitted of attempted murder, but convicted of rape, assault, robbery, and riot in the attacks on the jogger and others in Central Park that night.[24] Salaam and McCray were 15 years old, and Santana 14 years old, at the time of the crime,[34] and they received the maximum sentence allowed for juveniles, 5–10 years in a youth correctional facility.[22][40][41] The jury, consisting of four whites, four blacks, four Hispanics, and an Asian, deliberated for ten days before rendering its verdict.[42]

The second trial ended in December 1990.[24] Kevin Richardson, 14 years old at the time of the crime, was convicted of attempted murder, rape, assault, and robbery in the attacks on the joggers and others in the park, and sentenced to 5–10 years. Korey Wise, 16 years old at the time of the crime, was acquitted of those charges, but convicted of sexual abuse, assault, and riot in the attack on the jogger and others in the park, and sentenced to 5–15 years.[24] After the verdict, Wise shouted at the prosecutor: "You’re going to pay for this. Jesus is going to get you. You made this up."[43]

The jogger, who took the stand, said: "I'll tell you what—I didn't feel wonderful about the boys' defense attorneys, especially the one who cross-examined me. He was right in front of my face and, in essence, calling me a slut by asking questions like 'When's the last time you had sex with your boyfriend?'"[19] Wise's lawyer had also asked her whether she had been assaulted by men in her life, suggested that a man she knew may have attacked her, and implied her injuries were not as severe as they had been made out to be.[44]

Jurors interviewed after the trial said that they were not convinced by the confessions, but were impressed by the physical evidence introduced by the prosecutors: semen, grass, dirt, and two hairs "consistent with" the victim's hair[22]:6 recovered from Richardson's underpants.[45] Richardson received a sentence of 5–10 years, and Wise, who had been tried as an adult, a sentence of 5–15 years. Four of the convictions were affirmed on appeal, while Santana did not appeal.[22][24] The five defendants spent between six and thirteen years in prison.[46]

The case attracted nationwide attention and was the subject of many articles and books, both during the trials and after the convictions.[47]

Convictions vacated[edit]

Yusef Salaam in 2009

In 2002, another man's confession, plus DNA evidence confirming his participation in the rape, led the district attorney's office to recommend vacating the convictions of the defendants originally found guilty and sentenced to prison.

In 2002, convicted rapist and murderer Matias Reyes, a Puerto-Rican-born male serving a life sentence for other crimes but not, at that point, associated by the police with the attack on Meili, declared that he had committed the assault and rape when he was 17, and that he had acted alone.[48] At the time of the attack, he was working at an East Harlem bodega on Third Avenue and 102nd Street, and living in a van on the street.[49][48] He provided a detailed account of the attack, corroborated by other evidence.[22] The DNA evidence confirmed his participation in the rape, identifying him as the sole contributor of the semen found in and on the victim "to a factor of one in 6,000,000,000 people".[22] DNA analysis of the strands of hair found in Richardson's underpants established that the hair did not belong to the victim.[50] The victim had been tied up with her T-shirt in a distinctive fashion that Reyes used again on later victims.[22] Reyes wasn't prosecuted because the statute of limitations had passed.[51]

Supporters of the five defendants again claimed their confessions had been coerced. An examination of the inconsistencies between their confessions led the prosecutor to question the veracity of their confessions. District Attorney Robert M. Morgenthau's office wrote:

A comparison of the statements reveals troubling discrepancies. ... The accounts given by the five defendants differed from one another on the specific details of virtually every major aspect of the crime—who initiated the attack, who knocked the victim down, who undressed her, who struck her, who held her, who raped her, what weapons were used in the course of the assault, and when in the sequence of events the attack took place. ... In many other respects the defendants' statements were not corroborated by, consistent with, or explanatory of objective, independent evidence. And some of what they said was simply contrary to established fact.[22]

District Attorney Morgenthau stopped short of saying the five were innocent, but he withdrew all charges and did not seek a retrial.[52] Based on Reyes' confession, the DNA evidence, and the unreliable nature of the confessions, Morgenthau recommended that the convictions be vacated. In light of the "extraordinary circumstances" of the case, the prosecutor recommended that the court vacate not only the convictions related to the assault and rape of Meili, but also the convictions for the other crimes that night to which the defendants had confessed. His rationale was that the defendants' confessions to the other crimes were made at the same time, and in the same statements, as those related to the attack on Meili. Had the newly discovered evidence been available at the original trials, it might have made the juries question whether any part of the defendants' confessions were trustworthy.[22] Morgenthau's recommendation to vacate the convictions was strongly opposed by Linda Fairstein, who had overseen the original prosecution but had since left the District Attorney's Office.[38] The five defendants' convictions were vacated by New York Supreme Court Justice Charles J. Tejada on December 19, 2002. As Morgenthau recommended, Tejada's order vacated the convictions for all the crimes of which the defendants had been convicted.[53]

Despite the analysis conducted by the District Attorney's Office, New York City detectives maintained that the defendants had "most likely" been Reyes' accomplices in the assault and rape of Meili.[54] The two doctors who treated her after she was attacked stated that some of her injuries were not consistent with Reyes' claim that he acted alone.[52][55] (Their statements were contradicted at the 1990 trial by a forensic pathologist and by the New York City chief medical examiner in 2002, both of whom concluded it was impossible to tell from the victim's injuries how many people had participated in the assault).[56] Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly complained that Morgenthau's staff had denied his detectives access to "important evidence" needed to conduct a thorough investigation.[53]

All of the defendants had completed their prison sentences at the time of Tejada's order, which only had the effect of clearing their names. However one defendant, Santana, remained in jail, convicted of a later, unrelated crime, though his attorney said that his sentence in that case had been extended because of his conviction in the Meili attack. All five were removed from New York State's sex offender registry.[53][57][58]

Lawsuits against city and state by exonerated men[edit]

In 2003, Kevin Richardson, Raymond Santana Jr., and Antron McCray sued the city for $250 million for malicious prosecution, racial discrimination, and emotional distress.[59] The city refused for a decade to settle the suits, saying that "the confessions that withstood intense scrutiny, in full and fair pretrial hearings and at two lengthy public trials" established probable cause.[60] New York City lawyers under then-Mayor Michael Bloomberg felt they would win the case.[46]

Filmmaker Ken Burns said in a November 2013 interview that New York City Mayor–elect Bill de Blasio had agreed to settle the lawsuit.[61]

A settlement in the case for $41 million, supported by Mayor De Blasio, was approved by a federal judge on September 5, 2014.[62] Santana, Salaam, McCray, and Richardson will each receive $7.1 million from the city for their years in prison, while Wise will receive $12.2 million. The city did not admit to any wrongdoing in the settlement.[63] The settlement averaged roughly $1 million for each year of imprisonment for the men.[64]

As of December 2014, the five men were pursuing an additional $52 million in damages from New York State in the New York Court of Claims, before Judge Alan Marin.[46] Speaking of the second suit, against the state, Santana said: "When you have a person who has been exonerated of a crime, the city provides no services to transition him back to society. The only thing left is something like this — so you can receive some type of money so you can survive."[46]

Documentary film[edit]

Main article: The Central Park Five

Documentary filmmakers Ken Burns, David McMahon, and Burns' daughter Sarah Burns premiered The Central Park Five, a documentary film about the case, at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2012.[65] It was inspired by Sarah Burns' undergraduate thesis on racism in media coverage of the event.[66] In the film, the filmmakers compare the case to the 1931 rape case of the Scottsboro Boys, which eventually led to a Supreme Court ruling on the racial makeup of juries.[67] The film was released in the United States in November 2012.[65]

On September 12, 2012, attorneys for New York City subpoenaed the production company for access to the original footage in connection with its defense of the federal lawsuit brought by some of the convicted youths against the city.[68] Celeste Koeleveld, the city's executive assistant corporation counsel for public safety, justified the subpoena on the grounds that the film had "crossed the line from journalism to advocacy" for the wrongly convicted men.[68] In February 2013, U.S. Judge Ronald L. Ellis dismissed the city's suit.[69]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "'Smart, Driven' Woman Overcomes Reluctance". The New York Times. July 17, 1990. 
  2. ^ a b "Lived a dream life". New York Daily News. 
  3. ^ a b c "Jogger Reluctantly Surrenders Privacy in Court". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Central Park jogger writes book about her life since attack; 'How the hell did I survive?'", Post-Gazette
  5. ^ a b "A Night Out With/Trisha Meili – Something to Celebrate". The New York Times. April 27, 2003. 
  6. ^ Mackenzie Carpenter (March 29, 2003). "Central Park jogger writes book about her life since attack". Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 19, 2013. 
  7. ^ Mackenzie Carpenter (May 13, 2003). "Central Park Jogger's recovery illustrates brain's amazing capabilities". Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Central Park jogger tells her story in Greenfield". SentinelSource.com. 
  9. ^ "Trisha Meili: About Trisha". centralparkjogger.org. 
  10. ^ "‘I am the Central Park Jogger’". MSNBC. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jim Dwyer and Kevin Flynn, "New Light on Jogger's Rape Calls Evidence Into Question", The New York Times
  12. ^ "Women Under Assault", Newsweek
  13. ^ a b c d e Didion, Joan (January 17, 1991). "Sentimental Journeys". New York Review of Books. Retrieved June 21, 2007.  This essay has also been published in Didion's non-fiction collection After Henry (1992).
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Hate Crimes: Criminal Law & Identity Politics. Oxford University Press. 
  16. ^ "Trisha Meili". centralparkjogger.com. 
  17. ^ Meili, Trisha (2003). I am the Central Park Jogger. Scribner. ISBN 0-7432-4437-0. 
  18. ^ a b Tara Parker-Pope (April 20, 2009). "Central Park Jogger Still Running 20 Years Later". The New York Times. 
  19. ^ a b c d "Oprah Interviews the Central Park Jogger". Oprah.com. 
  20. ^ "A Night Out With/Trisha Meili – Something to Celebrate". The New York Times. April 27, 2003. 
  21. ^ a b c d e "There's a recipe for resilience". USA Today. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Affirmation in Response to Motion to Vacate Judgment of Conviction: The People of the State of New York -against- Kharey Wise, Kevin Richardson, Antron McCray, Yusef Salaam, and Raymond Santana, Defendants" (PDF). Robert M. Morgenthau, District Attorney, New York County. December 5, 2002. Retrieved June 22, 2007. 
  23. ^ "LCCC grads hear healing story from Central Park jogger". Times Leader. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p [2]
  25. ^ a b c Stephen Robinson (April 27, 2003). "She was so badly beaten, the priest administered last rites". Telegraph. 
  26. ^ "Central Park Revisited". New York Magazine. 
  27. ^ a b Ben Sherwood. The Survivors Club. 
  28. ^ a b c "Victim in 'Central Park Jogger' case brings her lessons to high school". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  29. ^ a b Adam J. Jackson. The Flipside. 
  30. ^ "Risen from Near Death, the Central Park Jogger Makes Her Day in Court One to Remember". People. 
  31. ^ "Central Park Jogger recalls nothing of attack, but is now 'happy and okay'", New York Daily News
  32. ^ Pitt, David E. (April 22, 1989). "Jogger's Attackers Terrorized at Least 9 in 2 Hours". The New York Times. The youths who raped and savagely beat a young investment banker as she jogged in Central Park Wednesday night were part of a loosely organized gang of 32 schoolboys whose random, motiveless assaults terrorized at least eight other people over nearly two hours, senior police investigators said yesterday. Chief of Detectives Robert Colangelo, who said the attacks appeared unrelated to money, race, drugs or alcohol, said that some of the 20 youths brought in for questioning had told investigators that the crime spree was the product of a pastime called wilding. 
  33. ^ Cooper, Barry Michael (May 9, 1989) "The Central Park Rape" in The Village Voice.
  34. ^ a b Goldblatt, Mark (December 16, 2002). "Certainties and Unlikelihoods: The Central Park Jogger, 2002". National Review. Retrieved August 21, 2007. On the night of April 19, 1989, just after 9 o'clock, it is certain, absolutely certain, that Kevin Richardson, 14, Raymond Santana, 14, Yusef Salaam, 15, Antron McCray, 15, and Kharey Wise, 16, ran amok for a half hour across a quarter-mile stretch of Central Park—chasing after bicyclists, assaulting pedestrians, and (in two separate incidents) pummeling two men into unconsciousness with a metal pipe, stones, punches, and kicks to the head. The teens later confessed on videotape to these attacks—which they couldn't have known about unless they had participated. As recently as this year, Richardson and Santana again acknowledged their roles in these crimes. 
  35. ^ a b c "Central Park Revisited". New York Magazine. 
  36. ^ Smith, Valerie (1998). Not Just Race, Not Just Gender: Black Feminist Readings. Routledge. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0-415-90325-4. 
  37. ^ "Detective Cites Coercion of Teen". Associated Press in Albany Times Union. July 24, 1990. p. B6. Justice Thomas B. Galligan allowed the statements as evidence because Salaam gave police a student transit pass with a false birth date written in. The false birth date indicated Salaam was a year older that he was. 
  38. ^ a b c Schanberg, Sydney (November 26, 2002). "A Journey Through the Tangled Case of the Central Park Jogger". Village Voice. Retrieved August 21, 2007. Every now and again, we get a look, usually no more than a glimpse, at how the justice system really works. What we see before the sanitizing curtain is drawn abruptly down is a process full of human fallibility and error, sometimes noble, more often unfair, rarely evil but frequently unequal, and through it all inevitably influenced by issues of race and class and economic status. In short, it's a lot like other big, unwieldy institutions. Such a moment of clear sight emerges from the mess we know as the case of the Central Park jogger. 
  39. ^ Chris Smith (October 21, 2002). "Central Park Revisited". New York Magazine. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  40. ^ "The Case of the Central Park Jogger". The New York Times. August 19, 1990. 
  41. ^ "Shouts of 'Lie' Stun 2d Trial In Jogger Rape". The New York Times. October 23, 1990. 
  42. ^ The Central Park Jogger Case. ISBN 1625397429. 
  43. ^ "2 guilty in jog case". New York Daily News. December 12, 1990. 
  44. ^ "Lawyer for Defense Questions Central Park Jogger". Eugene Register-Guard. 
  45. ^ "Jogger Trial Jury Relied on Physical Evidence, Not Tapes". The New York Times. December 13, 1990. 
  46. ^ a b c d "Central Park Five seek an additional $52 million after reaching $41 million settlement for wrongful imprisonment in 1989 rape of jogger", New York Daily News
  47. ^ Sullivan, Timothy, Unequal Verdicts: The Central Park Jogger Trials (1992, Simon & Schuster)(ISBN 067174237X).
  48. ^ a b Annaliese Griffin (April 5, 2013). "A Profile of Matias Reyes". Daily News. Retrieved March 24, 2011. 
  49. ^ Sarah Burns. The Central Park Five; The Untold Story Behind One of New York City's Most Infamous Crimes. 
  50. ^ "A Crime Revisited: The Decision; 13 Years Later, Official Reversal in Jogger Attack". The New York Times. December 6, 2002. 
  51. ^ Michael Howard Saul And Sean Gardiner (June 20, 2014). "'Central Park Five' Agree to $40 Million Wrongful-Conviction Settlement". The Wall Street Journal. 
  52. ^ a b "New York Reaches $40M Settlement in Central Park Jogger Case". NBC News. 
  53. ^ a b c Saulny, Susan (December 20, 2002). "Convictions and Charges Voided In '89 Central Park Jogger Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2007. Thirteen years after an investment banker jogging in Central Park was savagely beaten, raped and left for dead, a Manhattan judge threw out the convictions yesterday of the five young men who had confessed to attacking the woman on a night of violence that stunned the city and the nation. In one final, extraordinary ruling that took about five minutes, Justice Charles J. Tejada of State Supreme Court in Manhattan granted recent motions made by defense lawyers and Robert M. Morgenthau, the Manhattan District Attorney, to vacate all convictions against the young men in connection with the jogger attack and a spree of robberies and assaults in the park that night. 
  54. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (January 28, 2003). "Boys' Guilt Likely in Rape of Jogger, Police Panel Says". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2007. A panel commissioned by the New York City Police Department concluded yesterday that there was no misconduct in the 1989 investigation of the Central Park jogger case, and said that five Harlem men whose convictions were thrown out by a judge last month had most likely participated in the beating and rape of the jogger. The panel also disputed the claim of Matias Reyes, a convicted killer and serial rapist, that he alone had raped the jogger. It was his confession last year that led to a sweeping re-examination of the infamous case by prosecutors, and to a reversal of all the original convictions against the five defendants. 
  55. ^ Hays, Elizabeth (October 28, 2002). "Protesters Want Trump's Help In Jogger Case". Daily News (New York). 
  56. ^ Dwyer, Jim (June 24, 2014). "Suit in Jogger Case May Be Settled, but Questions Aren't". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2014. 
  57. ^ Innocence Project: Salaam, Richardson, McCray, Santana, Wise
  58. ^ ":". Northwestern University Law School. 
  59. ^ The Central Park 5 Want to Settle Lawsuit October 14, 2009
  60. ^ Eligon, John (April 19, 2011). "New York Won't Settle Suits in Central Park Jogger Case". The New York Times. 
  61. ^ Barry, Andrew (November 12, 2013). "Central Park Five Lawsuit: New York City Mayor-Elect Bill De Blasio Agrees To Settle Decade-Long Case Over Wrongful Convictions". International Business Times. 
  62. ^ "43 Ways Mayor de Blasio Changed New York". New York Magazine. December 31, 2014. 
  63. ^ "Judge Officially OKs Central Park Five's $41 Million Settlement". Gothamist. 
  64. ^ "New York close to settling Central Park jogger case, reportedly for $40 million". Los Angeles Times. June 20, 2014. 
  65. ^ a b Central Park jogger case at the Internet Movie Database
  66. ^ [3]
  67. ^ Jensen, Elizabeth (September 10, 2009). "Ken Burns, the Voice of the Wilderness". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  68. ^ a b Buettner, Russ (October 2, 2012). "City Subpoenas Film Outtakes as It Defends Suit by Men Cleared in ’89 Rape". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2012. 
  69. ^ Eriq Gardner. "Ken Burns Wins Fight Against New York City Over 'Central Park Five' Research". The Hollywood Reporter. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]