Centralist Republic of Mexico
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|History of Mexico|
The Centralist Republic of Mexico (Spanish: República Centralista de México), officially the Mexican Republic (Spanish: República Mexicana) was a unitary political regime established in Mexico on October 23, 1835, after the repeal of the Constitution of 1824. The unitary regime was formally established on December 30, 1836, with the enactment of the seven constitutional laws. The centralist Republic lasted for almost eleven years. On August 22, 1846, acting President José Mariano Salas, issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824 and with this, the return to federalism.
The centralized attempt was a chaotic experience that generated a severe political instability, armed uprisings and secessions as rebellion in Zacatecas, the Texas revolution, the separation of Tabasco, the independence of Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas that formed the Republic of the Rio Grande and finally the independence of Yucatán.
The Republic was governed by eleven Presidents. None were to finish their term before the Republic's dissolution.
During this period there were two international conflicts; the Pastry War, caused by French citizens' economic claims against the Central Government; and the Mexican-American War, consequence of the annexation of Texas by the United States.
- 1 Establishment of the centralist regime
- 2 The seven laws
- 3 Political and armed opposition to the Central Republic
- 4 Secesión de Zacatecas
- 5 Texan independence
- 6 Rebellion of the states Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas
- 7 Rebellion of Tabasco
- 8 Independence of Yucatán
- 9 1840 - 1846
- 10 Organic bases
- 11 International conflicts during the Central Republic
- 12 Restoration of the Constitution of 1824
- 13 Heads of State of the centralist Republic
- 14 Administrative political divisions
- 15 See also
- 16 References
Establishment of the centralist regime
Due to the political chaos caused by the rupture of the constitutional order that Vicente Guerrero had started in 1828, the continuing debate between federalists and centralists and various uprisings caused by liberal reforms, Santa Anna initiated actions to dissolve the Federation, impose a centralist Republic and cancel the reforms carried out under the mandate of Valentín Gómez Farías.
In 1835, the conservative party established a Congress which was declared constitutional and promulgated on October 23 of that year the Constitutional Bases. On December 30, 1836, the seven constitutional laws, which established the system of governmental and administrative centralization in the country were enacted.
The seven laws
The constitutional laws of the Mexican Republic, better known as the seven laws were a series of laws of a constitutional nature which replaced the Constitution of 1824.
- The 15 articles of the first law granted citizenship to those who could read and had an annual income of 100 pesos, except for domestic workers, who did not have the right to vote.
- The second law allowed the President to close Congress and suppress the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation. Military officers were not allowed to assume this office.
- The 58 articles of the third law established a bicameral Congress of Deputies and Senators, elected by governmental organs. Deputies had four-year terms; Senators were elected for six years.
- The 34 articles of the fourth law specified that the Supreme Court, the Senate of Mexico, and the Meeting of Ministers each nominate three candidates, and the lower house of the legislature would select from those nine candidates the President and Vice-president,
- The fifth law had an 11-member Supreme Court elected in the same manner as the President and Vice-President.
- The 31 articles of the sixth Law replaced the federal republic's "states" with centralized "departments", fashioned after the French model, whose governors and legislators were designated by the President.
- The seventh law prohibited reverting to the pre-reform laws for six years.
Political and armed opposition to the Central Republic
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Secesión de Zacatecas
The revolt in Zacatecas was the first rebellion caused by attempts to centralize the Affairs of States. The rebellion began as a response to the order of the Government disintegrating bodies of militia. The rebellion was led by Governor Francisco García Salinas, who led an army of about four thousand men against the even federal Government. Antonio López de Santa Anna, President at the time, personally fought the revolt, leaving as Manager of the Presidency to general Miguel Barragán. The Governor García Salinas, was defeated in the battle of Zacatecas. As punishment to the rebelliousness of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes party was separated and declared on 23 May 1835 Federation territory.
The Texan rebellion began in the battle of Gonzales on October 2, 1835. The discontent of the American settlers began almost as soon as they settled in the State of Coahuila and Texas. As a result of the rebellion of 1827 Fredonia was decreed on April 6, 1830 laws that increased the discontent of the colonists. In 1831, the Mexican authorities gave Gonzalez settlers a small cannon to help protect themselves from frequent Comanche raids. Due to the order of the Government disintegrating bodies of militia, Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, Commander of Mexican troops in Texas, asked them to return the barrel. On 1 October, settlers voted to start a fight and refused to return the barrel. The fight ended the next day with the withdrawal of the small group of Mexican soldiers. After Gonzalez texanas victories and after the Siege of Béxar, came a series of Mexican victories, most of them commanded by general José de Urrea. Urrea won March rebels. On February 23, 1836, the army of operations in Texas, headed by President Antonio López de Santa Anna, began the siege of the Alamo. Most of the soldiers had been recruited against their will. The Alamo fell on March 6 of the same year, survived only two people. On 21 April, took place the battle of San Jacinto, also known as "la siesta of San Jacinto", where the Mexican army was attacked while sleeping and was totally defeated. Santa Anna was captured days after the battle and signed the Treaties of Velasco, which recognized the independence of Texas on May 14. The Mexican Government headed by José Justo Corro did not recognize the treaty, arguing that Santa Anna had no authority to grant independence to the territory, however, Texas remained de facto independent until 1845, when it was annexed to United States.
Rebellion of the states Coahuila, Nuevo León and Tamaulipas
The Republic of the Rio Grande was attempt of Republic composed of the Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and parts of the current U.S. State of Texas. On January 17, 1840, a group of notables of the three States met in close to Laredo. They planned a secession of Mexico and the formation of their own federal Republic composed of three States, with Laredo as the capital. However, the legislatures of the States (then departments) did not take any constitutional action to support the creation of the Republic and asked the central Government help to quell the rebellion.
Finally, after a series of defeats insurgents, on 6 November, Antonio Canales, Commander in Chief of the insurgent army, met with Mariano Arista, who offered him the post of general brigadier of the Mexican army instead of abandoning his secessionist idea. Canales accept the offer and the bid for independence was abandoned.
Rebellion of Tabasco
The Tabasco rebellion started in 1839. It was led by federalist rebels who were against the centralist government implemented in Mexico. The rebels took several major cities and also asked for aid to the Government of Texas, who support them with two boats.
This civil war culminated in January 1841, with the triumph of the federalists and the fall of the centralist Governor José Ignacio Gutiérrez.
The then President Anastasio Bustamante, in retaliation Decree the closure of the port of San Juan Bautista, which affected the economic life of the territory. This caused discontent in the federalist Tabasco authorities, by which on February 13, 1841, Tabasco decreed its separation from Mexico.
Months later Antonio López de Santa Anna, rendering the Decree of Bustamante and I assure you the Tabasco authorities that federalism would reinstated, which finally culminated in the reinstatement of Tabasco on December 2, 1842.
Tabasco decreed their separation in November 1846 as a protest to the lack of government assistance to the American occupation of the State. Same year.
Independence of Yucatán
Yucatán joined the Federation in 1823 under a special status, the Federated Republic, as stipulated by the Constitution of Yucatán of 1825.
When changing the federal system by the centralist, Yucatán considered broken their binding Pact with Mexico. After several requests to the central Government to restore the Constitution of 1824, on 29 May 1839 the Revolution broke out in Yucatán. After a series of victories in Yucatán, central Government declared war on Yucatán. On 4 March 1840, the Yucatán Congress decreed that while the Mexican nation is not governed according to federal law, the State of Yucatán will remain separated from it, resuming its legislature the powers
On March 31, 1841, the Constitution of Yucatán was enacted. This new Constitution established innovations such as freedom of worship, freedom of press and the constitutional and legal bases of the writ of amparo.
On October 1, 1841, the Chamber of deputies of Yucatán issued the Act of independence of the Yucatán Peninsula.
Santa Anna sent to Andrés Quintana Roo to dialogue with the Yucatecan authorities to negotiate their return to Mexico. Of the meeting were signed treaties, completely beneficial for Yucatán, which were rejected by Santa Anna. Santa Anna sent an armed invasion to Yucatán to subdue him, but they were defeated. Not able to submitting to the peninsula, Santa Anna imposed a trade blockade. The lock made the authorities of Yucatán (entrusted by his military victory) to negotiate with Santa Anna. On 5 December 1843 were signed some treaties where Yucatán restored relations with Mexico, but was governed under its own laws and rulers. In 1845, President José Joaquín de Herrera ignored treaties and again caused the break between Yucatán and Mexico. After that federalism was restored in 1846, Yucatán decided to join to Mexico, but the folksy fraction was opposed to the reinstatement arguing that Mexico was in conflict with United States.
Engraved stone that tells a few episodes of the Caste War between 1854 and 1855. Although formally it had already disappeared the centralist regime still mentions the "Department of YUCATÁN".
On 30 July 1847 it exploded in Yucatán the indigenous uprising known as the war of castes. The indigenous war forced Yucatán to seek help from Mexico, which negotiated their return to the Republic, which took place on 17 August 1848.
The flag of Yucatán is widely used as civil Ensign in the State and there are proposals to adopt it as the official flag.
1840 - 1846
Due to the numerous conflicts developed in the country, dissatisfaction with the Administration JRC and spread the certainty that centralism also worked. Virtually the only good news of the new regime was the recognition of the independence of Mexico by Spain on December 28, 1836.
On July 19, 1840, Valentín Gómez Farías proclaim a federalist plan, which was suppressed. As a result, were proposed to remedy the situation: the monarchism with a European King or military dictatorship. The military rejected the proposal of the monarchy and in collusion with foreign merchants, promoted three pronouncements to establish the dictatorship.
On October 10, 1841, Antonio López de Santa Anna assumed the Executive, with extraordinary powers to govern and legislate, while gathered a Congress that will draft a new Constitution.
After being elected, the Constituent Congress discussed during 1842 a constitutional project was federalist; because of this it was disbanded in December of the same year and replaced by a Junta of Notables that I prepared the organic Bases, sworn on 14 June 1843.
Although the organic Bases retained the centralism, was awarded greater representation and influence to the departmental assemblies. Removed the conservative power Supreme and increased the powers of the Executive. It was chosen as President Santa Anna, but with a Congress determined to enforce the law. When Santa Anna try to dissolve it, the legislature the immunity and, went into exile. He was replaced in accordance with the Constitution of September 12, 1844 by José Joaquín de Herrera.
Herrera, aware that Texas had lost, I try to negotiate the recognition of his Government to the Republic of Texas, as a means to prevent its annexation to United States. Opponents accused Herrera of attempting to sell Texas and Alta California. On December 29, 1845, the United States annexed Texas to its territory, while Mariano Paredes and Arrillaga sent to secure the northern border threatened, approached the city of Mexico and by means of a coup d ' état destituyo De Herrera and occupied the post.
International conflicts during the Central Republic
First French intervention
The Pastry War was a war fought between Mexico and France that hard from 1838 to 1839. In early 1838 the French Minister launched an ultimatum to the Government of Mexico from Veracruz: Mexico paid the claims of its nationals or its ports would be blocked by the French fleet. The Bustamante Government refused to negotiate with France while their ships continued in Mexican coasts. Diplomatic relations were broken off on April 16, 1838, and began a French blockade of Mexican ports. France sent Charles Baudin to negotiate a diplomatic exit with Mexico. Baudin express a number of requests that were rejected by the Mexican Government. Response France bombing Veracruz and the Fort of San Juan de Ulúa, where Santa Anna lost the leg. Finally, with the English diplomatic intervention which was attended by Eduardo Gorostiza and Guadalupe Victoria with Baudin, was signed the Treaty of peace on March 9, 1839, to Mexico pay the subjects French demands but not the cost of the French fleet.
United States intervention
The incorporation of the disputed territory of Texas into the United States in 1845 and the constants provoking of the administration of James K. Polk triggered the events that led to war. During that year, tensions grew between Mexico and the United States. While the U.S. army in the north settles inside of Mexican territory and start the threatening of war the Government offered to pay the Mexican debt to American settlers if Mexico allowed United States to buy the provinces of Alta California and Nuevo Mexico, Mexico rejected the proposal and broke diplomatic relations between the two neighboring countries. The first battle was fought on April 25, 1846, to the North of the Rio Grande, in the place called Rancho de Carricitos. The battle caused the United States Congress to declare war on Mexico on May 13, 1846; Mexico for its part declared war on May 23 of the same year.
Restoration of the Constitution of 1824
Finally on August 22 was issued the decree that restored the Constitution of 1824, which ended the centralist system giving way to the Federal Republic.
Heads of State of the centralist Republic
During the 11 years that lasted the centralist Republic had sixteen changes in the Executive by nine Presidents.
Miguel Barragán occupied the Presidency on January 28, 1835 and was the President who ruled during the transition from the Federal Republic to the centralist Republic. Barragán handed over the charge to José Justo Corro. Corro was commissioned to proclaim the seven laws and during his Government Mexico received recognition of its independence by Spain; I call upon election and he handed the post to Anastasio Bustamante, who was elected to govern for a period of 8 years, on April 19, 1837. Bustamante went to fight the federalist revolts and President it says Antonio López de Santa Anna on March 23, 1839. Santa Anna delivers the interim presidency to Nicolás Bravo on July 10 of the same year. Bravo gave back the Presidency Bustamante on 19 July.
On September 22, 1841 Bustamante left the Presidency once again to combat the so-called rebellion regeneration; the Congress appointed as Acting President Francisco Javier Echeverría, who ruled for 18 days. October 10 Echeverría leave the charge which was occupied again by Santa Anna. Santa Anna left the Presidency once more on October 26, 1842, and the position was filled by Nicolas Bravo. Bravo handed power over to Santa Anna on March 4, 1843. On 4 October, Santa Anna designated as constitutional President according to the Constitutional Bases leave power and Valentín Canalizo was appointed as interim. Canalizo handed power back over to Santa Anna on June 4, 1844. Santa Anna leave the power for the umpteenth time on September 12 of the same year leaving again as interim Canalizo, but as Canalizo was not in the capital, José Joaquín de Herrera was appointed to replace the substitute. Herrera handed power over to Canalizo when it came to the capital on September 21 of the same year.
When Santa Anna try to dissolve Congress requiring him to comply with the law, the Congress destituyo it of the Presidency. Canalizo and Santa Anna are caught and expelled from the country. According to the organic Bases was appointed as Acting President José Joaquín de Herrera on December 6, 1844.
Herrera was overthrown by a coup d ' état led by Mariano Paredes and Arrillaga, who took the Chair. Arrillaga leaves to fight US troops and left the Presidency to Nicolás Bravo on July 28, 1846. Bravo is dismissed by a group of federalists led by José Mariano Salas, who assumes the Presidency on 6 August on August 4. Salas was the first Federal Republic, and the last President of the centralist Republic since August 22, 1846, he restores the Constitution of 1824. Continued in the position until December 23 of the same year, when after call elections gave the Office Vice President elected Valentín Gómez Farías.
Administrative political divisions
Of the seven constitutional laws, the sixth was which speak of the territorial configuration in your items 1st. and 2nd shortly after you promulgo the organic Base octave, which was in fact a body other than the seven laws. The first of their articles provided that the national territory would be composed in the following manner: