Ceolwulf II of Mercia
Ceolwulf II (died c. 879) was the last king of independent Mercia. He succeeded Burgred of Mercia who was deposed by the Vikings in 874. His reign is generally dated 874 to 879 based on a Mercian regnal list which gives him a reign of five years, but D. P. Kirby argues that he probably reigned into the early 880s. By 883 he had been replaced by Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, who became ruler of Mercia under the lordship of Alfred the Great, king of Wessex.
On anthroponymic grounds, Ceolwulf is thought to belong to the C dynasty of Mercian kings, a family which claimed descent from Pybba of Mercia. The C dynasty, beginning with Coenwulf, may have had ties to the ruling family of Hwicce in south-west Mercia.
Ceolwulf's immediate ancestry is unknown, but he is thought to be a descendant of Ceolwulf I through his daughter Ælfflæd. Ælfflæd was first married to Wigmund, son of King Wiglaf, and then to Beorhtfrith, son of King Beorhtwulf. Far from being "an unwise king's thane", it is clear that Ceolwulf was a descendant of previous kings. A number of thanes who witnessed charters under Burgred witnessed charters under Ceolwulf, and his charters were witnessed by Mercian bishops, testifying to his acceptance in Mercia.
Mercia, Wessex and the Vikings
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle offers the following account of Ceolwulf:
This year went the army [i.e. the Great Heathen Army] from the Kingdom of Lindsey to Repton, and there took up their winter-quarters, drove the king [i.e. of Mercia], Burgred, over sea, when he had reigned about two and twenty winters, and subdued all that land. He then went to Rome, and there remained to the end of his life. And his body lies in the church of Sancta Maria, in the school of the English nation. And the same year they gave Ceolwulf, an unwise king's thane, the Mercian kingdom to hold; and he swore oaths to them, and gave hostages, that it should be ready for them on whatever day they would have it; and he would be ready with himself, and with all those that would remain with him, at the service of the army.
The Chronicle was compiled on the orders of Alfred the Great, brother-in-law of King Burgred. This account is considered to be biased, and politically motivated, written with a view of strengthening the claims of Alfred and Edward the Elder to the overlordship of Mercia.
Ceolwulf's kingdom is presumed to have been reduced to the northern and western parts of Mercia.
Ceolwulf appears to have been active in Wales. Rhodri the Great and his son Gwriad were killed, fighting the English, in 878, and Ceolwulf is presumed to have been the leader of the Mercian army. Anarawd ap Rhodri inflicted a heavy defeat on Mercians at Conway in north Wales in 881. This is described as "God's vengeance for Rhodri". As Ceolwulf disappears from the record at about this time, it may be that he was killed in the defeat. He was certainly dead by 883.
Coinage and London
Three types of penny have been found which were issued in Ceolwulf's name. The bulk of them were minted at London and of the type designated as Cross-and-Lozenge, which was also in use by King Alfred of Wessex. Ceolwulf's coinage appears to be closely related to that of Alfred of Wessex, and it has been suggested on this basis that the two kings co-operated against the Vikings.
Simon Keynes and the numismatist Mark Blackburn initially suggested that in about 875, Alfred was the sole recognised ruler in London, while Ceolwulf's involvement would have come about only towards the end of his reign. However, in 1998, the same year that their discussion was published, another Cross-and-Lozenge penny struck in Ceolwulf's name came to light, which appears to be contemporary with Alfred's earliest coinage.
- Williams, Ceolwulf
- Miller, Ceolwulf II
- Kirby, p. 176
- The tie to Pybba was through an unknown son named Cenwalh. Pybba's daughter married Cenwalh of Wessex. Later genealogists may have turned a son by marriage into a son of the blood; Woolf, pp. 151–152. The alternative is that the relationship is contrived and the C dynasty descended from the royal house of the Hwicce; Zalockyj, p. 228.
- Walker, pp. 59–60, 208, Table 1; Zaluckiyj, p. 236, fig. 3, & p.247, sets out the theory whereby Ceolwulf is taken to be a younger brother of Wigstan of Mercia.
- Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, trans. James Ingram, sub anno 874.
- Walker, pp. 59–60; Yorke, p. 123.
- Walker, p. 73.
- Walker, pp. 73–75.
- Sean Miller, "Ceolwulf II, king of Mercia.". See Early Medieval Corpus of Coin Finds and the Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles
- Yorke, p. 123.
- Keynes, "King Alfred and the Mercians." pp. 12-19, and Blackburn, "The London Mint during the Reign of Alfred." pp. 116-120.
- Mark Blackburn revisits the issue in his "Alfred's coinage reforms in context." In Alfred the Great. Papers from the Eleventh Century Conference, ed. T. Reuter and D. Hinton. Aldershot, 2003. 199-215.
- Blackburn, M.A.S. "The London Mint during the Reign of Alfred." In Kings, Currency, and Alliances. History and Coinage of Southern England in the Ninth Century, ed. M.A.S. Blackburn and D.N. Dumville. Studies in Anglo-Saxon History 9. Woodbridge, 1998. 105-23.
- Keynes, Simon. "King Alfred and the Mercians." In Kings, Currency, and Alliances. History and Coinage of Southern England in the Ninth Century, ed. M.A.S. Blackburn and D.N. Dumville. Studies in Anglo-Saxon History 9. Woodbridge, 1998. 1-45.
- Kirby, D. P. (2000). The Earliest English Kings (Revised ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24211-8.
- Miller, Sean (2004). "Ceolwulf II (fl. 874–879), king of the Mercians". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/39145. Retrieved 13 August 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Walker, Ian (2000). Mercia and the Making of England. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-2131-5.
- Williams, Ann (1991). "Ceolwulf II, king of Mercia 874-879". In Ann Williams, Alfred P. Smyth and D. P. Kirby eds. A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain. Seaby.
- Woolf, Alex, "Pictish Matriliny reconsidered," in The Innes Review, volume XLIX, no. 2 (Autumn 1998). ISSN 0020-157X
- Yorke, Barbara, Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. London: Seaby, 1990. ISBN 1-85264-027-8
- Zaluckij, Sarah, Mercia: the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Central England. Logaston: Logaston Press, 2001. ISBN 1-873827-62-8
- Charters of Ceolwulf II
- Coins of Ceolwulf II
- Anglo-Saxon charters:
|King of Mercia
874 – c. 879
as Lord of the Mercians