About 15 - See text
Cephalanthera, abbreviated Ceph in horticultural trade, is a genus of mostly terrestrial orchids. Members of this genus have rhizomes rather than tubers. About 15 species are currently recognised, several of them common in Europe, for example the Sword-leaved Helleborine C. longifolia. Most others are native to Asia, ranging from the Caucasus, e.g. C. caucasica, to Japan, e.g. the Bamboo-leaved Silver Orchid C. longibracteata. The Chinese species C. gracilis was only described in 2002. The only species found in North America is the Phantom Orchid or Snow Orchid C. austiniae. Ecologically, this species is partially myco-heterotrophic. Some of the Eurasian species hybridise.
Several of the European species have common names including the word "helleborine", but this name does not correspond to any modern taxon, and orchids in other genera are also called helleborines. In addition to those listed here, very large numbers of other specific names will be found in the older literature, but these are almost all synonyms for the best known species such as C. longifolia or C. damasonium, the European White Helleborine.
- Cephalanthera austiniae (A.Gry) Heller
- Cephalanthera bijiangensis Chen
- Cephalanthera calcarata Chen & Lang
- Cephalanthera caucasica Krzl.
- Cephalanthera cucullata Boiss. & Heldr.
- Cephalanthera damasonium (type species)
- Cephalanthera epipactoides Fischer & C. A. Meyer
- Cephalanthera falcata
- Cephalanthera gracilis
- Cephalanthera kotschyana Renz & Taub.
- Cephalanthera kurdica Bornm.
- Cephalanthera longibracteata
- Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch
- Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich.
- Cephalanthera schaberi Baum.
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