Cetinje

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Cetinje
Цетиње
Flag of Cetinje
Flag
Coat of arms of Cetinje
Coat of arms
Cetinje is located in Montenegro
Cetinje
Cetinje
Location of Cetinje
Coordinates: 42°23′N 18°55′E / 42.38°N 18.92°E / 42.38; 18.92Coordinates: 42°23′N 18°55′E / 42.38°N 18.92°E / 42.38; 18.92
Country  Montenegro
Municipality Cetinje
Status Old Royal Capital
Founded 15th century
Settlements 94
Government
 • Mayor Aleksandar Bogdanović (DPS)
Area
 • Total 910 km2 (350 sq mi)
Elevation 650 m (2,130 ft)
Population (2003 census)
 • Total 15,137
 • Density 20/km2 (50/sq mi)
 • Municipality 18,482
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 81250
Area code +382 41
Twin cities
 • Rijeka  Croatia
 • Mali Iđoš  Serbia
 • Kharkiv  Ukraine
 • Shkodër  Albania
 • Kostroma  Russia
 • Veliko Tarnovo  Bulgaria
 • Vranje  Serbia
 • Sinaia  Romania
 • Gaziantep  Turkey
ISO 3166-2 code ME-06
Car plates CT
Website http://www.cetinje.me/
Court Church in Cetinje
Cetinje Monastery.
Coat of arms of Cetinje until 1945.

Cetinje (Montenegrin: Cetinje, Цетиње; (pronounced: t͡sětiɲe) is a city and Old Royal Capital of Montenegro. It is also a historical and the secondary capital of Montenegro (Приjестоница / Prijestonica), with the official residence of the President of Montenegro. It had a population of 13,991 as of 2011.[1]

It is the centre of Cetinje Municipality (population 16,757 in 2011). The city nestles on a small karst plain surrounded by limestone mountains, including Mt. Lovćen, the Black Mountain from which Montenegro gets its name.

Cetinje is a town of immense historical heritage, founded in the 15th century. It became the center of Montenegrin life and both a cradle of Montenegrin culture and a Orthodox religious center. It is because of its heritage as a long-term Montenegrin capital that it is today the honorary capital of Montenegro.

Name[edit]

In Montenegrin and Serbian the town is known as Цетинѣ / Cetině (archaic) or Цетиње / Cetinje (modern); in Italian as Cettigne; in Greek as Κετίγνη (Ketígni); and in Turkish as Çetince.

History[edit]

The founding of Cetinje was conditioned by the historical, political, and economic background in the 15th century. Wars of conquest led by the Turks forced Ivan Crnojević, the ruler of Zeta at that time, to move the capital of his country from the fortified town of Žabljak to the inaccessible parts, to Obod in 1475, and soon after it at the foot of Mt. Lovćen. In the field of Cetinje in 1482 his court was built and two years later the monastery was built as well. By building the court and the monastery a new capital was founded. Its name was Cetinje. It was named after the River Cetina that runs through it. The new monastery became the domicile of the Zeta metropolitan. So, Cetinje turned out to be not only the center of secular life but also the spiritual center where Đurađ Crnojević, the son to Ivan Crnojević, founded the first printing house in the Slavic South.

Rapid progress of Cetinje under the rule of the Crnojević dynasty was interrupted at the very end of the 15th century. Actually, Zeta lost its independence in 1499 so the only free part of the country, which was called Montenegro since then, was reduced to a mountainous territory between Crnojević River and The Bay of Kotor.

In the next two centuries Cetinje stagnated in its development. It was very often under the attack of Venice and the Turks. So, in the 16th and 17th century Cetinje was exposed to tough temptations. In this period the court and the monastery of the Crnojevići dynasty were destroyed. It was only by the end of the 17th century, in 1697, that Cetinje began to flourish again under the rule of the Petrović dynasty and Danilo Petrović as its founder.

Leading the liberation wars and strengthening the unity in the country preoccupied Danilo and his successors. They didn’t have enough time to dedicate to the building of Cetinje. It was only during the rule of Petar II Petrović Njegoš that the remarkable progress has been made. In 1838 his new royal residence called Biljarda (Billiard house) was built. Cetinje was enlarged by building new houses that gradually led to urbanization.

Montenegrin independence was recognized by the decision of the Berlin Congress (1878) and so Cetinje became the capital of a European country.

Many modern buildings designed for foreign consulates were built due to the newly established relations with various European countries. The buildings of the French, Russian, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian consulates are regarded as the most beautiful of these.

Cetinje made great progress under the rule of Prince Nikola I Petrović when numerous public edifices were built. Those include the first hotel, called ‘Lokanda’, then the new Prince’s palace, the Girls’ Institute and the hospital. This period also saw the first tenancy houses. In the 1860 report Cetinja had 34 households.

Cetinje was captured by the Ottoman Omar Pasha's forces during the Montenegrin–Ottoman War of 1861–62, but this Ottoman rule did not last.

Montenegro was proclaimed a kingdom in 1910. This had a great effect on Cetinje's development. At this time the Government House, the symbol of state power, was built. The population census from the same year recorded a massive growth in the world's smallest capital, registering 5,895 inhabitants.

Between 1878 and 1914 Cetinje flourished in every sense. Many renowned intellectuals from other South-Slavic parts came to stay there and made a contribution to the cultural, educational and every other aspect of life.

At the time between the two World Wars, Cetinje expanded its territory, as it was now a centre of the Zeta region. But when it was decided by the Parliament of Montenegro that the administrative organs should be located in Titograd (previously and presently Podgorica), Cetinje went through a harsh crisis. By building certain industrial sections and at the same time neglecting the development of the city's traditional and potential cultural and tourist capacities, the chance to create a strong basis for more solid prosperity was lost.

Geography[edit]

Cetinje is situated in the karst field (Cetinje field), of about 7 km2, with average height above sea level of 671 m. It is 12 km (7 mi) of airline far from Adriatic Sea and 15 km (9 mi) from Skadar Lake. Now, it is on the main road Podgorica-Cetinje-Budva, which makes it open to the inside of Montenegro and Montenegrin coast.

Climate[edit]

Cetinje has middling continental climate, with dry and warm summers, temperature of approximately 20 °C (68 °F)., and mild and wet winters with temperature of approximately 2.1 °C (35.8 °F). Average temperature on the yearly basis is about 11 °C (51.8 °F), with yearly amplitude of 20.1 °C (68 °F).

Cetinje is well known by plentiful precipitations during spring and autumn, and it is one of the rainiest towns in Europe with about 4,000 mm (157 in) of water sediment on the yearly basis. Even beside enormous precipitations, Cetinje field and its surrounding do not have water flows on the surface and it has rare water sources. This is the consequence of karst configuration and geologic structure.

Architecture and Urban Heritage[edit]

The onset and development of Cetinje, as a relatively young city, with its old historical core draws a lot of attention to urban and architectural heritage, on its construction and development influenced stormy historical, social and economic events in the country.

Cetinje, as a settlement exists for 500 years, which is not much compared to the development of the coastal agglomeration of the ancient period in the immediate surrounding. However, these five centuries – the whole history of a people, who, through the development of city recorded moments of their origin, ascent, stagnation and downs.

For Cetinje as urban agglomeration, can be said to have formed suddenly, which makes it very specific. In fact, since the seventies of the nineteenth century, for almost fifty years, there was, in the urban context, designed and typological characteristic areas formed with urban type residential home ground floor and storey house with developed attic, created and developed in closed urban blocks, where line of life in them was street - house - garden.

Along with the development of this type of urban city blocks and residential buildings, has developed substantial public architecture of the city, which was built under the great influence of foreign builders with the application of various architectural styles and which then and now, is a representative architectural backbone of the city.

Between the two world wars, which characterized by the loss of Montenegrin statehood and noticeable stagnation of the architectural development of the city, Cetinje continues the tradition of formed, then already traditional type of urban residential houses and closed urban blocks, but they build the first modern multi-storey residential buildings for collective housing, and modern public institutions necessary for the then social life.

In the fastest and most important period of the development of Cetinje, since the seventies of the nineteenth century until the First World War, which was then the smallest European old capital, was created and developed city on the principles the European metropolises of that time in whose architectural activity of the city was engaged many foreign architects, engineers, builders and craftsmen.

The development of Cetinje in this period was followed by many important historical and social events. So the second half of the nineteenth century in the development of Cetinje marked period of state power and its pursuit of the European culture and international recognition. Recognition of Montenegro as an independent state, at the Berlin Congress in 1878., on the basis of which greatly expanded, he began a period of rapid creation of a national, economic, social, cultural, societal and spatial superstructure which caused increasing of economic power and the reorganization and improvement of the state apparatus and the authorities. During this period, Cetinje, as the old royal capital, gains in an even greater national and international significance and experiencing its rapid socio - economic, institutional, and urban development.

Without taking into consideration possibility and efforts which Cetinje is realized as spatially small and young city, it occupies an important place in terms of conceptual, social and urban transformation of other cities in Montenegro, particularly since the second half of the nineteenth century until the First World War.

On the basis of that and the facts about today's relatively preserved old urban heritage, is justified the fact which Cetinje ranks among the cities with significant architectural heritage.

Population[edit]

Cetinje is the administrative centre of Cetinje municipality, which has a population of 18,482.

According to the census of population, households and apartments in 2011, in the territory of The Old Royal Capital Cetinje live 16,757 inhabitants, or 2.7% of the population of Montenegro. In the town of Cetinje live 13.991 inhabitants. According to the number of inhabitants, Cetinje is one of the medium units of local government in Montenegro.

Population of Cetinje (town):

  • 1948 - 9,038
  • 1953 - 9,102
  • 1961 - 9,359
  • 1971 - 11,876
  • 1981 - 14,088
  • 1991 - 15,946
  • 2003 - 15,137
  • 2011 - 13,991

Main sights[edit]

Former Russian embassy in Cetinje

Cetinje has numerous points of interest, among which are Cetinje Monastery, Vlaška church (built in 1450, with its fence made out of barrels of captured enemy rifles), Biljarda, numerous museums, Zetski dom royal theatre and historic foreign embassies. Many of the old embassies and other administrative buildings are now schools of various kinds, and the town has many young people.

In the near of Cetinje is the Lipska pecinaone of the biggest caves in the former Yugoslavia. It starts in the village Lipa and end in the mountains directly over the Adriatic Sea. The cave is planned to be restored and opened for public in 2014. Eventually the cave will be open as one of the biggest tourist attractions in Cetinje and Montenegro, similar to Postojnska Jama in Slovenia.

The most impressive and very mystic destination of Cetinje, of the indescribable natural beauty, not only of Cetinje but also of Montenegro in general, is by all means the mausoleum of Petar II PetroviĆ NjegoŠ on the mountain LovĆen. Up to the mausoleum you can come by car from Cetinje, which is 13 kilometers away, Apart from the beauty and the natural surrounding of beech, oak and linden tree forests, there is an unique freshness of of Lovćen national park, The mausoleum is situated in the Jezerski vrh (Jezerski peak), in the height of 1 660 meters, and it officially represents the highest mausoleum in the world. To the foot

In the past few years there has been a plan of enlisting the old historic core of the city of Cetinje as a UNESCO world heritage site. With this, Cetinje hopes to rebuild and restore the old historic core and the façades of its buildings. Cetinje is becoming more and more popular with tourists so the locals started painting their houses in vivid colors, the local government started quite a number of projects to restore the buildings, the markets and façades of the city of Cetinje.

Infrastructure and economy projects[edit]

Public works[edit]

After the decades of stagnation, the new city government begin a lot of projects with intention to revitalise the infrastructure, business and to gain a higher promotion of Cetinje in cultural, touristic and other parts. Some of that projects were reconstruction of Cetinje Historical Core (Main Street - Njegoševa, Main Town Square, Students' Square), "Beautiful Cetinje" (first energy-efficiency project in Montenegro), reconstruction of the City Market, bus station, first Montenergin hospital building, construction of new main road at the entrance to the town, the largest fine arts university complex in the region etc. During the past period, Cetinje became first Montenegrin city which is covered by the free wi-fi signal.

In effort to stimulate business, city government promoted their package "InveCT" (Invest in Cetinje). As the city government says, during the first year of 'InveCT' campaign (2013), there was a 105 new employment in private sector and almost 100 in public sector, so the liberal fiscal and economic measures gave the result.

Promotion[edit]

To gain a greater promotion of Cetinje like cultural and artist capital of Montenegro but the whole region too, during the 2012 and 2013, the city government organized events in which participated global famous artist like Pierce Brosnan, Marina Abramović, Gerard Depardieu, Nicholas Lyndhurst, Rem Koolhaas etc., which were guests of Cetinje during that period.

The most significant project for future is cable-car from Kotor to Cetinje. As the mayor of Cetinje Aleksandar Bogdanović says, project will start during the 2014, and it will be the longest tourist cable-car in the world.

Culture[edit]

Ministry of culture
“Zetski Dom” Theatre
Biljarda - Museum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš

Cetinje has been the cultural and educational centre of Montenegro for five centuries. There are five republic institutions: Đurđe Crnojević Central National Library, the National Museum of Montenegro, the Archives of Montenegro, the Republic Institute for Preserving Cultural Heritage and the Zetski Dom Montenegrin Royal National Theatre. All these institutions keep, process, and provide public access to enormous literary treasure, and protect both mobile and immobile cultural monuments throughout Montenegro. The oldest - and for a long time the most important - cultural institution in the town is the monastery of Cetinje.

Printing houses in Cetinje[edit]

Cetinje has a rich publishing and printing tradition. The Printing House of Crnojevići (1492–1496) and the books published there are of great importance for Montenegrin culture and history as well as for the culture of other Orthodox Balkan peoples. Its greatest contribution refers to spreading Cyrillic type. Thus, it represents an important link in a chain of world culture. There were a number of printing houses that continued this great printing tradition. These are: Njegoš Printing House, which operated between 1833 and 1839 and the State Printing House which was founded in 1858. It was renamed in 1952. Since then it has been known as Obod.

Since their foundation to the present day, Cetinje printing houses have published over 3,000 books, a major contribution to the Montenegrin cultural heritage. The first Montenegrin literary and scientific annual, Grlica (Turtledove), was published in 1835, while the first Montenegrin newspaper, ‘The Montenegrin’, was established in 1871. Since then, sixty different newspapers and over thirty magazines have been published. In 1914, as a town of fewer than 6,000 inhabitants, Cetinje supported six different daily newspapers.

Libraries[edit]

The oldest libraries of Montenegro, where the oldest books and documentation of great value are preserved, are located at Cetinje. This makes Cetinje internationally recognized as well. The oldest library among these is the Library of Cetinje Monastery, which was founded by the end of the 15th century at the time when the Printing House of Crnojevići started operating. Today, seventy-five old manuscripts written in Cyrillic, then four incunabula, and many old liturgical books are kept there.

The first public reading room in Montenegro known as The Reading Room of Cetinje was founded in 1896. Since its founding it has been the cultural centre of Montenegro. The fruitful activity of this reading room was continued by the Town Library and the Njegoš reading room, which offers over 63,000 books and volumes of periodicals.

The school libraries of Cetinje also have a long tradition. The library of the oldest school at Cetinje today known as Njegoš Elementary School dates back to 1834, the library of the clerical college and the Carica Marija Girls’ Institute dates back to 1869, and the library of the Gymnasium to 1880.

Museums[edit]

Museums in Cetinje include:

  • Museum of the Cetinje Monastery
  • State Museum
  • "Petar Petrovic Njegoš" Museum
  • Ethnographic Museum
  • Electric Industry Museum
  • History Museum
  • Art Museum

All these except the Museum of the Cetinje Monastery and Electric Industry Museum are integrated in one institution called the National Museum of Montenegro. Numerous museums and the huge fund of museum items that are kept there established Cetinje's reputation as a museum town.

Cetinje has always been a cultural centre. Every second year the international art exhibition called Cetinje Biennial is held there. Its founder is Prince Nikola Petrović, great-grandson to King Nikola I.

Religion[edit]

Cetinje is also the seat of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral of the Serb Orthodox Church, and Montenegrin Orthodox Church.

Seat of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is situated in Cetinje Monastery. Seat of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church is situated in the Chapel in Gruda quarter.

Festivals[edit]

Today, Cetinje is home of one of the most popular cultural events in Montenegro - 'Summer at the Old Royal Capital'. It is the artist festival with almost 100 events, which held yearly, from June to September. During that period, visitors can attend the gigs of regional artist stars at the most significant city locations, but in the villages too. During the 'Summer at the Old Royal Capital', there are festivals like 'Royal Fest' (hard rock, alternative), 'Cetinje Jazz Fest', 'Espressivo' (classical music), 'Cucka jeka' (Kobilji Do), 'Riječka noć' (Rijeka Crnojevića), 'Njeguško ljeto' (Lovćen and Njeguši) etc.

During the 2013, events during the 'Summer at the Old Royal Capital' attended almost 50,000 visitors.

There are more festivals and events during the whole year, like 'Christmas Concerts' (7/8 January), Independence Day event (21 May), 'MIT Fest' (alternative theatre festival) etc.

Sports[edit]

HC Lovćen - HC Partizan, 2013

The most popular sports in Cetinje are football, handball and basketball.

Football[edit]

Football in Cetinje has a very long tradition associated with FK Lovćen Cetinje, oldest football club in Montenegro. FK Lovćen was founded in 20 June 1913. It is one of most successful football clubs in Montenegro.

The best results in the past were achieved before WW2, when they won few Montenegrin Championships, and in 1956 in qualifications for the first national league. In 1947,Lovćen was juvenile club champion. FK Lovćen now competes in the Montenegrin First League. During the season 2013/14, Lovćen is playing their greatest season in the First League, and the team is at the top-3 places on the table.

Another club from Cetinje is FK Cetinje, formed in 1975. Their greatest result was promotion to the Second Montenegrin League, during the summer 2013.

Handball[edit]

Formed at 1949, Handball club “Lovćen” is among oldest handball clubs in Montenegro. During the decades, especially from 80's until today, Lovćen became most successful Montenegrin men's handball club, but the most trophied team from Old Royal Capital Cetinje. There is huge number of great Montenegrin, Yugoslav and European players which produced handball school of Lovćen.

From the 1988 until today, Lovćen played 23 seasons in the First Handball League of SFR Yugoslavia, FR Yugoslavia and Montenegro. Five times, club from Cetinje won the champions' title - in the seasons 1999/00, 2000/01, 2006/07, 2011/12 and 2012/13.

Most trophies in the club history, Lovćen won in the national Cup. Club from Cetinje holds 2 winner titles in the Cup of FR Yugoslavia and five in the Montenegrin Cup. Lovćen hold Cup trophies from the seasons 2001/02, 2002/03, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2010/11, 2011/12, 2012/13.

Lovćen is member of Regional SEHA League since its inception. Today, Lovćen is the only SEHA League member from Montenegro. In their first SEHA League season, Lovćen made surprising result, with final placement on 6th position. Year after that, Lovćen finished season on the same table position. In the season 2013/14, because of new SEHA League criteria, SRC Lovćen hall was reconstructed, with changing capacity from 1,500 to 2,020.

Handball club Lovćen is permanent member of European handball competitions since 1997. The greatest result Lovćen made during the EHF Champions League 2000/01 when they participated in the quarterfinals against THW Kiel. Until today, Lovćen played 65 games in European Competitions.

"B" team of Lovćen is HC Cepelin-Lovćen, which in past competed in First league. Today, Cepelin-Lovćen is playing in Second league.

Basketball[edit]

Basketball club “Lovćen” is one of the oldest sport clubs in Cetinje. It was founded in 1947. The best results were achieved in 1997/98 season, when it was scored at the 6th place of the National basketball league. This provided participation at international competition “Radivoje Korac Cup.” Today, it competes in the first A league of Montenegro. Second club is BC Cetinje, formed in 1997.

Other sports[edit]

During the past, in Cetinje existed Volleyball club "Lovćen". It competed in Republic League and was among best Montenegrin clubs in that sport. VC "Lovćen" is not active anymore.

Today, there are dozens of active clubs. Table-tennis club "Lovćen" is among two most successful table tennis clubs in Montenegro during last four decades. Other clubs are Racing team "Lovćen", Judo club "Crnogorac", Karate club "Lovćen", Boxing club "Lovćen", Women basketball club "Lovćen" and others.

Venues[edit]

Cetinje has a number of sporting venues. The main sporting venues on Cetinje are:

Transport[edit]

Cetinje is connected to Podgorica and Budva through three-lane motorways. Both towns are about 30 km (19 mi) away from Cetinje. Another road to Podgorica is built on the coast of Skadar lake.

There is also a historic old road from Cetinje to Kotor, which is not of premium quality, but offers stunning views of the Bay of Kotor.

Previously there was a railway line from Cetinje to Bar along the banks of Skadar Lake, which transported both passengers and cargo. There are no remains of this railway line.

Tivat Airport is 50 km (31 mi) away, and there are regular flights to Belgrade and Zürich, and dozens of charter planes land daily at Tivat airport during the summer season.

Podgorica Airport is 55 km (34 mi) away, and it has regular flights to major European destinations throughout the year.

Local administration of Old Royal Capital Cetinje[edit]

On the head of Cetinje is mayor and governing body is Old Royal Capital Government. Since December 2010, mayor of Old Royal Capital Cetinje is Aleksandar Bogdanović.

Administrative and operational bodies[edit]

Administrative and operational bodies of local administration are secretaries, administrations, directorates, managements and services. There are six secretariates in the Old Royal Capital Cetinje: The Secretariat for Local Government, The Secretariat of Finance and Enterprise Development, The Secretariat of Spatial Planning and Environment Protection, The Secretariat for Utilities and Transport, The Secretariat for Culture and Sport and The Secretariat for Social Affairs and Youth. Other administrative bodies are Management of public revenue, Directorate for Property, Directorate of Investment and Development and Center for Information System. Operational bodies are Mayor's Service, Service of Chief Administrator, The City Manager's Service, Public relations Bureau, Common Affairs Service, Protection service and Communal Police.

City Parliament[edit]

Skupština Prijestonice Cetinje is the Parliament of Old Royal Capital Cetinje. Local parliament is made up of 33 deputies, or odbornici (envoy) in Montenegrin. It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Predsjednik Skupštine (President of Parliament).

After the last elections in November 2013, main seats in Skupština have Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro. Except them, there are deputies from four other parties.

Seats in Old Royal Capital Parliament:

Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (19)

Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (5)

Positive Montenegro (5)

Civic Front (3)

Socialist People's Party of Montenegro (1)

Local subdivisions[edit]

There are two city settlements in the Old Royal Capital - Cetinje and Rijeka Crnojevića.

Old Royal Capital Cetinje is divided into 23 local community bodies (mjesne zajednice) in which the citizens participate in decisions on matters of relevance to the local community.

Settlements[edit]

Territory of Old Royal Capital Cetinje is divided into 94 settlements.

There are two city settlements and 92 rural settlements. City settlements are Cetinje and Rijeka Crnojevića.

Rural settlements of Old Royal Capital Cetinje are Bajice, Barjamovica, Bijele Poljane, Bjeloši, Bobija, Boguti, Bokovo, Češljari, Čevo, Dide, Dobrska Župa, Dobrsko Selo, Dodoši, Donja Zaljut, Donje Selo, Dragomi Do, Drušići, Dubovik, Dubovo, Dugi Do, Dujeva, Đalci, Đinovići, Erakovići, Gađi, Gornja Zaljut, Gornji Ceklin, Grab, Gradina, Građani, Izvori, Jankovići, Jezer, Kobilji Do, Kopito, Kosijeri, Kranji Do, Kućišta, Lastva, Lipa, Lješev Stub, Majstori, Malošin Do, Markovina, Meterizi, Mikulići, Milijevići, Mužovići, Njeguši, Obzovica, Očinići, Oćevići, Ožegovice, Pačarađe, Pejovići, Petrov Do, Poda, Podbukovica, Prediš, Prekornica, Prentin Do, Prevlaka, Proseni Do, Radomir, Raičevići, Resna, Riječani, Rokoči, Rvaši, Ržani Do, Smokovci, Šinđon, Štitari, Tomići, Trešnjevo, Trnjine, Uba, Ubli, Ublice, Ugnji, Ulići, Velestovo, Vignjevići, Vojkovići, Vrba, Vrela, Vuči Do, Zabrđe, Začir, Zagora, Žabljak Crnojevića and Žanjev Do.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Cetinje is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Cetinje-born artist Dado (1933-2010)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cetinje". Visit-Montenegro.com. Retrieved 2012-02-28. 

Cetinje official web site

External links[edit]

1 Note: Sparta was an Ancient Greek city famous for its martial prowess and skill, resistance against Persian invaders.