A certificate of identity issued in Germany in 2008
used to enter
under the fake name Ricardo Klement in 1950, issued by the Italian delegation of the Red Cross of Geneva
certificate of identity, sometimes called an alien's passport, is a travel document issued by a country to non-citizens (also called aliens) residing within their borders who are stateless persons or otherwise unable to obtain a passport from their state of nationality (also called refugees). Some states also issue certificates of identity to their own citizens as a form of emergency passport or otherwise in lieu of a passport. A certificate of identity issued to a stateless person is also referred to as a 1954 Convention travel document, in reference to the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons. A certificate of identity issued to a refugee is also referred to as a [1 ] 1951 Convention travel document (also known as a refugee travel document or a Geneva passport), in reference to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. 80 countries are parties to the 1954 Convention and 145 countries are parties to the 1951 Convention. 146 countries are parties to the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Notably, the United States is not a party to either Convention, but provides travel documents to its lawful permanent residents, either as a Re-entry Permit or a refugee travel document under the Protocol.
Unlike a refugee travel document, a certificates of identity issued by most countries does not in itself entitled the holder to readmission into the country. Also, the visa requirements of certificates of identity may be different to those of regular passports.
Examples [ edit ]
Certificates of identity are issued under various names, including:
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Blitz, Brad K.; Lynch, Maureen, eds. (June 2009). Statelessness and the Benefits of Citizenship: A Comparative Study”. Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights and International Observatory on Statelessness. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-9563275-1-2.
External links [ edit ]