Cerne Abbas

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Coordinates: 50°48′34″N 2°28′52″W / 50.8095°N 2.4810°W / 50.8095; -2.4810

Cerne Abbas
Cerneabbascentre.jpg
The Village Centre
Cerne Abbas is located in Dorset
Cerne Abbas
Cerne Abbas
 Cerne Abbas shown within Dorset
Population 784 [1]
OS grid reference ST662012
    - London  112.5 miles 
District West Dorset
Shire county Dorset
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Cerne Abbas
Postcode district DT2
Dialling code 01300
Police Dorset
Fire Dorset
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament West Dorset
List of places
UK
England
Dorset

Cerne Abbas is a village and civil parish in the county of Dorset in southern England.[2] It lies in the West Dorset administrative district in the Cerne Valley in the Dorset Downs. The village lies just east of the A352 road 10 km (6.2 mi) north of Dorchester. In the 2011 Census the population of Cerne Abbas parish, combined with the small neighbouring parish of Up Cerne, was 784.[1]

In 2008 it was voted Britain's "Most Desirable Village" by estate agent Savills.[3] It is notable as the location of the Cerne Abbas Giant, a chalk figure of a giant naked man on a hillside.

History[edit]

Abbey Farm House

The village of Cerne Abbas grew up around the great Benedictine abbey, Cerne Abbey, which was founded there in AD 987.[4] The Domesday survey of 1087 recorded cultivated land for twenty ploughs, with 26 villeins and thirty two bordars. For more than 500 years, the abbey dominated the area. The abbey was surrendered to Henry VIII in 1539 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries and was largely destroyed; a portion of the Abbot's Porch and Abbey guesthouse remain. St Augustine's Well, reputedly blessed by the saint, also remains. St Mary's Church, built by the abbey for the parish in the late 13th century, is in the heart of the parish and retains many original features.

In the centuries after the Dissolution, the village thrived as a small market town. Its wealth was partly generated by brewing, its underground water making it famous for the quality of its beer, which was sold as far away as London and was even exported to the Americas.[5] At one time, Cerne Abbas had 14 public houses, serving visitors and a population of about 1,500.[6] The availability of water power also gave rise to milling, tanning, silk weaving, glove and hat making and many other small industries.

The coming of the railways in the 19th century bypassed Cerne and the village went into decline. By 1906, the population had halved and many of the houses had fallen into disrepair. In 1919, the village was sold by the Pitt-Rivers estate, which had owned it.[7] The village now has a local school, a post office, three remaining historic public houses, tearooms and a number of other shops.

Pevsner says that Abbey Farm House which was rebuilt after a fire in the 1750s was formerly the main gateway to the abbey. When rebuilt, the central window of the former gateway projection was given an unusual Gothic Venetian window.

Tourist attractions[edit]

The pitchmarket doorway
Parish church of St Mary

Cerne Abbas is a tourist village with many attractions, including the river, streets lined with stone houses and the Abbey. The church of St Mary is of 13th-century origin but was largely rebuilt in the 15th and early 16th centuries and partly reconstructed in the 17th century. Features of interest include the 17th century pulpit and the great east window which probably came from the abbey.[8]

Cerne Abbas Giant[edit]

The most famous attraction is the Cerne Abbas Giant, a 55 metre (180 ft) naked figure carved into the chalk hillside. The giant, owned by the National Trust, is thought by many to be an Iron Age fertility symbol but, as it is unlikely that the monks of Cerne Abbey would have tolerated such a figure, and with no records before the 17th century, this cannot be confirmed. Many scholars now think that it was created in the mid-17th century, although there is evidence of Iron Age settlement on the downs nearby.

Literature[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Area: Cerne Abbas (Parish). Key Figures for 2011 Census: Key Statistics". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 January 2014. 
  2. ^ Grid reference: ST665012 OS grid reference
  3. ^ Osborne, Hilary (14 February 2008). "Cerne Abbas voted Britain's most desirable village". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2010. 
  4. ^ Cerne Historical Society
  5. ^ A village history
  6. ^ 1842 directory listing
  7. ^ Cerne Historical Society; 1919 sale
  8. ^ Betjeman, John, ed. (1968) Collins Pocket Guide to English Parish Churches; the South. London: Collins; p. 173

The Buildings of England by John Newman and Nikolaus Pevsner. Page 134. Published by Penguin Books 1972. Reprint 1975. ISBN 0-14-071044-2 (For Abbey Farm House).

External links[edit]