Cephalosporium gramineum

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Hymenula cerealis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Ascomycetes
Subclass: Incertae sedis
Order: Incertae sedis
Family: Incertae sedis
Genus: Hymenula
Species: H. cerealis
Binomial name
Hymenula cerealis
Ellis & Everh., (1894)
Synonyms

Cephalosporium gramineum Nisik. & Ikata, (1934)
Phialophora cerealis (Ellis & Everh.) Nirenberg & Dalchow, (1990)

Cephalosporium gramineum or Hymenula cerealis is a plant pathogen that causes Cephalosporium Stripe of Wheat and other grasses. It was first reported in Japan in 1930.[1] The disease can cause yield losses of up to 50% by causing death of tillers and reducing seed production and seed size.[1] The disease causes broad yellow or brown stripes along the length of the leaf and discolouration of the leaf veins.[1] The fungus spreads through the soil, and enters the plant through wounds in its roots.[1] Early planting of winter wheat when the soil is warm gives a greater root system more subject to root breakage when the soil heaves affording more infection sites. Phosphate fertilizer and high moisture further exacerbates this condition.[2][3] The symptoms are caused by the fungus' invasion of the plants vascular tissue.[4] The fungus also produces a toxin which causes stunting of the plant and interferes with development.[5] A glucopolysaccharide also appears to inhibit fluid movement in wheat.[6]

There is very little natural resistance to the disease in wheat, control measures include crop rotation for 2–3 years in areas where the disease has become a particular problem.[1][4] Currently there are no options for controlling the disease through the use of fungicides.[5]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Lipps, Patrick. "Cephalosporium Stripe of Wheat". The Ohio State University. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  2. ^ Pool & Sharp, Phytopahology: 57:1008 (1966)
  3. ^ Pool & Sharp; Plant Disease Reporter 53(11):898 (1969)
  4. ^ a b Maloy, Otis; Inglis, Debra (2000). "Cephalosporium Stripe". Washington State University. Retrieved 2008-09-21. 
  5. ^ a b Karrow, R.S.; Powelson, R.L. and Koepsell, P.A. (1993). "Cephalosporium Stripe". Oregon State University. Retrieved 2008-09-21.  [dead link]
  6. ^ Pool, R.A.F. & Sharp, E.L., Phytopahtology:59(11),1763 (1969)