Central Tibetan language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Central Tibetic languages.
Central Tibetan
Ü-Tsang
དབུས་སྐད་ Dbus skad / Ükä
དབུས་གཙང་སྐད་ Dbus-gtsang skad / Ü-tsang kä
Pronunciation [wýkɛʔ, wýʔtsáŋ kɛʔ]
Native to China (Tibet), Nepal, India
Native speakers
unknown (1.2 million cited 1990 census)[1]
Standard forms
Tibetan script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
bod – Lhasa Tibetan
dre – Dolpo
hut – Humla, Limi
lhm – Lhomi (Shing Saapa)
muk – Mugom (Mugu)
kte – Nubri
ola – Walungge (Gola)
loy – Lowa/Loke (Mustang)
tcn – Tichurong
thw – Thudam
Glottolog tibe1272  (Tibetan)[2]
sout3216  (South-Western Tibetic (partial match))[3]
basu1243  (Basum)[4]

Central Tibetan, also known as Dbus AKA Ü or Ü-Tsang, is the most widely spoken Tibetic language and the basis of Standard Tibetan.

Dbus and Ü are forms of the same name. Dbus is a transliteration of the name in Tibetan script, དབུས་, whereas Ü is the pronunciation of the same in Lhasa dialect, [wy˧˥˧ʔ] (or [y˧˥˧ʔ]). That is, in Tibetan, the name is spelled Dbus and pronounced Ü. All of these names are frequently applied specifically to the prestige dialect of Lhasa.

There are many mutually intelligible Central Tibetan dialects besides that of Lhasa, with particular diversity along the border and in Nepal:[5]

Limi (Limirong), Mugum, Dolpo (Dolkha), Mustang (Lowa, Lokä), Humla, Nubri, Lhomi, Dhrogpai Gola, Walungchung Gola (Walungge/Halungge), Tseku, Basum

Ethnologue reports that Walungge is highly intelligible with Thudam, Glottolog that Thudam is not a distinct variety. Tournadre (2013) classifies Tseku with Khams.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lhasa Tibetan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Dolpo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Humla, Limi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Lhomi (Shing Saapa) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Mugom (Mugu) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Nubri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tibetan". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "South-Western Tibetic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Basum". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ N. Tournadre (2005) "L'aire linguistique tibétaine et ses divers dialectes." Lalies, 2005, n°25, p. 7–56 [1]