Centre points of the United Kingdom
There has long been debate over the exact location of the geographical centre of the United Kingdom, and its constituent countries, due to the complexity and method of the calculation, such as whether to include offshore islands, and the fact that erosion will cause the position to change over time. There are two main methods of calculating this "centre": either as the centroid of the two-dimensional shape made by the country (projected to the Airy ellipsoid then flattened using the Transverse Mercator projection), or as the point farthest from the boundary of the country (either the sea, or, in the case of constituent countries, a land border). These two methods give quite different answers.
For centuries Meriden to the west of Coventry held the claim to be the geographical centre of England, and there has been a stone cross there commemorating the claim for at least 500 years. The justification is that the point farthest from the sea is in the vicinity of Meriden. A rival claim for the true location of the centre of England is made by the site of a tree, the Midland Oak, situated on the boundary between Lillington and Leamington Spa, Warwickshire. Morton, Derbyshire also claims to be the centre of England as it is not only midway along England's longest north - south axis but also midway between the East Coast and the Welsh border. The town of Haltwhistle in Northumberland (NY706640) sports banners stating that it is the 'Centre of Britain'. By another calculation the centre can also be said to be Dunsop Bridge, Lancashire (historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire), 71 miles (114 km) to the south.
However, 2002 studies by the Ordnance Survey pinpointed the centres more precisely, and it is their results that are quoted here.
Put simply, the centroid is the point at which a cardboard cut-out of the area could be perfectly balanced on the tip of a pencil. Islands are assumed fixed to the mainland in their precise position by invisible rigid weightless wires. A mathematical method is used to do the balancing to a much greater accuracy than the practical method could achieve.
Unless stated, positions are the centroids of the two-dimensional shapes made by the countries. Calculations include offshore islands unless stated.
- Whitendale Hanging Stones, near Brennand Farm, outside Dunsop Bridge, Lancashire in the Forest of Bowland.( ; grid reference SD6418856541) 
Great Britain (excluding islands)
- A field south of Calderstones Partnership NHS Mental Health Trust, near Whalley, Lancashire (grid reference SD7232136671)
- Lindley Hall Farm, Leicestershire (near Fenny Drayton and Higham on the Hill) ( ; SP 36373.66 96143.05)  A plaque denoting this point, and disputing the "traditional" centre of England as being at Meriden in the West Midlands, was erected by Ordnance Survey on 14 June 2013 
- Annaghone, near Cookstown, County Tyrone (  grid reference NV9706433729 ) Irish grid ref H 84494 74047 .
- Near the junction of Fenham Carr Lane and Wyresdale Road one mile south east of the city of Lancaster and close to the Ashton Memorial . ( ; grid reference SD4901460926)
Locations found by other methods
Point farthest from the sea
Point farthest from high tide mark (including tidal rivers)
Centre of a rectangle enclosing precisely all of England and Wales
Mid point of the longest north–south axis
- Haltwhistle, Northumberland. The midpoint of the longest north–south meridian; also approximately the midpoint of each of the lines through it across Great Britain along the 16 main compass directions.
- "Brave hearts of Scotland". BBC. 2002-10-24. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- "Stuck in the middle with ewe". BBC. 2002-10-20. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- "Q. Where is the centre of mainland Great Britain?". MapZone. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- "A tale of two centres". BBC. 2002-10-22. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- "New centre of England marked in Fenny Drayton". BBC. 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "Meg in the middle". BBC. 2002-10-23. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- "Saving the centre of Wales". BBC. 2002-10-24. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- Calculated by finding the centroid of the GB centre and the Northern Ireland centre, with weights applied according to the area of each
- The Centre of Britain, Centre of Britain Hotel, Haltwhistle, Northumberland. Accessed May 2012
- Sacred Center: The Ancient Art of Locating Sanctuaries John Michell, Inner Traditions, 2009 . ISBN 1594772843
- BBC news article on the centre of Great Britain.